Dean Frederick Hougen

Dean Frederick Hougen
University of Oklahoma | ou · School of Computer Science

PhD, University of Minnesota, Computer Science

About

107
Publications
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1,410
Citations

Publications

Publications (107)
Chapter
Machine learning may complement physics-based methods for structural health monitoring (SHM), providing higher accuracy, among other benefits. However, many resulting systems are opaque, making them neither interpretable nor trustworthy. Interpretable machine learning (IML) is an active new direction intended to match algorithm accuracy with transp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide crisis with impacts that are both devastating and inequitable as effects often fall hardest on communities that are already suffering from economic, social, and political disparities. Interpretable machine learning (IML) offers the possibility for detailed understanding of this and similar disease outbreaks, all...
Article
We introduce a trans-disciplinary collaboration between researchers, healthcare practitioners, and community health partners in the Southwestern U.S. to enable improved management, response, and recovery to our current pandemic and for future health emergencies. Our Center work enables effective and efficient decision-making through interactive, hu...
Article
Constraints often inhibit creative problem-solving. This study examined the impact of training strategies for managing constraints on creative problem-solving. Undergraduates, 218 in all, were asked to work through 1 to 4 self-paced instructional programs focused on constraint management strategies. The quality, originality, and elegance of solutio...
Article
Many techniques have been used to train creative problem-solving skills. Although the available techniques have often proven to be effective, creative training often discounts the value of thinking about applications. In this study, 248 undergraduates were asked to develop advertising campaigns for a new high-energy soft drink. Solutions to this pr...
Conference Paper
Adapting to a changing and uncertain environment is vital for the long-term success of individuals, whether they are biological or artificial. While learning can be powerful in the adaptation process, a lack of understanding exists in the factors that promote or inhibit its evolution. Nurturing is widely thought to be a contributing factor, if not...
Conference Paper
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Nurturing behaviors comprise a fundamental class of actions that can occur between individuals. They are vital components of the behavioral repertoires of numerous biological organisms and are objects of study in numerous disciplines. In this call to the community, we consider what nurturing means for biological and artificial systems, how robot-to...
Conference Paper
Nurturing is the contribution of resources by one individual to the development of another individual with which it has an ongoing relationship. Nurturing behaviors comprise a fundamental class of actions that can occur between individuals. They are vital components of the behavioral repertoires of numerous biological organisms and are objects of s...
Article
Knowledge, or expertise, has been held to contribute to creative problem-solving. In this effort, the relationship of one form of knowledge, mental models, to creative problem-solving was assessed. Undergraduates were asked to solve either a marketing or an education problem calling for creative thought. Prior to generating solutions to these probl...
Article
In recent years, it has become apparent that knowledge is a critical component of creative thought. One form of knowledge that might be particularly important to creative thought relies on the mental models people employ to understand novel, ill-defined problems. In this study, undergraduates were given training in the use of causal relationships i...
Article
People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for quality,...
Article
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Weather radar products from the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) are used by the government and private sectors. Very high resolution radar data are increasingly being utilized in real time. However, the bandwidth needed to transmit these data (termed level-II super-resolution data) from the radar to the destination site is a limiting issue. Gen...
Article
We propose an extended version of adaptive fuzzy behavior hierarchies, termed Multiple Composite Levels (MCL), that allows for the proper modulation of composite behaviors over multiple levels of a behavior hierarchy, and demonstrate its effectiveness for a hybrid learning/reactive control system. Controllers using adaptive fuzzy behavior hierarchi...
Chapter
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The most significant result of these experiments is that, in the problem domains used in this chapter, the abstraction of an agent's action space provided more tangible benefits in the development of agent controllers than abstraction of an agent's state space. In a direct comparison, controllers that used significant action abstraction and no stat...
Conference Paper
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Many complex problems can be solved by a sequence of steps or simple heuristics. In many cases a good solution relies on both good heuristics and proper ordering of their application. Problems such as creating a constrained path through a graph can be solved in this way if we can find a mechanism for ordering the heuristics. We propose using a gene...
Conference Paper
A method for identifying values for a genetic algorithm's probability of crossover, mutation rate, and selection pressure that promote the evolution of better results in fewer generations has recently been proposed. This approach, termed the Triple Parameter Hypothesis, uses schema theory to derive these values. However, in initial experimental tes...
Conference Paper
Bloat may occur when evolution allows chromosome growth. Recently it has been shown that elitism can inhibit bloat. Here we study interactions between growth, elitism, and fitness landscapes. Our results show that in some cases elitism neither constrains growth nor increases the rate of fitness accumulation, and when elitism does constrain growth i...
Conference Paper
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When an optimization problem is encoded using genetic al- gorithms, one must address issues of population size, cross- over and mutation operators and probabilities, stopping cri- teria, selection operator and pressure, and fitness function to be used in order to solve the problem. This paper tests a relationship between (1) crossover probability,...
Conference Paper
We propose that abstracting the actions of a behavior coordination mechanism promotes the faster development and higher fitness of an effective controller for complex, composite tasks. Various techniques are well suited for the development of controllers for individual simple tasks. However, as individual tasks are combined into complex, composite...
Article
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It is widely accepted that there is a strong correlation be-tween diversity in the initial population and Genetic Algo-rithms' performance. One contribution of this paper is to show that there is not such a strong correlation between di-versity and Genetic Algorithms' performance, at least with the standard range of diversity measures used in a ran...
Article
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Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In evolutionary computation, experimental results are commonly analyzed using an algorithmic performance metric called best-so-far. While best-so-far can be a useful metric, its use is particularly susceptible to three pitfalls: a failure to establish a baseline for comparison, a failure to perform significance testing, and an insufficient sample s...
Conference Paper
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It is widely believed that greater initial population diversity leads to improved performance in genetic algorithms. However, this assumption has not been rigorously tested previously. We put this assumption to the test on two benchmark problems and found that greater diversity did not lead to improved performance. This result will require a seriou...
Conference Paper
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Previous research has used behavior hierarchies to address the problem of coordinating large numbers of behaviors. However, behavior hierarchies scale poorly since they require the state information of low-level behaviors. Abstracting this state information into priorities has recently been introduced to resolve this problem. In this work, we evalu...
Article
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Hunting for snakes of maximum length in hypercubes has been addressed with non-heuristic methods for hyper-cubes of dimensions less than eight. Above that dimen-sion the problem is intractable because the search grows exponentially with the dimension, which makes it an NP-hard problem. Heuristic methods, like genetic algorithms, have been used to s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the explosion of the Internet and its use, the development of security mechanims are quite important in order to preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data stored in computers. However, the growth of intrusions can make such mechanisms almost unusable, in the sense that the computation time or space needed in order to ma...
Conference Paper
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Besides the difficulty of the application problem to be solved with Genetic Algorithms (GAs), an additional difficulty arises because the quality of the solution found, or the computational resources required to find it, depends on the selection of the Genetic Algorithm's characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to gain some insight into one o...
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Abstract For years the schema theorem has been a principal math- ematical foundation for Genetic Algorithms. This article briefly describes a trade-off involving crossover and muta- tion with respect to schema length. The one-max function, a variant of it, and finding snakes in hypercubes are used to demonstrate this trade-off, looking at the impac...
Conference Paper
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This article presents an empirical study regarding the hy- pothesis that higher diversity in initial populations for Ge- netic Algorithms can reduce the number of iterations re- quired to reach an optimum and potentially increase solu- tion quality. We develop the empirical study using some theoretical functions addressed by other researchers such...
Article
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This paper focuses on the development of an Intrusion Detection System based on Genetic Algorithms. We present and justify a fitness function independent of variable pa-rameters that addresses the problem of false positives. This fitness function is a generic one that can be used for either off-line or online intrusion detection systems and it allo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hunting for snakes of maximum length in hypercubes has been addressed with non-heuristic methods for hypercubes of dimension less than eight. Above that dimension the problem is intractable because the search grows exponentially with the dimension, which make it an NP-hard problem. Heuristic methods, like genetic algorithms, have been used to solve...
Conference Paper
The combination of fuzzy control and behavior hierarchies allows for the construction of more complex behavior-based robot control agents than does either technique alone. However, current implementations are limited in their complexity since high-level behaviors still use low-level sensor information. We propose a technique for abstracting this lo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bio-nano robots are nano-scaled robots made from biological components like proteins and DNA structures. Their nano-scaled size, ready availability (in nature), and high efficiency make them perfect tools for diagnosis and therapeutic treatments in nano-medicine. Due to their nano-scaled size, the intelligence of each individual nano robot is small...
Conference Paper
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We propose two new online methods for estimating the size of a backtracking search tree. The first method is based on a weighted sample of the branches visited by chronological backtracking. The second is a recursive method based on assuming that the ...
Conference Paper
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With applications in coding theory and hypercube-based computing and networking, the \snake in the box" prob- lem is of great practical importance. Moreover, it is both mathematically elegant and highly dicult. The problem is simply to nd the longest \snake" in a hypercube. How- ever, as the hypercube grows in dimensionality, the size of the search...
Conference Paper
In problem domains such as robotic control, where the evaluation of an individual significantly dominates the rest of the evolutionary process with respect to time, the viability of an evolutionary approach can be called into question. In an effort to minimise the number of evaluations by maximising the learning that takes place during an evaluatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the primary approaches to the increasingly important problem of computer security is the Intrusion Detection System. Various architectures and approaches have been proposed including: Statistical, rule-based approaches; Neural Networks; Immune Systems; Genetic Algorithms; and Genetic Programming. This paper focuses on the development of an o...
Conference Paper
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Convergence to correct solutions in Genetic Algorithms depends largely on the fitness function. A fitness function that captures all goals and constraints can be difficult to find. This paper gives a mathematical justification for a fitness function that has previously been demonstrated experimentally to be effective.
Conference Paper
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One computer security mechanism used currently is the Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Off-line IDSs search audit trail registries looking for user activities that match patterns of events known as attacks. Because such search is NP-complete, heuristic methods will need to be employed as databases of events and attacks grow. Genetic Algorithms (GA...
Chapter
In this paper a multi-robot experimental testbed is described. Currently, the testbed consists of five autonomous ground vehicles and two aerial vehicles that are used for testing multi-robot cooperative control algorithms. Each platform has communication, on-board sensing, and computing. Robots have plug-and-play sensor capability and use the Cont...
Article
Full-text available
Off-line intrusion detection systems are computer security mechanisms that search audit trail registries, looking for user activities that match patterns of events known as attacks. Because such search is NP-complete, heuristic methods will need to be employed as databases of events and attacks grow. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been widely used a...
Conference Paper
This work addresses the requirements and design for the realization of intelligent mobile robot teams. Requirements on system intelligence are addressed from the standpoint of hardware and software. It is shown that 'intelligence' in such systems must be distributed in nature. A hierarchical architecture is presented that allows for the implementat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For some problem domains, the evaluation of individuals is significantly more expensive than the other steps in the evolutionary process. Minimizing these evaluations is vital if we want to make genetic programming a viable strategy. In order to minimize the required evaluations, we need to maximize the amount learned from each evaluation. To accom...
Article
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This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for the realization of teams of intelligent autonomous ground vehicles called Adaptation and Learning at All Levels (AL²). Requirements on system intelligence are translated into requirements on the system hardware and software. Recent trends in the hardware-software co-design and hardware reconfigura...
Conference Paper
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For problems where the evaluation of an individual is the dominant factor in the total computation time of the evolutionary process, minimizing the number of evaluations becomes critical. This paper introduces a new crossover operator for genetic programming, memetic crossover, that reduces the number of evaluations required to find an ideal soluti...
Article
Full-text available
The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an...
Article
The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 1...
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Full-text available
We need to find innovative ways of expanding the activity repertoire of robots, including having robots learn their own activities. Here, we explore the suitabil-ity of well-known methods for learning with multiple robots and introduce a new method: memetic learning. Memetic learning combines individual experience methods with population-based meth...
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Presents a framework for the operation and coordination of multiple miniature robots. Simple teleoperation can be useful in many situations, but the operator's attention must be completely dedicated to controlling the robot. This may be difficult when the task requires the use of multiple robots. This article introduces a layered system that has be...
Article
Full-text available
We have designed and built a set of miniature robots called Scouts and have developed a distributed software system to control them. This paper addresses the fundamental choices we made in the design of the control software, describes experimental results in a surveillance task, and analyzes the factors that affect robot performance. Space and powe...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced cost of robotic hardware enables the use of teams of robots instead of a single device. Multi-robot approaches promise faster results and more robust systems as each individual robot becomes dispensable. Given higher numbers of robots, writing dependable control software becomes more complex and thus more expensive. Consequently, a software...
Article
Full-text available
We have designed and built a set of miniature robots and developed a distributed software system to control them. We present experimental results on a surveillance task in which multiple robots patrol an area and watch for motion. We discuss how the limited communication bandwidth affects robot performance in accomplishing the task and analyze how...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present experimental results from a distributed surveillance task in which multiple miniature robots (called Scouts) automatically position themselves in an area and watch for motion. We discuss how the limited communication bandwidth affects how the robots accomplish their task.
Article
Full-text available
We describe a distributed software system for controlling a group of miniature robots using a very low capacity communication system. Space and power limitations on the miniature robots drastically restrict the capacity of the communication system and require sharing bandwidth and other resources among the robots. We have developed a process manage...
Article
Full-text available
Using robots for surveillance and reconnaissance applications requires a versatile connection between the human operator and robotic hardware. Some application domains require a fully teleoperated system while others may benefit by giving robots more autonomy. This paper describes a robotic control architecture which merges both paradigms. The whol...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a distributed software system for controlling a group of miniature robots using a low capacity communication system. Space and power limitations on the robots drastically limit the capacity of the communication system and require sharing bandwidth and other resources among the robots. We have developed a scheduling and resource allocati...
Conference Paper
Using robots for surveillance and reconnaissance applications requires a versatile connection between the human operator and robotic hardware. Some application domains require a fully teleoperated system while others may benefit by giving robots more autonomy. This paper describes a robotic control architecture which merges both paradigms. The whol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a distributed software system for controlling a group of miniature robots using a very low capacity communication system. Space and power limitations on the miniature robots drastically restrict the capacity of the communication system and require sharing bandwidth and other resources among the robots. We have developed a process manage...
Conference Paper
We have designed and built a set of miniature robotscalled Scouts and have developed a distributed software system tocontrol them. This paper addresses the fundamental choices wemade in the design of the control software, describes experimentalresults in a surveillance task, and analyzes the factors that affectrobot performance.
Article
Full-text available
We describe our experiences demonstrating a team of miniature robots engaged in a surveillance mission at the AAAI 2000 Mobile Robots Exhibition. We present the architecture and the main features of our system and discuss some of the environmental factors that affect its performance.