Dawnine Enette Larson-Meyer

Dawnine Enette Larson-Meyer
University of Wyoming | UW · College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

PhD, RD

About

106
Publications
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Publications

Publications (106)
Article
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Plant-based diets, defined here as including both vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, are growing in popularity throughout the Western world for various reasons, including concerns for human health and the health of the planet. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than meat-based diets and have a reduced environmental impact, in...
Article
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Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of m...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the managemen...
Article
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary...
Article
Nutrition assessment is a necessary first step in advising athletes on dietary strategies that include dietary supplementation, and in evaluating the effectiveness of supplementation regimens. Although dietary assessment is the cornerstone component of the nutrition assessment process, it should be performed within the context of a complete assessm...
Article
Full-text available
There is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency worldwide likely because of both limited sun-exposure and inadequate dietary intake. Meat, including pork, is not typically considered a dietary source of vitamin D, possibly because of management practices that raise pigs in confinement. This experiment determined the vitamin D c...
Data
Effects of sun exposure on vitamin D concentrations in loin tissue. Total vitamin D content includes both vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3. The black bar represents the value presented in the USDA national nutrient database for the vitamin D content of “raw pork, center loin.” Center loin samples were collected on the day of slaughter. Error bars represent...
Data
Body weight and body composition in the subgroup of sun-exposed and control pigs selected for tissue analysis. Starting weights were taken on same day as first blood sample collected before first sun exposure. Slaughter weights were measured immediately before slaughter. Average daily gain in kg/d was also calculated, covering the entire study peri...
Data
Effects of sun exposure on vitamin D status. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations before (Pre) and after (Post) sun exposure for one hour daily at solar noon for 2-weeks (SUN) or standard confinement (Control) in the summer and fall. Summer exposure occurred in the spring-summer group and fall exposure occurred in the summer-fall group in finisher pigs 2-...
Article
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Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not full...
Article
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In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.
Article
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Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations, and body weight/composition were measured and injury/illness/skin infection data were collected in fall, winter, and spring. Results: In the fall, 74% of wrestlers had vitamin D concentrations <32 ng/mL which increased to 94% in w...
Article
Traditional confinement practices limits exposure to sunlight and Vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs...
Article
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To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m 2 ) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m 2 ). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and app...
Article
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In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6...
Article
Purpose: With the increasing popularity of Hatha yoga, it is important to understand the energy cost and METs of yoga practice within the context of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) physical activity guidelines. Methods: This systematic review evaluated the energy cost and metabolic intensit...
Article
Excess body fat or obesity is known to increase risk of poor vitamin D status in non-athletes but it is not known if this is the case in athletes. Furthermore, the reason for this association is not understood, but is thought to be due to either sequestration of the fat-soluble vitamin within adipose tissue or the effect of volume dilution related...
Article
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Objective: To examine for the first time the associations between pro-inflammatory cytokines and obesity-related metabolic biomarkers in, exclusively prepubertal, otherwise healthy obese and non-obese Black and White children, 7-9 years of age. Design and methods: Body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance,...
Chapter
Calcium and vitamin D play an important role in an athlete's health, training, and performance. While it has long been recognized that adequate calcium and vitamin D status is necessary for bone health, newer research is highlighting nonskeletal benefits—particularly for vitamin D—which include immune modulation, muscle function, and even athletic...
Article
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Objective: The presence of appetite hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin in breast milk may be important in infant feeding regulation and infant growth. This study evaluated whether concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, and leptin change across a single feeding (from fore- to hindmilk), and are associated with mate...
Article
It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health. Emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency can have a profound effect on immunity, inflammation and muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status varies among different populations and is dependent on skin color, early- or late-day trainin...
Chapter
Vitamin D is a unique vitamin with hormone actions. Synthesized cutaneously from UVB light or derived from the diet, vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone health and calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D is transported in the circulation bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, binds to the vitamin D recept...
Article
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Nine female runners and ten walkers completed a 60 min moderate-intensity (70% VO(2)max) run or walk, or 60 min rest in counterbalanced order. Plasma concentrations of the orexogenic peptide ghrelin, anorexogenic peptides peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and appetite ratings were measured at 30 min interval for 120 min, followed b...
Article
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The extra-skeletal functions of vitamin D - including its role in inflammatory modulation - are now well recognized but have not yet been investigated in an athletic population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (as markers of inflammation and immune...
Article
Insulin sensitivity is impaired and ectopic fat (accretion of lipids outside of typical adipose tissue depots) increased in obese adults and adolescents. It is unknown how early in life this occurs; thus, it is important to evaluate young children to identify potential factors leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. We examined an ethnica...
Article
The idea that dietary supplements can improve athletic performance is popular among athletes. The use of antioxidant supplements is widespread among endurance athletes because of evidence that free radicals contribute to muscle fatigue during prolonged exercise. Furthermore, interest in vitamin D supplementation is increasing in response to studies...
Article
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We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch-shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purpose...
Article
Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in the general population; however, there is much to be learned about the vitamin D status of athletes. the purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in collegiate athletes and to determine whether 25(OH)D concentrations are related to vitamin D intake, sun exposure, body composi...
Article
Using Experimental Economics to Measure the Role of Parental Generosity and Food Control in Childhood Obesity This study uses experimental economics to measure the effect of parental generosity and child response on childhood overweight and obesity. The ’carrot-stick’ experiment, which is an adaptation of the standard dictator game in which the res...
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesised that ectopic fat deposition is present in liver and skeletal muscle before puberty and that both are potentially important factors in the early pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to evaluate intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids in 50 male and 42 female multi-ethnic, prepubertal (T...
Article
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Aging is associated with loss of endurance; however, aging is also associated with decreased fatigue during maximal isometric contractions. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between age and walking endurance (WE) and maximal isometric fatigue (MIF) and to determine which metabolic/fitness components explain the expected age ef...
Article
Increased per capita consumption of sweeteners may be responsible in part for the rising prevalence of obesity in the United States. Recent studies suggest that consumption of honey is not associated with this same obesogenic effect and may have beneficial effects neuro on body weight. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the meal-indu...
Article
While it is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health, emerging evidence is finding that adequate vitamin D intake reduces risk for conditions such as stress fracture, total body inflammation, infectious illness, and impaired muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status is variable and is dependent...
Article
Full-text available
Intramyocellular and intrahepatic (IHL) lipids are significantly associated with insulin resistance in adults and adolescents and may represent an early marker for developing the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. During the pilot phase of a larger cross-sectional study, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to determine the...
Article
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Epidemiologic studies suggest that childbearing is an important contributor to the development of obesity in many women and that breastfeeding may be protective. Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are gut hormones involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis and are biological neuroendocrine signals that potentially affect body weight and adipo...
Article
There is a debate over the independent effects of aerobic fitness and body fatness on mortality and disease risks. To determine whether a 25% energy deficit that produces equal change in body fatness leads to greater cardiometabolic benefits when aerobic exercise is included. Thirty-six overweight participants (16 males/20 females) (39 +/- 1 yr; 82...
Article
Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are newly recognized gut peptides involved in appetite regulation. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are elevated in fasting and suppressed following a meal, while PYY concentrations are suppressed in fasting and elevated postprandially. We determine whether ghrelin and PYY are altered by a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (10% f...
Article
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High oxalate intake resulting from consuming supplemental doses of cinnamon and turmeric may increase risk of hyperoxaluria, a significant risk factor for urolithiasis. This study assessed urinary oxalate excretion from supplemental doses of cinnamon and turmeric as well as changes in fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concent...
Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether calo...
Article
This study evaluated whether lowering IMCL stores via 3-d consumption of very-low-fat (LFAT) diet impairs endurance performance relative to a moderate-fat diet (MFAT), and whether such a diet unfavorably alters lipid profiles. Twenty-one male and female endurance-trained runners followed a controlled diet and training regimen for 3 d prior to consu...
Article
A surprisingly high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency has recently been reported worldwide. Although very little is known about vitamin D status among athletes, a few studies suggest that poor vitamin D status is also a problem in athletic populations. It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health, but...
Article
Little is known concerning the contributions of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), anaerobic glycolytic rate (AnGly), maximum creatine kinase (CK) activity, and metabolic economy (ME) on fatigue resistance. The purpose of this study was to model fatigue using muscle tissue metabolic measures during a maximal short-duration isometric contraction. M...
Article
Full-text available
This research uses experimental economics to measure the effect of parental generosity and child response on childhood overweight and obesity. The ‘Carrot-Stick’ experiment, an adaptation of the standard dictator game in which the respondent (the child) can punish or reward the dictator (the parent) based on the dictator’s generosity, served as...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects w...
Article
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Recent data have shown that individuals with low insulin sensitivity (S(I)) also have reduced whole body maximal oxygen uptake. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) whether muscle mitochondrial function was independently related to S(I) after being adjusted for known determinants of S(I) and 2) whether lower S(I) among African-American...
Article
The purposes of this study were to (a) determine whether structural differences in triceps surae muscle-tendon complex and walking economy exist between 14 African American and 19 Caucasian sedentary women and (b) determine whether muscle-tendon parameters are associated with walking economy. African American and Caucasian subjects were matched on...
Article
The purpose of this study was to further explore factors that may be related to ethnic differences in the maximum rate at which an individual can consume oxygen (VO2max) between 20 African American (AA) and 30 European American (EA) sedentary women who were matched for body weight (kg) and fat-free mass (FFM). VO2max (l/min) was determined during a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to determine the relationships among total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), fat cell size (FCS), ectopic fat deposition in liver (intrahepatic lipid [IHL]) and muscle (intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]), and insulin sensitivity index (S(i)) in healthy overweight, glucose-tolerant subjects and the effects of calor...
Article
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Context Prolonged calorie restriction increases life span in rodents. Whether prolonged calorie restriction affects biomarkers of longevity or markers of oxidative stress, or reduces metabolic rate beyond that expected from reduced metabolic mass, has not been investigated in humans.Objective To examine the effects of 6 months of calorie restrict...
Article
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Prolonged calorie restriction increases life span in rodents. Whether prolonged calorie restriction affects biomarkers of longevity or markers of oxidative stress, or reduces metabolic rate beyond that expected from reduced metabolic mass, has not been investigated in humans. To examine the effects of 6 months of calorie restriction, with or withou...
Article
Optimal athletic performance requires optimal nutrition. It has been a concern for some coaches and professionals that vegetarian athletes may not receive the proper nutrition required for optimal performance. However, if these athletes are educated on proper nutrition, their energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat needs can easily be met. Vegetarian...
Article
Muscle triglyceride can be assessed in vivo using computed tomography (CT) and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), two techniques that are based on entirely different biophysical principles. Little is known, however, about the cross-correlation between these techniques and their test-retest reliability. We compared mean muscle attenuation (MA...
Article
An inverse relationship has been shown between running and cycling exercise economy and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). The purposes were: 1) determine the relationship between walking economy and VO2max; and 2) determine the relationship between muscle metabolic economy and muscle oxidative capacity and fiber type. Subjects were 77 premenopausal n...
Article
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31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to document long lasting losses in muscle oxidative capacity after bouts of intense endurance exercise. The subject was a 34 year old highly fit female cyclist (VO2MAX = 53.3 ml/kg/min). Over a five month period, she participated in three separate intense bouts of acute unaccustomed exercise. 31P M...