Dawid Adam Iurino

Dawid Adam Iurino
Sapienza University of Rome | la sapienza · Department of Earth Sciences

PhD

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118
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Publications

Publications (118)
Conference Paper
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The MUST (Museo Universitario di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza University of Rome), preserves a wealth of historical geological, mineralogical and palaeontological collections acquired during its long history (Manni, 1993). Founded in 1804 as the Mineralogy Museum, it moved to the University City in 1928, being organised into three distinct museum...
Article
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Several porcupine taxa are reported from the middle Miocene to the early Holocene in the Old World. Among these, five species of the subfamily Hystricinae occurred in Africa approximately in the last 6 Ma: the extinct Hystrix makapanensis, Hystrix leakeyi, and Xenohystrix crassidens and the still living Hystrix africaeaustralis and Hystrix cristata...
Conference Paper
Grotta Romanelli, a key site for prehistoric studies in Italy, is located on the Adriatic coast of southern Apulia near Castro (LE). Discovered in 1871, its deposits were the subject of extensive studies from the early twentieth century until the 1970s. Since then the field activities were suspended until 2015, when a new excavation campaign was st...
Conference Paper
New fieldwork activities at Grotta Romanelli started in 2015, coordinated by Sapienza, University of Rome and in collaboration with IGAG CNR and other research institutions. This coastal cave, located in the administrative territory of the Castro municipality, within the Otranto-Santa Maria di Leuca Coast and Tricase Woods regional natural parks (L...
Article
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Here, we describe a partial cranium of a large canid dated at 406.5 ± 2.4 ka from the Middle Pleistocene of Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy). The sample represents one of the few Middle Pleistocene remains of a wolf-like canid falling within the timeframe when the Canis mosbachensis–Canis lupus transition occurred, a key moment to understand the spread...
Article
Suidae remains recovered from the late Pliocene site of Collepardo (Latium, central Italy) are described and assigned to Sus arvernensis, a small-sized Ruscinian to Early Villafranchian (MN14-MN16a) species. In Italy, S. arvernensis only occurs in the Triversa Faunal Unit (MN16a), supporting the recently revised chronology of Collepardo. CT-scan me...
Article
An updated description and revision of a left hemimandible assigned to Hyaenictitherium namaquensis, a dog-like hyaena from the late Miocene locality of As Sahabi (Libya, North Africa), is here provided. This fossil is part of the historical collection discovered by Carlo Petrocchi, the Italian researcher who excavated the site in the 1930s. The As...
Article
The giant, short-faced hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris was the largest Hyaenidae ever existed and the one that perfectly embodied the distinctive bone-cracking adaptations of this mammal family. Its dispersal into Europe is regarded as a biochronological marker of the Late Villafranchian at ~2.0 Ma, and its potential ecological interactions with ot...
Article
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The Middle Pleistocene archaeo-palaeontological site of Fontana Ranuccio (Anagni, central Italy) yielded a rich fau-nal assemblage consisting of more than 20,000 fossil remains, including four human teeth and multiple bone and lithic tools. The Ursus specimens from Fontana Ranuccio were historically ascribed to Ursus deningeri and Ursus arctos alth...
Conference Paper
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The pardel lynx, Lynx pardinus, is considered one of the most threatened living felids, currently distributed in restricted areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The evolutionary history of this medium-sized felid, as well as its relationships with the Middle-Late Pleistocene “cave lynx” from Mediterranean Europe, have fuelled a decades-long debate among...
Conference Paper
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In this study, we describe a new crocodile skull from the world-renowned palaeontological and archaeological site of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania). The fossil, discovered and collected in 2016 during an annular solar eclipse and therefore nicknamed “Black Sun,” was found in a new trench excavated by the THOR (Tanzania Human Origins Research) team at sit...
Article
The karst fissures known as “ventarole”, located in the Salentine Peninsula (southernmost part of Apulia, Italy), were first studied by Mirigliano in 1941. These fissures are generally filled with reddish sediments or “terre rosse” in the lower part, and with brownish sediments or “terre brune” in the upper one. Both deposits are particularly rich...
Article
The Ponte Galeria area within the city of Rome has yielded numerous fossiliferous localities that represent a reference point for the study of the European Middle Pleistocene ecosystems. Within Ponte Galeria a rich collection of fossil mammals has been unearthed from Cava di Breccia – Casal Selce 2 (MIS 15) thus the site represents an optimal labor...
Article
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Olduvai Gorge (northern Tanzania) is one of the best known and most iconic palaeontological and archaeological sites in the world. in more than a century of research it has yielded an impressive record of fossils and stone tools which stands as a compendium of human evolution in the context of environmental changes of east Africa in the last 2 Ma....
Article
The pardel lynx Lynx pardinus is today restricted to small populations living in southern Iberian Peninsula. However, this endangered species was widely spread throughout Iberia until historical times and is currently the subject of intense conservation programs. Paleontological data suggest that its past geographical range was much wider, includin...
Chapter
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Fossil footprints are very useful palaeontological tools. Their features can help to identify their makers and also to infer biological as well as behavioural information. Nearly all the hominin tracks discovered so far are attributed to species of the genus Homo. The only exception is represented by the trackways found in the late 1970s at Laetoli...
Article
In this study, we report for the first time the presence of Cuon alpinus from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Foggia, southern Italy), represented by an right upper first molar. Considering the intricate and debated taxonomy of fossil dholes, our comparative analyses on dental samples (P 4 , M 1 , and M 1) of the extant and Middle to Late Pl...
Article
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Molecular and morphological phylogenies concur in indicating that the African lineages formerly referred to Crocodylus niloticus are the sister taxon the four Neotropical crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius, C. moreleti, C. acutus and C. rhombifer), implying a transoceanic dispersal from Africa to America. So far the fossil record did not contribute...
Article
The phyletic relationship between Canis lupus and the Early-Middle Pleistocene Canis mosbachensis is widely accepted among scholars, although the taxonomy of several European fossil specimens is still debated. In the last decades, many studies focused on the evolution of Pleistocene wolves have been proposed considering new materials as well as spe...
Article
Full-text available
Cranial remains of juvenile fossil rhinoceroses are rarely described in literature and very few is known about the ontogenetic development of their inner anatomy. In this study, we report the first CT based description of a juvenile braincase and its natural brain endocast of a late Middle Pleistocene Rhinocerotinae from Melpignano (Apulia, Italy)....
Article
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Extinct scelidotheriine sloths are among the most peculiar fossil mammals from South America. In recent decades, the external cranial anatomy of Pleistocene scelidotheres such as Scelidotherium, Catonyx, and Valgipes has been the subject of numerous studies, but their endocranial anatomy remains almost completely unknown. Today, computed tomographi...
Article
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The internal cranial morphology of the terrestrial sloth Glossotherium robustum is described here based on a neurocranium from the late Pleistocene of the Pampean region of Buenos Aires, northeastern Argentina. The first published data on the morphology of the brain cavity of this species date back to the latest nineteenth century. The novel techni...
Conference Paper
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Many cultural assets are in risky situations and they are destined to disappear. Sometimes problems are caused by the anthropic component (e.g. wars) or by natural disasters (e.g. earthquakes and landslides). At other times the cause of deterioration is due to the slow and inexorable action of atmospheric agents and other natural factors present in...
Chapter
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Fossil footprints are of great interest. A number of features help to identify their makers and can be used to investigate on biological and ecological issues. This is of crucial interest in palaeoanthropology, particularly in view of the emergence of our peculiar pattern of posture and locomotion. However, hominin footprints are rare and most of t...
Article
Caves as geosites structurally illustrate the strict dependence of human occupation on geological and geomorphological processes, playing a crucial role in the development of human civilisation. Grotta Romanelli embodies such a kind of geosite, being a coastal cave occupied by humans since the Middle Pleistocene and considered a symbol of the Palae...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Salentine Peninsula (southernmost part of Apulia) is well known for its vertebrate paleontological record coming from caves, located both on the Adriatic and Ionian coasts (e.g., Grotta Romanelli, Grotta Zinzulusa, Grotta del Cavallo) and from karst fissures, locally known as ventarole (e.g., Sternatia, Fondo Cattìe). These latter are generally...
Article
In this paper, we present the results of the accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS ¹⁴ C) dating campaign performed on samples selected from different levels in Grotta Romanelli (Castro, Italy). Grotta Romanelli is one of the key sites for the chronology of Middle Pleistocene–Holocene in Mediterranean region. After the first excavation camp...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, many studies have focused on the description of fossil badger materials from Eurasia and several evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed. Nevertheless, the debate on taxonomy of the Late Villafranchian-Aurelian European badgers is still far from being solved and several species/subspecies were established over time. Herein,...
Article
In 1981, a large mammal assemblage was recovered from a laminated travertine exposed in the region of the village of Collepardo (Frosinone, central Italy). The Collepardo mammal assemblage reported in the literature included ungulates and carnivorans. It was referred to the middle Villafranchian for its similarities with the Saint Vallier (France)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The latest CT-scanning facilities and 3D imagery techniques are greatly improving our understanding of animal morphology, revealing important aspects of the internal cranial anatomy for both extant and extinct vertebrates. This non-destructive methodology has the potential to greatly facilitate studies of adaptations and paleobiology for fossil spe...
Poster
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Grotta Romanelli, (Apulia. Southern Italy), is considered a key site for the Mediterranean Pleistocene for its archaeological and palaeontological contents.In 1914, G.A. Blanc led a pioneering excavation campaign. He studied the in-filling deposits and distinguished: the upper complex, the “terre brune” (layers A-E) bearing upper Palaeolithic tools...
Presentation
Full-text available
Grotta Romanelli, located on the Adriatic coast of the Apulian Region, was discovered in 1874 but only in 1900 was recognised as a site of remarkable importance becoming the first report of the Late Palaeolithic in Italy. The stratigraphic succession can be subdivided in two main parts: the upper and the lower complexes divided by the stalagmitic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Plio-Pleistocene transition was characterized by the onset of Quaternary glacial cycles marked by a 41 ka periodicity, which led to a gradual drop in global temperatures. Through the early Pleistocene these climatic oscillations deeply affected terrestrial ecosystems of the Mediterranean region, with the development of drier conditions, reducti...
Article
Full-text available
We describe here a partial skull with associated mandible of a large felid from Monte Argentario, Italy (Early Pleistocene; ~1.5 million years). Propagation x-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of the specimen, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, allows ascribing it reliably to Acinonyx pardinensis, one of the most intriguing e...
Data
Supplementary Note 1: Acinonyx pardinensis from Pietrafitta and Ellera di Corciano Supplementary Note 2: Institutional abbreviations Supplementary figures S1–S6 Supplementary tables S1–S4 Supplementary references
Article
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The Quaternary sedimentary succession exposed at Cava Spagnulo, nearby the town of Grottaglie (Apulia, Southern Italy), is described for the first time. A preliminary list of the mammal remains from the upper part of the succession, has been compared with other Pleistocene Apulian sites. The identified taxa are represented by cranial and postcrania...
Article
Full-text available
Grotta Romanelli, located on the Adriatic coast of southern Apulia (Italy), is considered a key site for the Mediterranean Pleistocene for its archaeological and palaeontological contents. The site, discovered in 1874, was re-evaluated only in 1900, when P. E. Stasi realised that it contained the first evidence of the Palaeolithic in Italy. Startin...
Poster
The "Natural Systems and Processes Poster Session 2018" was held on the 16th of April 2018 at the University of Bristol. This event is a yearly gathering of postgraduate students and taught students, from within the realm of Geosciences (i.e. Earth Sciences, Geography, Engineering/Hydrology and Life Sciences), that has the aim of strengthening inte...
Article
Full-text available
Several detailed studies of the external morphology of the ear region in extinct sloths have been published in the past few decades, and this anatomical region has proved extremely helpful in elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among the members of this mammalian clade. Few studies of the inner ear anatomy in these peculiar animals were cond...
Article
Fossil mammal assemblages found in various localities of the Italian Peninsula provide significant information to create a detailed biochronological framework for the middle–late Villafranchian and Epivillafranchian of Europe and to reconstruct the evolution of early Pleistocene terrestrial ecosystems, when the earliest dispersal of Homo in Europe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 1889 Romolo Meli, geologist, paleontologist, and engineer, reported to the Società Geologica Italiana the discovery of a Late Pleistocene fossil vulture found in a pyroclastic deposit known as “peperino”, from the area of Alban Hills, south-east of Rome, dated at 30 ka (De Rita et al., 1995; Voltaggio & Barbieri, 1995; Giordano et al., 2002). Th...
Poster
Full-text available
The fossiliferous area of Melpignano (Lecce, Italy) is located in a region where several quarries are open for the extraction of a Miocene calcarenite, known as Pietra Leccese. During the Middle-Late Pleistocene, the calcarenite was affected by an intense karst activity that formed an articulated fissured network. These sub-vertically or funnel-sha...
Poster
Full-text available
In 1889 the geologist, paleontologist and engineer Romolo Meli reported to the Società Geologica Italiana (Italian Geological Society) the discovery of a Late Pleistocene vulture identified as Gyps fulvus Hablizi, 1783, which was found in a pyroclastic deposit named as “peperino”, in the area of Alban Hills, south-east of Rome. The specimen consist...
Article
Herein we describe for the rst time a canid partial cranium from the Contrada Monticelli site. Morphological and biometrical studies allow the fossil remains to be referred to the Middle Pleistocene wolf Canis mosbachensis. Associated taxa include Paleoloxodon antiquus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, cervids, equids and bovids, whose biochronologic...
Article
Full-text available
Laetoli is a well-known palaeontological locality in northern Tanzania whose outstanding record includes the earliest hominin footprints in the world (3.66 million years old), discovered in 1978 at Site G and attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Here, we report hominin tracks unearthed in the new Site S at Laetoli and referred to two bipedal i...
Poster
Full-text available
The illegal trade of fossils has always been a threat to the scientific relevance of specimens eventually recovered from the black market. In 2008, a huge private collection including hundreds of fossils was seized by the authorities of the Cultural Heritage in the town of Serrapetrona (Macerata, Marche, Italy). Most of the specimens were devoid of...