David R. Schiel

David R. Schiel
University of Canterbury | UC

About

294
Publications
35,351
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6,819
Citations
Citations since 2017
64 Research Items
2961 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (294)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Aotearoa New Zealand is the last major landmass settled by people, and therefore provides a recent record of ecological legacy effects in the coastal zone. Large‐scale land clearances of forests accelerated over the last century, affecting the concentration of suspended sediments, light environment, and nutrient composition on rocky reefs,...
Article
Full-text available
Despite many sectors of society striving for sustainability in environmental management, humans often fail to identify and act on the connections and processes responsible for social–ecological tipping points. Part of the problem is the fracturing of environmental management and social–ecological research into ecosystem domains (land, freshwater, a...
Article
Full-text available
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause dramatic changes to ecologically, culturally, and economically important coastal ecosystems. To date, MHW studies have focused on geographically isolated regions or broad-scale global oceanic analyses, without considering coastal biogeographical regions and seasons. However, to understand impacts from MHWs on diver...
Article
After New Zealand's 7.8 Mw Kaikōura earthquake in late 2016 an unexpected anthropogenic effect involved increased motorised vehicle access to beaches. We show how these effects were generated by landscape reconfiguration associated with coastal uplift and widening of high-tide beaches, and present analyses of the distribution of natural environment...
Preprint
Full-text available
After New Zealand's 7.8 Mw Kaikōura earthquake in late 2016 an unexpected anthropogenic effect involved increased motorised vehicle access to beaches. We show how these effects were generated by landscape reconfiguration associated with coastal uplift and widening of high-tide beaches, and present analyses of the distribution of natural environment...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat heterogeneity is considered a primary causal driver underpinning patterns of diversity, yet the universal role of heterogeneity in structuring biodiversity is unclear due to a lack of coordinated experiments testing its effects across geographic scales and habitat types. Furthermore, key species interactions that can enhance heterogeneity,...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the demonstrated benefits of marine protected areas, there has been relatively little dialogue about freshwater protected areas (FPAs) even though some have been established to protect freshwater species from recreational and commercial fishers. After populations recover from fishing pressure, abundances and densities of formerly fished spe...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the global decline of freshwater fishes, quantifying the body size-specific habitat use of vulnerable species is crucial for accurately evaluating population health, identifying the effects of anthropogenic stressors, and directing effective habitat restoration. Populations of New Zealand’s endemic kōkopu species ( Galaxias fasciatus , G. arge...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Ecologists traditionally study how contemporary local processes, such as biological interactions and physical stressors, affect the distribution and abundance of organisms. By comparison, biogeographers study the distribution of the same organisms, but focus on historic, larger-scale processes that can cause mass mortalities, such as earthquake...
Article
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Understanding the resilience and recovery processes of coastal marine ecosystems is of increasing importance in the face of increasing disturbances and stressors. Large-scale, catastrophic events can re-set the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and potentially lead to different stable states. Such an event occurred in south-eastern New Zeala...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread mortality of intertidal biota was observed following the 7.8 Mw Kaikoura earthquake in November 2016. To understand drivers of change and recovery in nearshore ecosystems, we quantified the variation in relative sea-level changes caused by tectonic uplift and evaluated their relationships with ecological impacts with a view to establishi...
Article
Full-text available
Barrier sandspits are biodiverse natural features that regulate the development of lagoon systems and are popular areas for human settlement. Despite many studies on barrier island dynamics, few have investigated the impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on sandspits. In peri-urban settings, we hypothesised that shoreline environment change would be stro...
Article
Full-text available
Marine heatwaves (MHW) are becoming stronger and more frequent across the globe. MHWs affect the thermal physiology of all biological organisms, but wider ecosystem effects are particularly impactful when large habitat-forming foundation species such as kelps are affected. Many studies on impacts from MHWs on kelps have focused on temperature effec...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal marine ecosystems are under stress, yet actionable information about the cumulative effects of human impacts has eluded ecologists. Habitat-forming seaweeds in temperate regions provide myriad irreplaceable ecosystem services, but they are increasingly at risk of local and regional extinction from extreme climatic events and the cumulative...
Article
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The November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake reshaped the coastal landscape causing significant impacts on the coastline and marine ecosystems. This article provides an overview of the coastal recovery process three and half years later based on results from an intensive monitoring programme across 130 km of coast.
Article
Full-text available
As management tools, freshwater reserves are under‐represented in protected area networks for fisheries conservation and enhancement. This is surprising considering that freshwater ecosystems, and the biodiversity they support, are among the most threatened worldwide. We compared freshwater reserve types established to prevent overexploitation of m...
Presentation
Anthropogenic stressors on rocky reefs include coastal runoff and warming oceans. Light availability and species distributions are two important factors affected by these stressors. In combination with anthropogenic pressure, 130km of the coastline was greatly affected by the Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake. Sedimentation from coastal erosion and storm...
Article
Galaxiid post-larvae constitute five of the six species in New Zealand’s iconic whitebait fishery. Distinguishing the five species needs to occur at a younger age than is convenient for easy identification. Traditional identification uses subjective characteristics such as colouration of fresh specimens and fin position, but supervised classificati...
Article
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus is a declining amphidromous fish that supports New Zealand’s culturally-important whitebait fisheries targeting the migratory juvenile stage. Spawning ground protection and rehabilitation is required to reverse historical degradation and improve fisheries prospects alongside conservation goals. Although spawning habitat has been...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 7.8 magnitude Kaikōura earthquake in November 2016 caused extensive uplift along approximately 130 km of the north-eastern coastline of the South Island of New Zealand. This resulted in widespread mortality of marine organisms and alteration to the community structure and, in many places, the integrity of intertidal and subtidal rocky reefs. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus is a declining amphidromous fish that supports culturally-important whitebait fisheries in New Zealand and elsewhere in the Pacific. As a largely annual species, the seasonal productivity of spawning grounds has a strong influence on the availability of recruits. Spawning ground protection is urgently required to reverse historic...
Article
The 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikōura earthquake lifted 140km of coastline on New Zealand’s South Island by up to 6.4m. This caused extensive mortality and destruction of habitat critical for early life stages of blackfoot abalone, Haliotis iris (called pāua), a species of cultural and commercial importance. The fishery for pāua was closed, at considerable finan...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the response of a tidal lagoon system to a unique situation of relative sea-level change induced by powerful earthquakes (up to Mw 7.1) on the east coast of New Zealand in 2010–2011. Spatiotemporal impacts were quantified using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) datasets complemented by hydrodynamic modelling and evaluatio...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report responds to a request from Marlborough District Council (MDC) for information on the coastal environment, with a particular focus on supporting the development of a bylaw to address changes in recreational use patterns that have occurred since the Kaikōura earthquake. We present a selection of information from our earthquake recovery re...
Article
Vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCEs) are in global decline and sensitive to climate change; yet may also assist its mitigation through high rates of ‘blue’ carbon sequestration and storage. Alterations of relative sea-level (RSL) are pervasive drivers of change that reflect the interaction between tidal inundation regimes and ground surface elevatio...
Article
Whitebait comprise a culturally, commercially and recreationally important fishery in New Zealand, where post-larvae are netted while returning from their marine phase. In this study, we expanded an historical (1964) sampling programme to gain a contemporary understanding of the species composition of the whitebait fishery; 87 rivers were sampled o...
Article
Large scale disturbances associated with anthropogenic activities or natural disasters can destroy primary habitat-forming species like corals, seagrasses and seaweeds. However, little research has documented if and on how large-scale disturbances affect secondary habitat formers, such as epiphytes and small animals that depend on biogenic habitats...
Article
Full-text available
Together, macroalgal tissue biochemical nitrogen indices (N-indices) and macroalgal abundance can be used as bioindicators of N-enrichment in estuaries. In this study, we examine the extent and rates of response of Ulva bioindicators during rapid N-enrichment perturbations in the eutrophic Avon-Heathcote Estuary (AHE) (Christchurch, New Zealand). W...
Article
Full-text available
Estuary ecological resilience can be gauged by response of estuary trophic state to abatement of nutrient pollution. Changes in trophic indicators were studied in the Avon-Heathcote Estuary (AHE) in Christchurch, New Zealand, over 6 years, spanning diversion of city wastewater inputs to an offshore outfall in 2010, and to temporary enrichment cause...
Article
Full-text available
Developments in the capabilities and affordability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have led to an explosion in their use for a range of ecological and agricultural remote sensing applications. However, the ubiquity of visible light cameras aboard readily available UAVs may be limiting the application of these devices for fine-scale, high taxonom...
Chapter
Interactions in the Marine Benthos - edited by Stephen J. Hawkins August 2019
Article
The effects of sediment on settlement and early post-settlement survival of habitat-dominating fucoid algae have not been extensively investigated. Two separate experiments tested whether different size-fractions, abundances and types of sediment differentially affect the attachment of Hormosira banksii and Cystophora torulosa zygotes under laborat...
Poster
Full-text available
The November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake uplifted rocky reef habitat causing mass mortality of kelps and associated organisms. • Kelps are ecosystem engineers, greatly modifying their surroundings and favoring productive and diverse ecosystems. • Identifying thresholds of sedimentation impacting the resilience of kelp will inform ecosystem based mana...
Article
• The Mw 7.8 earthquake that struck the north‐east coast of the South Island of New Zealand in November 2016 caused extensive upheaval, of up to 6 m, over 110 km of coastline. Intertidal habitats were greatly affected with extensive die‐off of algal communities, high mortalities of benthic invertebrates, and greatly reduced ecosystem functioning, s...
Article
Full-text available
Amphidromy is the most prevalent type of diadromous migration. Despite this, the conservation and management of amphidromous species is exceptionally challenging because this life history type, with larval development in a pelagic habitat (usually marine) and adult development in fresh water, is poorly resolved. The chronological properties of otol...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Surveys along 130 km of coastline in the first sixteen months following the Kaikōura earthquake showed significant damage to intertidal benthic communities at all sites. Subtidal communities were impacted only at sites with uplift greater than 2 m. Taonga species such as paua and bull kelp were still present at most sites and showing signs of post-...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how biodiversity and its components of alpha, beta, and gamma vary over spatial and temporal scales and across communities is crucial to mitigating stressors of ecosystems. Marine communities present several problems in partitioning diversity over fine spatial scales, such as tidal zones, and temporal scales relating to seasonal occur...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that co-occurring primary and secondary habitat-forming species typically support higher biodiversity than do monocultures of the primary habitat-former alone. However, these ‘habitat cascades’ may not be universal and it is important to know whether, when and where positive effects on biodiversity from secondary habitat-...
Article
Full-text available
Detailed research has documented gradual changes to biological communities attributed to increases in global average temperatures. However, localized and abrupt temperature anomalies associated with heatwaves may cause more rapid biological changes. We analyzed temperature data from the South Island of New Zealand and investigated whether the hot s...
Article
Full-text available
Shallow coastal rocky reefs worldwide have faced large-scale loss of biodiversity, yet little is known about the contributions of highly diverse multi-layered autotrophic species to ecosystem function over long periods. In this study we tested the role of functional diversity on net primary productivity (NPP) of macroalgal assemblages in one-off, a...
Article
Full-text available
Non-native species have invaded coastal systems worldwide, altering community structures and ecosystem functioning. One of the most widely distributed marine invaders is the kelp Undaria pinnatifida. In Australasia, Undaria is a large annual kelp that typically has a unimodal growth pattern characterized by high cover during late-winter and spring....
Thesis
Full-text available
The important role of indirect facilitation, like trophic cascade and keystone predation, in structuring communities have been documented over many decades and across ecosystems. By contrast, indirect facilitation mediated by habitat cascades (where ‘inhabitants’ organisms are facilitated through sequential habitat formation or modification) is les...
Chapter
Full-text available
The magnitude 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake of November 2016 impacted over 100 km of coastline, lifting rocky reef by up to 6 m. These events exposed vast areas of intertidal and subtidal rocky reef with dramatic effects to the habitat-forming kelp and fucoid species, and invertebrate species, including the highly valued paua. In this special issue we de...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Kaikoura earthquake caused extensive uplift of the seabed, ranging from 0.5m to over 6m, along more than 100km of coastline. We established a long-term monitoring program to quantify changes in the structure of intertidal communities across 23 sites affected by different degrees of uplift. Data collected within a year of the earthquake (combine...
Article
• Galaxias maculatus is a riparian spawning fish that supports an important recreational fishery in New Zealand, with spawning habitat requirements strongly structured by salinity gradients at river mouths. This study reports changes to the spawning habitat following a series of large earthquakes that resulted in the widespread deformation of groun...
Article
Full-text available
It has long been recognized that primary foundation species (FS), such as trees and seagrasses, enhance biodiversity. Among the species facilitated are secondary FS, including mistletoes and epiphytes. Case studies have demonstrated that secondary FS can further modify habitat-associated organisms ('inhabitants'), but their net effects remain unkno...
Article
Galaxias maculatus is a diadromous riparian-spawning fish that supports an important fishery. Eggs develop terrestrially as with several other teleost fishes. Spawning habitat occurs in specific locations near rivermouths and its protection is a conservation priority. However, quantifying the areas involved is hampered by high egg mortality rates o...
Article
Marine reserves exhibit increases in targeted fish species, but long-term effects on biodiversity are poorly understood. Factors other than reserve status may affect decadal changes, including environmental change. We examined the fish fauna at the iconic Poor Knights Islands over 4 decades (1974-2016) before and after implementation of a no-take m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus is a riparian spawning fish that supports an important recreational fishery in New Zealand with spawning habitat requirements strongly structured by salinity gradients at rivermouths. This study reports changes to the spawning habitat following a series of large earthquakes that resulted in widespread deformation of ground surfac...
Article
Terrestrial egg development is advantageous for the amphidromous fish Galaxias maculatus because it increases access to oxygen, increases incubation temperatures, and reduces aquatic predation. The characteristics of New Zealand's riparian vegetation have changed considerably since colonial times from native vegetation to exotic grasses, with poten...
Presentation
There is limited information about the impacts of introduced macrolgae on organisms at higher trophic levels as most studies focus on plant-plant interactions. We tested the effects of biogenic macrohabitats created by canopies of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida on intertidal mussels’ vulnerability to predation (by fish and crabs) and recru...
Article
Processes responsible for transporting detached macroalgae through the nearshore environment and offshore to where long distance dispersal (LDD) can occur have rarely been examined. Here, we test the influence of nearshore winds, tidal currents and position of release (low, mid or high tidal zone) on the dispersal of drifting fucoid algae were test...
Article
Global declines of macroalgal beds in coastal waters have prompted a plethora of studies attempting to understand the drivers of change within dynamic nearshore ecosystems. Photosynthetic measurements are good tools for assessing the consequences of numerous stressors of macroalgae, but there is somewhat of a disconnection between studies that focu...
Article
Global declines of macroalgal beds in coastal waters have prompted a plethora of studies attempting to understand the drivers of change within dynamic nearshore ecosystems. Photosynthetic measurements are good tools for assessing the consequences of numerous stressors of macroalgae, but there is somewhat of a disconnection between studies that focu...
Article
Invasive species are affecting coastal ecosystems worldwide and there are many potential mechanisms that allow their spread into native communities. To investigate this phenomenon, we used an experiment in which the canopy of the southern bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica was removed in 2 seasons and community development was followed over 3 yr. The...
Presentation
Full-text available
Distributions of dead shells of the ubiquitous bivalve Austrovenus stutchburyii across estuaries in the South Island of New Zealand, and their effects as foundation species on benthic communities. I found negative effects on seagrass via physical abrasion, and positive effects on invertebrate abundances and taxonomic richness.
Conference Paper
eagrasses are marine plants that take up nutrients, stabilize sediments, increase habitat complexity and thereby also increase biodiversity of sedimentary coastal ecosystems. Seagrasses also facilitate seaweeds that can become entangled around seagrass leaves and stems. However, relatively little is known about interactions between entangled seawee...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have documented habitat cascades where two co-occurring habitat-forming species control biodiversity. However, more than two habitat-formers could theoretically co-occur. We here documented a sixth-level habitat cascade from the Avon-Heathcote Estuary, New Zealand, by correlating counts of attached inhabitants to the size and accumulat...
Article
Gaps in understanding variability among populations of inanga Galaxias maculatus in the timing of reproduction were addressed in southern New Zealand (NZ), where G. maculatus constitutes a declining fishery. Reproductive activity was delayed by 1 month on the west coast compared with the east coast and the west coast spawning season was prolonged i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Īnanga (Galaxias maculatus) are known to use specific locations for spawning. These sites are on riparian margins in upper estuarine areas near the spring high tide waterline. Many anthropogenic activities that occur in the same area may present threats to the availability and condition of spawning sites. These factors suggest that spawning may be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Shell-forming molluscs are primary habitat-forming species that affect the structure of invertebrate assemblages in sedimentary estuaries. Importantly, their shells provide hard substratum that seaweeds attach to, and these seaweeds can subsequently provide secondary habitat to epibiontic invertebrates, giving rise to habitat cascades. Here we hypo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New Zealand’s whitebait fishery is comprised mainly of inanga (Galaxias maculatus). The unique life history of this diadromous species includes obligate spawning in tidally inundated riparian vegetation in upper estuarine areas. At the time of European settlement, the riparian vegetation in inanga spawning sites likely comprised tall overarching fo...
Conference Paper
It is well-established that habitat-forming host-species characterized by widely different form-functional traits affect epiphytes and faunal community differently. However, the opposite hypothesis, that form-functionally similar habitat-forming hosts have similar effects on epiphytes and fauna, has been studied much less. We used a survey and two...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies report impacts from invasive species on community metrics or ecosystem functions. We draw attention to an issue arising whenever impact is measured on a community where the invader is an integrated part: should or shouldn’t the attributes of the invader itself be included in the data-analysis? We identify many exampl...