David Levinson

David Levinson
The University of Sydney · TransportLab, School of Civil Engineering

40.37
 · 
Doctor of Philosophy

About

440
Publications
34,739
Reads
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8,025
Citations

Publications

Publications (440)
Article
Full-text available
How crashes translate into physical injuries remains controversial. Previous studies recommended a predictor, Delta-V, to describe the crash consequences in terms of mass and impact speed of vehicles in crashes. This study adopts a new factor, energy loss-based vehicular injury severity (ELVIS), to explain the effects of the energy absorption of tw...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the potential of moving array `probes' to collect traffic data. This application simulates the prospect of mining environmental data on traffic conditions to present an inexpensive and potentially widespread source of traffic conditions. Based on three different simulations, we measure the magnitude and trends of probe error (co...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning algorithms aim to improve the power of predictors over conventional regression models. This study aims to tap the predictive potential of crash mechanism-related variables using ensemble machine learning models. The results demonstrate selected models can predict severity at a high level of accuracy. The stacking model with a linea...
Article
On-road emissions, a dominant source of urban air pollution, damage human health. Emissions increase air pollution intake (and damage health) of travelers (internal costs), and of non-travelers (external costs). This research constructs a framework modeling the microscopic production of emission cost from the vehicle and link level and applies it t...
Article
It is commonly seen that accessibility is measured considering only one opportunity or activity type or purpose of interest, e.g., jobs. The value of a location, and thus the overall access, however, depends on the ability to reach many different types of opportunities. This paper clarifies the concept of multi-activity accessibility, which combine...
Article
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This article explores the use of logistic-shaped diffusion curves (S-Curves) to predict the accumulation of atmospheric CO2. The research question here is whether forecasts using logistic curves are stable, that is, do they predict consistently over time with different amounts of data? Using data from the Keeling Curve, we find that the best-fit ma...
Article
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This paper integrates and extends many of the concepts of accessibility deriving from Hansen’s (1959) seminal paper, and develops a theory of access that generalizes from the particular measures of access that have become increasingly common. Access is now measured for a particular place by a particular mode for a particular purpose at a particular...
Article
Full-text available
Since Hansen’s seminal 1959 paper, measures of access have evolved with technology and through practical applications. The myriad of distinct but familially related access measures created many more options to measure places, but has sown needless confusion. This paper systematically reviews measures of access across disciplines. We categorize meas...
Article
Driver lane-changing behaviours have a significant impact on the safety and the capacity of the vehicle-based traffic system. Therefore, modeling lane-changing maneuvers has become an essential component of driving behaviour analysis. Among microscopic LC models, game theory-based lane-changing models highlight the interaction of drivers, which rev...
Article
Changing lanes is a commonly-used technique for drivers to either overtake slow-moving cars or enter/exit highway ramps. Optional lane changes may save drivers travel time but increase the risk of collision with others. Drivers make such decisions based on experience and emotion rather than analysis, and thus may fail to select the best solution wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study explores temporal variation in daily activity networks for workers and non-workers using public transport, based on a large-scale smartcard dataset generated by almost 4 billion passenger trips over 122 days. Geometric, e.g., areas, perimeters, vertical and horizontal distances, and non-geometric features, e.g., visiting frequency, are c...
Article
Full-text available
The success of passenger railway systems depends on their ridership and thus the population they serve. A mechanism to increase ridership is to expose the existing system to more people by reconfiguring the station itself, for instance by adding extra entrance and exit gates to shorten the walking distance from a trip's origin or its final destinat...
Conference Paper
Driver lane-changing behaviours have a significant impact on the safety and the capacity of the vehicle-based traffic system. Therefore, modeling lane-changing maneuvers has become an essential component of driving behaviour analysis. Among microscopic LC models, game theory-based lane-changing models highlight the interaction of drivers, which rev...
Conference Paper
This paper explores the potential of moving array `probes' to collect traffic data. This application simulates the prospect of mining environmental data on traffic conditions to present an inexpensive and potentially widespread source of traffic conditions. Based on three different simulations, we measure the magnitude and trends of probe error (co...
Article
Carrion and Levinson (2012) studied the bridge choice behavior of commuters before and after a new bridge opened to the public. This bridge replaced the previously collapsed I-35W bridge in the metro area of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The original I-35W bridge collapsed on August 1st 2007, and the replacement bridge opened to the public on September 18t...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on path flow for road network, as the sum of individual route choices from individual travelers, associated with specific path type for each cost factor of auto travel that finds the optimal route with the minimum cumulative cost from the perspective of the corresponding cost analyst interest. The considered cost factors include...
Article
Full-text available
Transit accessibility to jobs (the ease of reaching a place of work by public transport) affects both residential location and commute mode choice, resulting in gradations of residential land-use intensity and transit (public transport) patronage. We propose a scaling model explaining much of the variation in transit use—the number of transit commu...
Article
The study relates the association between travel time to the lower secondary and secondary public schools of Nepal and the dropout grade before leaving secondary school. Using an ordered logit model we find that as the travel time to the school increases, students are more likely to dropout from the school system in earlier grades. The results from...
Article
How much of the variation in transit mode share is attributable to accessibility is not well understood, despite its significant policy implications. It is hypothesized that better transit accessibility leads to higher transit mode share. This paper explains block group level transit mode share using transit accessibility in a logistic model for 48...
Article
Accessibility, measuring the ease of reaching potential destinations, is increasingly being considered as an effective indicator to evaluate the performance of transport and land use interactions. Primal accessibility, a generalization of the first accessibility formulation proposed by Hansen, has been widely used in many studies and demonstrated t...
Article
Full-text available
Accessibility, measuring the ease of reaching potential destinations, is increasingly being considered as an effective indicator to evaluate the performance of transport and land use interactions. Primal accessibility, a generalization of the first accessibility formulation proposed by Hansen (1959), has been widely used in many studies and demonst...
Article
Full-text available
The underlying structure of road networks (e.g., circuity, relative discontinuity) contributes to the travel time perception of travelers. This study considers additional factors (e.g., arrival flexibility, access to traffic information) and tests nonlinearities linking perception of travel time. These factors are linked to four categories accordin...
Article
This study examines the spatiotemporal dependency between traffic links. We model the traffic flow of 140 traffic links in a sub-network of the Minneapolis-St. Paul highway system for both rush hour and non-rush hour time intervals, and validate the extracted network weight matrix. The results of the modeling indicate: (1) the spatial weight matrix...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally accessibility has been analyzed from the perspective of the mean or expected travel time, which fails to capture the full cost, especially the external cost, of travel. The full cost accessibility (FCA) framework, proposed by Cui and Levinson (2018), provides a theoretical basis to fill the gap, that combines temporal, monetary, and n...
Article
This study assesses the estimated crashes per bicyclist and per vehicle as a function of bicyclist and vehicle traffic and tests whether greater traffic reduces the per-vehicle crash rate, a phenomenon referred to as “safety in numbers” (SIN). We present a framework for comprehensive bicyclist risk assessment modeling, using estimated bicyclist flo...
Article
Full-text available
The dominant method for measuring values of travel time savings (VOT), and values of travel time reliability (VOR) is discrete choice modeling. Generally, the data sources for these models are: stated choice experiments, and revealed preference observations. There are few studies using revealed preference data. These studies have only used travel t...
Article
Full-text available
Polycentricity, or the number of central urban places, is commonly measured by location-based metrics (e.g. employment density/total number of workers, above a threshold). While these metrics are good indicators of location ‘centricity’, results are sensitive to threshold choice. We consider the alternative idea that a centre’s status depends on it...
Article
Full-text available
Improving accessibility is a goal pursued by many metropolitan regions to address a variety of objectives. Accessibility, or the ease of reaching destinations, is traditionally measured using observed travel time and has of yet not accounted for user satisfaction with these travel times. As trip satisfaction is a major component of the underlying p...
Article
Objective: Lacking information about actual driving speed on most roads in the Minneapolis–St. Paul region, we determine car speeds using observations from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based travel survey. Speed of travel determines the likelihood and consequences of collisions. We identify the road segments where speeding occurs. This article...
Article
Inequality in transport provision is an area of growing concern among transport professionals, as it results in low-income individuals travelling at lower speeds while covering smaller distances. Accessibility, the ease of reaching destinations, may hold the key in correcting these inequalities through providing a means to evaluate land use and tra...
Article
This paper combines GIS data on crashes with a separate GIS database on pavement quality to test the relationship between pavement quality and crashes over 12 years. Poor road quality is associated with more property damage and injury crashes. The interaction of road quality and curves was surprising, indicating that good pavement quality on curves...
Article
Full-text available
Residential locations, the jobs–housing relationship, and commuting patterns are key elements to understand urban spatial structure and how city dwellers live. Their successive interaction is important for various fields including urban planning, transport, intraurban migration studies, and social science. However, understanding of the long-term tr...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional accessibility evaluation fails to fully capture the travel costs, especially the external costs, of travel. This study develops a full cost accessibility (FCA) framework by combining the internal and external cost components of travel time, safety, emissions, and money. The example illustrated compares FCA by automobile and bicycle on a...
Article
This study evaluates routes followed by residents of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, as measured by the Global Positioning System (GPS) component of the 2010/11 Twin Cities Travel Behavior Inventory (TBI). It finds that most commuters used paths longer than the shortest path. This is in part a function of trip distance (+, longer distan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper develops a link-based full cost model, which identifies the key cost components of travel, including both internal and external versions of cost, and gives a link-based cost estimate. The key cost components for travelers are categorized as time cost, emission cost, crash cost, user monetary cost, and infrastructure cost. Selecting the M...
Article
High occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes typically vary tolls charged to single occupant vehicles, with the toll increasing during congested periods. The toll is usually tied to time of day or to the density of vehicles in the HOT lane. The purpose of raising the toll with congestion is to discourage demand sufficiently to maintain travel speeds in the HOT...
Article
Local authorities worldwide have been pursuing transit-oriented development (TOD) strategies in order to increase transit ridership, curb traffic congestion, and rejuvenate urban neighborhoods. In many cities, however, development of planned sites around transit stations has been close to non-existent, due to, among other reasons, a lack of coordin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper systematically reviews studies that forecast short-term traffic conditions using spatial dependence between links. We extract and synthesise 130 research papers, considering two perspectives: (1) methodological framework and (2) methods for capturing spatial information. Spatial information boosts the accuracy of prediction, particularly...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On-road emissions, a dominant source of urban air pollution, damage human health. The healthiest path and the greenest path are proposed as alternative patterns of traffic route assignment to minimize the costs of pollution exposure and emission, respectively. As a proof-of-concept, the framework of a link-based emission cost analysis is built for...
Book
As cities around the globe respond to rapid technological changes and political pressures, coordinated transport and land use planning is an often targeted aim. Metropolitan Transport and Land Use, the second edition of Planning for Place and Plexus, provides unique and updated perspectives on metropolitan transport networks and land use planning,...
Technical Report
This report develops a framework of extending accessibility analysis combining the alternate cost components into accessibility evaluations. Accessibility metrics in general describe a relationship between costs and benefits of travel. Most commonly, the cost component of accessibility metrics is based on travel time, which may not fully capture th...
Chapter
This paper discusses the development of a national public transit job accessibility evaluation framework, focusing on lessons learned, data source evaluation and selection, calculation methodology, and examples of accessibility evaluation results. The accessibility evaluation framework described here builds on methods developed in earlier projects,...
Article
Full-text available
This study measures severity of network disruptions in the Minneapolis–St. Paul region by comparing the cumulative opportunity accessibility before-and-after removing freeway segments. Accessibility to jobs and accessibility to resident workers are measured respectively in the morning and evening peak hours. It is shown that the links with more sev...
Technical Report
This report develops the techniques for applying accessibility evaluations in transportation planning projects, and demonstrates the practicability. Accessibility measures the ease of reaching valuable destinations, which describes the costs and benefits of travel into a single measure of interaction potential. Accessibility-based planning methods...
Article
Assessment of collision risk between pedestrians and automobiles offers a powerful and informative tool in urban planning applications, and can be leveraged to inform proper placement of improvements and treatment projects to improve pedestrian safety. Such assessment can be performed using existing datasets of crashes, pedestrian counts, and autom...
Article
This study introduces the network weight matrix as a replacement for the spatial weight matrix to measure the spatial dependence between links of a network. This matrix stems from the concepts of betweenness centrality and vulnerability in network science. The elements of the matrix are a function not simply of proximity, but of network topology, n...
Article
Full-text available
This empirical study sheds light on the spatial correlation of traffic links under different traffic regimes. We mimic the behavior of real traffic by pinpointing the spatial correlation between 140 freeway traffic links in a major sub-network of the Minneapolis-St. Paul freeway system with a grid-like network topology. This topology enables us to...
Article
This study measures accessibility by automobile for the Minneapolis - Saint Paul (Twin Cities) region from 1995 to 2005. In contrast to most previous analyses of accessibility, this study uses travel time estimates derived, to the extent possible, from actual observations of network performance by time of day. A set of cumulative opportunity measur...
Article
This paper discusses the observed evolution of traffic in the Minneapolis-St Paul (Twin Cities) region road network following the unexpected collapse of the I-35W Bridge over the Mississippi River. The observations presented within this paper reveal that traffic dynamics are potentially different when a prolonged and unexpected network disruption o...
Article
The study of travel for social activities presents layered challenges because of the temporal and spatial flexibility with which such activities can be undertaken and the changing set of decision makers involved in each activity episode. This paper seeks to answer a set of questions based on empirical data about how relationship, social network var...
Article
This paper tests a group decision-making model to examine the school travel behavior of students 6?18 years old in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan area. The school trip information of 1737 two-parent families with a student is extracted from Travel Behavior Inventory data collected by the Metropolitan Council between the Fall 2010 and Spring...
Article
Full-text available
This study measures the job and population accessibility via transit for Beijing using the cumulative opportunity metric. It is shown that transit accessibility varies widely across Beijing, but is highly focused on subway stations. Early lines added far more accessibility than more recently planned lines.
Article
Full-text available
This study measures the variability of job accessibility via automobile for the Minneapolis- St. Paul, Minnesota region. The accessibility analysis uses cumulative opportunity measures. The travel times on the network are tested at 10th, 50th and 90th percentile speed drawn from an annual average for each link from GPS speed data for 2011. It is sh...
Article
Recognising that public transport services generally deliver substantial benefits for society but frequently require operating and capital funding support, this Workshop sought to find ways to bridge this benefit/funding gap, particularly through benefit monetization. It elaborated a wide range of benefits from public transport services, to both us...
Article
Background: One of the major causes of social exclusion for people with developmental disability (PDD) is the inability to access different activities due to inadequate transportation services. Objective: This research paper identifies transportation needs, and reasons for unmet, but desired untaken trips of adults with developmental disabilitie...
Article
Social equity is increasingly incorporated as a long-term objective into urban transportation plans. Researchers use accessibility measures to assess equity issues, such as determining the amount of jobs reachable by marginalized groups within a defined travel time threshold and compare these measures across socioeconomic categories. However, alloc...
Article
Full-text available
Observational data from the Minneapolis-Saint Paul region’s Metro Transit were analyzed to determine the effects of service levels on ridership levels at different intervals. The research compares changes in service levels and ridership in several service intervals and includes elasticities and cross elasticities, or the influence that these servic...
Article
Prior research on ultrafine particles (UFP) emphasizes that concentrations are especially high on-highway, and that time on highways contribute disproportionately to total daily exposures. This study estimates individual and population exposure to ultra-fine particles in the Minneapolis ? St. Paul (Twin Cities) metropolitan area, Minnesota. Our app...
Article
This study conducts an in-depth analysis to alert policymakers and practitioners to erroneous results in the positive impacts of transit use on health measures. We explore the correlation of transit use and accessibility by transit and walking with self-reported general health, Body Mass Index (BMI), and height. We develop a series of linear regres...
Article
Full-text available
US suburbs have often been characterized by their relatively low walk accessibility compared to more urban environments, and US urban environments have been char- acterized by low walk accessibility compared to cities in other countries. Lower overall density in the suburbs implies that activities, if spread out, would have a greater distance betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Like walking and biking, public transit presents an opportunity to accomplish a portion of the recommended daily physical activity. Much of the previous research has been limited to descriptive analyses quantifying the active component of public transit using advanced econometrics models. This paper overcomes this challenge by applying a two-level...
Article
Waiting time in transit travel is often perceived negatively and high-amenity stops and stations are becoming increasingly popular as strategies for mitigating transit riders’ aversion to waiting. However, beyond recent evidence that realtime transit arrival information reduces perceived waiting time, there is limited empirical evidence as to which...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The transportation system plays a critical role in fostering economic growth. Although previous studies have shed light on the impacts of transportation investments, their results are not readily adapted to predicting economic impacts of individual transportation projects. This study aimed to (1) investigate the impacts of transportation investment...
Article
Full-text available
The replacement I-35W bridge in Minneapolis saw less traffic than the original bridge though it provided substantial travel time saving for many travelers. This observation cannot be explained by the classical route choice assumption that travelers always take the shortest path. Accordingly, a boundedly rational route switching model is proposed as...
Article
The Journal of Transport and Land Use enters its sixth volume continuing to publish selected peer-reviewed papers from the most recent World Symposium on Transport and Land Use Research. The 2014 Symposium will be held in Delft, Netherlands, and we hope to see a large turnout. Look out for invitations and announcements.
Article
Studying trip chaining behavior has been a challenging endeavor which requires the support of microscopic travel data. New insights into trip chaining can be gained from real-time GPS travel data. This research introduces a framework that considers two-destination choice in the context of home-based trip chains. We propose and empirically compare t...
Article
Full-text available
The opening of the replacement for the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge on September 18th, 2008 provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impacts generated by this additional link on network performance. Using detailed GPS data to estimate travel times on links and for origin-destination pairs, this research finds that while on average travel tim...
Article
Full-text available
Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise h...
Article
This paper estimates the productivity gains from agglomeration economies for a sample of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States using measures of urban agglomeration based on employment density and employment accessibility. The latter is a more accurate measure of economic proximity and allows testing for the spatial decay of agglomera...
Article
Reducing the burden of waiting in transit travel is critical to increase the attractiveness of public transportation and encourage people’s shift from automobile mode. Research shows that wait time perception is highly subjective and varies according to various factors such as mode, availability of schedule information or stops amenities. In addi...
Article
Bikeshare systems are relatively new, highly visible additions to urban transportation systems that provide opportunities to cycle or combine cycling with other modes of transportation. The research reported here presents new evidence about the role of bikeshare systems in travel behavior on the basis of diffusion of innovation theory. The study hy...
Article
Circuity, the ratio of network to Euclidean distances, describes the directness of trips and the efficiency of transportation networks. This paper measures the circuity of the fifty-one most populated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States and identifies trends in those circuities between 1990 and 2010. Overall circuity has incr...
Article
This paper investigates the circuity of transit networks and examines auto mode share as a function of circuity and accessibility to better understand the performance of urban transit systems. We first survey transit circuity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, region in detail, comparing auto and transit trips. This paper finds that circuity c...
Article
This paper amends “Micro-foundations of Congestion and Pricing: A Game Theory Perspective” Levinson (2005), correcting the calculated tolls and Nash equilibria predicted for a three-player game.
Article
What effects do bicycle infrastructure and the built environment have on people's decisions to commute by bicycle? While many studies have considered this question, commonly employed methodologies fail to address the unique statistical challenge of modeling modes with small mode shares. Additionally, personal characteristics that are not adequately...
Article
This paper investigates the relationship between the growth of roads and economic development. We test for mutual causality between the growth of road networks (which are divided functionally into local roads and highways) and changes in county-level population and employment. We employ a panel data set containing observations of road mileage by ty...
Article
In 1863, the Metropolitan Railway of what came to be known as the London Underground successfully opened as the world’s first subway. Its high ridership spawned interest in additional links. Entrepreneurs secured funding and then proposed new lines to Parliament for approval, though only some were actually approved. While putative rail barons may h...
Article
This paper presents the results of an accessibility-based model of aggregate commute mode share, focusing on the share of transit relative to auto. It demonstrates the use of continuous accessibility – calculated continuously in time, rather than at a single of a few departure times – for the evaluation of transit systems. These accessibility calcu...
Article
The advent of GIS and GPS has revolutionized how we monitor and model destination choice. New methodologies in building choice sets can be developed and new insights on travel behavior can be gained given the real-time GPS travel data. To this end, this research investigates how land use, road network structure, and axis of travel influence home-ba...
Article
This paper proposes a stochastic congestion and pricing model that combines a bottleneck model with stochastic queuing to study roadway congestion and pricing. Employing this model, two pricing schemes are developed: one is omniscient pricing for which the transportation administrative agency is assumed to be aware of each and every traveler's cost...
Article
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the factors contributing to toll lane subscription choice by using data from the MnPASS high-occupancy toll lane system operated by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The paper estimates a binomial logit model that predicts, on the basis of aggregate characteristics of the surroundin...
Article
Full-text available
Cities promote strong bicycle networks to support and encourage bicycle commuting. However, the application of network science to bicycle facilities is not very well studied. Previous work has found relationships between the amount of bicycle infrastructure in a city and aggregate bicycle ridership, and between microscopic network structure and ind...
Article
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) has added MnPASS High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes on two freeway corridors in the Twin Cities. While not the first HOT lanes in the country, the MnPASS lanes are the first implementation of road pricing in Minnesota and possess a dynamic pricing schedule. Tolls charged to single occupant vehicles (S...
Article
This research analyses the influence of street network structure on household travel patterns, as measured by activity spaces. The analysis uses street network and travel survey data from the Minneapolis - St. Paul (Twin Cities) and Miami - Ft. Lauderdale (South Florida) metropolitan areas. Various measures of street network structure are used to q...
Article
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) has added MnPASS High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes on two freeway corridors in the Twin Cities. While not the first HOT lanes in the country, the MnPASS lanes are the first implementation of road pricing in Minnesota and possess a dynamic pricing schedule. Tolls charged to single occupant vehicles (S...
Article
A large literature base has found that economic factors have important effects on traffic crashes. A small but growing branch of literature also examines the role that gasoline prices play in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have investigated the possible difference of these effects between urban and rural areas. In this study...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified in...
Article
Full-text available
In the Minneapolis-St. Paul region (Twin Cities), the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) converted the Interstate 394 High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes to High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes (or MnPASS Express Lanes). These lanes allow single occupancy vehicles (SOVs) to access the HOV lanes by paying a fee. This fee is adjusted according...