David J Doukas

Ethics, Primary Care

M.D.
35.58

Publications

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    Johanna Shapiro · Lois L Nixon · Stephen E Wear · David J Doukas
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    ABSTRACT: Medical school curricula, although traditionally and historically dominated by science, have generally accepted, appreciated, and welcomed the inclusion of literature over the past several decades. Recent concerns about medical professional formation have led to discussions about the specific role and contribution of literature and stories. In this article, we demonstrate how professionalism and the study of literature can be brought into relationship through critical and interrogative interactions based in the literary skill of close reading. Literature in medicine can question the meaning of "professionalism" itself (as well as its virtues), thereby resisting standardization in favor of diversity method and of outcome. Literature can also actively engage learners with questions about the human condition, providing a larger context within which to consider professional identity formation. Our fundamental contention is that, within a medical education framework, literature is highly suited to assist learners in questioning conventional thinking and assumptions about various dimensions of professionalism.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This article-the Romanell Report-offers an analysis of the current state of medical ethics education in the United States, focusing in particular on its essential role in cultivating professionalism among medical learners. Education in ethics has become an integral part of medical education and training over the past three decades and has received particular attention in recent years because of the increasing emphasis placed on professional formation by accrediting bodies such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Yet, despite the development of standards, milestones, and competencies related to professionalism, there is no consensus about the specific goals of medical ethics education, the essential knowledge and skills expected of learners, the best pedagogical methods and processes for implementation, and optimal strategies for assessment. Moreover, the quality, extent, and focus of medical ethics instruction vary, particularly at the graduate medical education level. Although variation in methods of instruction and assessment may be appropriate, ultimately medical ethics education must address the overarching articulated expectations of the major accrediting organizations. With the aim of aiding medical ethics educators in meeting these expectations, the Romanell Report describes current practices in ethics education and offers guidance in several areas: educational goals and objectives, teaching methods, assessment strategies, and other challenges and opportunities (including course structure and faculty development). The report concludes by proposing an agenda for future research.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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    ABSTRACT: Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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    Howard Brody · David Doukas
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    ABSTRACT: ContextDespite considerable advances in the incorporation of professionalism into the formal curriculum, medical students and residents are too often presented with a mechanical, unreflective version of the topic that fails to convey deeper ethical and humanistic aspirations. Some misunderstandings of professionalism are exacerbated by commonly used assessment tools that focus only on superficially observable behaviour and not on moral values and attitudes.Methods Following a selective literature review, we engaged in philosophical ethical analysis to identify the key precepts associated with professionalism that could best guide the development of an appropriately reflective curriculum.ResultsThe key precepts needed for a robust presentation of professionalism can be grouped under two headings: ‘Professionalism as a trust-generating promise’ (representing commitment to patients’ interests, more than a mere business, a social contract, a public and collective promise, and hard work), and ‘Professionalism as application of virtue to practice’ (based on virtue, deeper attitudes rather than mere behaviour, and requiring of practical wisdom).Conclusions These key precepts help students to avoid many common, unreflective misunderstandings of professionalism, and guide faculty staff and students jointly to address the deeper issues required for successful professional identity formation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Medical Education
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    David J Doukas · John Hardwig

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2014
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    David J Doukas · John Hardwig
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    ABSTRACT: Respect for persons protects patients regarding their own healthcare decisions. Patient informed choice for altruism (PICA) is a proposed means for a fully autonomous patient with decisionmaking capacity to limit his or her own treatment for altruistic reasons. An altruistic decision could bond the patient with others at the end of life. We contend that PICA can also be an advance directive option. The proxy, family, and physicians must be reminded that a patient's altruistic treatment refusal should be respected.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objective: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genetic testing is used to assist in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Whenever genetic testing is performed, an informed consent process should occur. Methods: In this case, a patient with memory loss presented to the neurologist. The neurologist ordered a lumbar puncture (LP). The LP was performed by a neuroradiologist who also ordered APOE genetic testing. The patient received no genetic counseling, nor was an informed consent document offered. Results: After the testing was completed, the neurologist faced an ethical dilemma. His solution was to offer the genetic testing to the patient in order to have an informed consent process. It was clear that the patient and her adult children did not want the genetic testing and that they would have been burdened with the results. The neurologist opted not to disclose the results. Conclusion: Genetic counseling and a signed informed consent document are required prior to any genetic testing. In this case, neither occurred and it led to an ethical dilemma that was ultimately resolved by the neurologist. As the population ages and AD becomes more prevalent, there is a need to expand the workforce of genetic counselors and educate physicians who commonly treat AD about genetic testing.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias
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    ABSTRACT: To measure trainees' exposure to negative and positive role-modeling for responding to medical errors and to examine the association between that exposure and trainees' attitudes and behaviors regarding error disclosure. Between May 2011 and June 2012, 435 residents at two large academic medical centers and 1,187 medical students from seven U.S. medical schools received anonymous, electronic questionnaires. The questionnaire asked respondents about (1) experiences with errors, (2) training for responding to errors, (3) behaviors related to error disclosure, (4) exposure to role-modeling for responding to errors, and (5) attitudes regarding disclosure. Using multivariate regression, the authors analyzed whether frequency of exposure to negative and positive role-modeling independently predicted two primary outcomes: (1) attitudes regarding disclosure and (2) nontransparent behavior in response to a harmful error. The response rate was 55% (884/1,622). Training on how to respond to errors had the largest independent, positive effect on attitudes (standardized effect estimate, 0.32, P < .001); negative role-modeling had the largest independent, negative effect (standardized effect estimate, -0.26, P < .001). Positive role-modeling had a positive effect on attitudes (standardized effect estimate, 0.26, P < .001). Exposure to negative role-modeling was independently associated with an increased likelihood of trainees' nontransparent behavior in response to an error (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64; P < .001). Exposure to role-modeling predicts trainees' attitudes and behavior regarding the disclosure of harmful errors. Negative role models may be a significant impediment to disclosure among trainees.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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    David J Doukas

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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    David J Doukas

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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    Joseph J Fins · Barbara Pohl · David J Doukas

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
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    Gregory W Ruhnke · David J Doukas

    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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    David J Doukas

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
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    David J Doukas · Laurence B McCullough · Stephen Wear

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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    David J Doukas · Laurence B McCullough · Stephen Wear
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    ABSTRACT: Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
  • David J. Doukas · Laurence B. McCullough · Stephen Wear

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · The American Journal of Medicine
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    Article: The Abyss
    David J Doukas

    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011
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    David J Doukas · Laurence B McCullough · Stephen Wear

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · The American journal of medicine
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    Christian Davis Furman · David John Doukas · William Reichel
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    ABSTRACT: The traditional view of standard hospice (SH) care is that once begun, the doorway toward curative and other forms of nonpalliative treatment is irrevocably locked. We will argue that such a traditional view needs to be reassessed in light of new arguments and data regarding access to these avenues of treatment. We will argue that patients should be supported in their transition from SH to open access hospice (OAH). Open access hospice should be available to all patients because of ethical arguments, patient satisfaction arguments, and costs of care arguments. More randomized controlled research trials need to be performed to study the impact of OAH versus SH. This research should focus on patient satisfaction, cost, and survival.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The American journal of hospice & palliative care

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