David Berle

Clinical Psychology

MPsychol(Clin), PhD
32.95

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Cognitive behaviour therapy
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and psychological and functional variables were associated with physical activity (PA) upon admission to an inpatient facility. PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety and stress, sleep quality, and PA participation were assessed among 76 participants (age, 47.6 ± 11.9 years; 83% male). Backward stepwise regression analyses identified variables independently associated with time spent walking and engaging in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA). No significant correlations were found between any of the variables and MVPA. Total PTSD symptoms (r = -0.39, p < 0.001), combined symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), and sleep behavior (r = -0.24, p < 0.05) were significantly and negatively associated with total walking time. Total PTSD symptoms were the only significant predictor of walking time (B = -0.03, SE = 0.008, β = -0.4; t = -3.4; p < 0.001). Results indicate that increased PTSD symptoms are associated with lower levels of walking. Results highlight the importance of considering symptoms when designing PA programs for people with PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the frequency of benzodiazepine (BDZ) use in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and ascertain the type of BDZ used and the correlates and predictors of BDZ use in OCD. The sample consisted of 955 patients with OCD from a comprehensive, cross-sectional, multicentre study conducted by the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders between 2003 and 2009. The rate of BDZ use over time in this OCD sample was 38.4%. Of individuals taking BDZs, 96.7% used them in combination with other medications, usually serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The most commonly used BDZ was clonazepam. Current age, current level of anxiety and number of additional medications for OCD taken over time significantly predicted BDZ use. This is the first study to comprehensively examine BDZ use in OCD patients, demonstrating that it is relatively common, despite recommendations from treatment guidelines. Use of BDZs in combination with several other medications over time and in patients with marked anxiety suggests that OCD patients taking BDZs may be more complex and more difficult to manage. This calls for further research and clarification of the role of BDZs in the treatment of OCD.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International clinical psychopharmacology
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease
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    David Berle · Zachary Steel
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to identify the key challenges experienced by the families of defence force personnel following deployment. We undertook a selective review of four post-deployment challenges to the families of defence force personnel: (1) changes to relationships; (2) changes to family member roles and responsibilities; (3) adjustment of children and parenting challenges; and (4) anger, family conflict and violence. Emerging issues in the area of post-deployment adjustment are also discussed. Empirical studies of post-deployment family adjustment are lacking. Each of the reviewed challenges can contribute to psychological difficulties and precipitate contact with mental health services. The challenges faced by defence force personnel when returning from deployment arise within a family context. Clinicians should thoroughly assess these factors in families following deployment, but also recognise family strengths and resilience to these challenges. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Australasian Psychiatry
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    Vladan Starcevic · David Berle

    Full-text · Chapter · May 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
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    ABSTRACT: Dysphoria has recently been conceptualized as a complex emotional state that consists of discontent and/or unhappiness and a predominantly externalizing mode of coping with these feelings. The Nepean Dysphoria Scale (NDS) was developed on the basis of this model of dysphoria and used in this clinical study to ascertain the specificity of the relationships between dysphoria and relevant domains of psychopathology. Ninety-six outpatients completed the NDS, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90R) and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales, 21-item version (DASS-21). The scores on the NDS subscales (Discontent, Surrender, Irritability and Interpersonal Resentment) and total NDS scores correlated significantly with scores on the DASS-21 scales and relevant SCL-90R subscales. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated the following: DASS-21 Depression and Stress each had unique relationships with NDS Discontent and Surrender; DASS-21 Anxiety had a unique relationship with NDS Discontent; SCL-90R Hostility and Paranoid Ideation and DASS-21 Stress each had unique relationships with NDS Irritability; and SCL-90R Paranoid Ideation and DASS-21 Stress, Depression and Anxiety each had unique relationships with NDS Interpersonal Resentment. These findings support the notion that dysphoria is a complex emotional state, with both non-specific and specific relationships with irritability, tension, depression, paranoid tendencies, anxiety, hostility and interpersonal sensitivity. Conceptual rigor when referring to dysphoria should be promoted in both clinical practice and further research.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Psychiatric Quarterly
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
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    ABSTRACT: Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a type of video game that is considered to have particular potential to be associated with life interference and psychopathology when played frequently and intensively. This study sought to compare players of MMORPGs with players of other types of video game in terms of problematic use, life interference, and levels of psychopathology. An international sample of 1,945 video game players completed a series of questionnaires online. While MMORPG players reported increased rates of problematic use and life interference compared with non-MMORPG players, there were no differences in levels of psychopathology. Differences between MMORPG players and non-MMORPG players appeared to be associated with the increased amounts of time that MMORPG players played for: The amount of time spent playing appeared to mediate the relationships between type of game played and each of the problematic use and life interference variables. The implications of these findings are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Australian Journal of Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aims to examine the characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with high levels of schizotypy. Methods: Using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) with 177 individuals with OCD, patients with OCD and high levels of schizotypy (OCD-HS) were compared to patients with OCD and low levels of schizotypy (OCD-LS) on a range of clinical characteristics. Self-report and clinician-administered instruments were used. Results were adjusted for the severity of OCD symptoms, age, marital status and comorbidity using logistic regression. Results: Patients with OCD-HS were younger and less likely to have been married. OCD-HS was associated with higher rates of symmetry/order obsessions, ordering/arranging compulsions, checking compulsions, co-occurring major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders and greater general psychopathology. Previously reported associations, such as higher total scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) were not significant when adjusted for differences in demographic variables and comorbidity. Conclusions: Patients with OCD-HS were associated with specific OCD symptoms and comorbid conditions and may warrant a specific treatment approach.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have linked obsessive-compulsive symptoms to specific obsessive-compulsive cognitions, however methodologies have varied, and no study has determined obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the most widely used clinician rating scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Considering that almost all studies that used factor analysis to ascertain OCD symptom dimensions were based on the Y-BOCS and that self-report instruments assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms correlate poorly with the Y-BOCS, there is a need to use the Y-BOCS to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive cognitions and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. This study examined the relationship between five Y-BOCS-derived obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and the three obsessive-compulsive cognitive domains identified by the obsessive-beliefs questionnaire (OBQ). The symmetry/ordering symptom dimension was associated with increased perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty, the unacceptable/taboo thoughts symptom dimension was associated with increased importance/control of thoughts and the doubt/checking symptom dimension was associated with increased responsibility/threat estimation. There was no statistical evidence of an association between any OBQ belief sub-scale and the hoarding symptom dimension nor the contamination/cleaning symptom dimension. The findings encourage symptom-based approaches to cognitive-behavioural therapy for some OCD symptoms and call for further research on cognitions associated with contamination/cleaning symptoms and hoarding.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Psychiatric Quarterly
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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    David Berle · Michelle L Moulds
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    ABSTRACT: Intrusion-based reasoning refers to the tendency to form interpretations about oneself or a situation based on the occurrence of a negative intrusive autobiographical memory. Intrusion-based reasoning characterises post-traumatic stress disorder, but has not yet been investigated in depression. We report two studies that aimed to investigate this. In Study 1 both high (n = 42) and low (n = 28) dysphoric participants demonstrated intrusion-based reasoning. High-dysphoric individuals engaged in self-referent intrusion-based reasoning to a greater extent than did low-dysphoric participants. In Study 2 there were no significant differences in intrusion-based reasoning between currently depressed (n = 27) and non-depressed (n = 51) participants, and intrusion-based reasoning did not predict depressive symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Interestingly, previously (n = 26) but not currently (n = 27) depressed participants engaged in intrusion-based reasoning to a greater extent than never-depressed participants (n = 25), indicating the possibility that intrusion-based reasoning may serve as a "scar" from previous episodes. The implications of these findings are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Memory
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    David Berle · Michelle L Moulds
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive models of depression emphasize how distorted thoughts and interpretations contribute to low mood. Emotional reasoning is considered to be one such interpretative style. We used an experimental procedure to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning characterize depression. Participants who were currently experiencing a major depressive episode (n = 27) were compared with those who were non-depressed (n = 25 who had never been depressed and n = 26 previously but not currently depressed) on an emotional reasoning task. Although there were some trends for depressed participants to show greater levels of emotional reasoning relative to non-depressed participants, none of these differences attained significance. Interestingly, previously depressed participants engaged in more non-self-referent emotional reasoning than never-depressed participants. Emotional reasoning does not appear to characterize mild to moderate levels of depression. The lack of significant differences in emotional reasoning between currently depressed and non-depressed participants may have been a consequence of the fact that participants in our currently depressed group were, for the most part, only mildly depressed. Non-self-referent emotional reasoning may nevertheless be a risk factor for subsequent depressive episodes, or else serve as a ‘cognitive scar’ from previous episodes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · British Journal of Clinical Psychology
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    David Berle · Michelle L Moulds
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    ABSTRACT: Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world [1]. Emotional reasoning appears to characterise anxiety disorders. We aimed to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning also characterise dysphoria. In Study 1, low dysphoric (BDI-II≤4; n = 28) and high dysphoric (BDI-II ≥14; n = 42) university students were administered an emotional reasoning task relevant for dysphoria. In Study 2, a larger university sample were administered the same task, with additional self-referent ratings, and were followed up 8 weeks later. In Study 1, both the low and high dysphoric participants demonstrated emotional reasoning and there were no significant differences in scores on the emotional reasoning task between the low and high dysphoric groups. In Study 2, self-referent emotional reasoning interpretations showed small-sized positive correlations with depression symptoms. Emotional reasoning tendencies were stable across an 8-week interval although not predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms. Further, anxiety symptoms were independently associated with emotional reasoning and emotional reasoning was not associated with anxiety sensitivity, alexithymia, or deductive reasoning tendencies. The implications of these findings are discussed, including the possibility that while all individuals may engage in emotional reasoning, self-referent emotional reasoning may be associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Attempts to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have resulted in three to six OCD symptom dimensions. This study aimed to clarify the nature of these symptom dimensions using a self-report instrument (Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory [VOCI]) in addition to the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC). Participants (N = 154) were recruited to a study designed to specifically assess OCD symptom dimensions. Symptoms assessed via the YBOCS-SC and the VOCI were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Linear regression was used to assess therelationship between the YBOCS-SC-derived symptom dimensions and the VOCI symptom subscales. PCA of the YBOCS-SC and the VOCI revealed five OCD symptom dimensions that explained 68% and 60% of the variance, respectively. The results also supported a distinction between the doubt/checking symptom dimension and the unacceptable/taboo thoughts dimension that includes mental rituals. The YBOCS-SC-derived symptom components were predicted by their respective VOCI symptom subscale scores.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease

  • No preview · Article · May 2013 · Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

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