David (Dai) Griffiths

David (Dai) Griffiths
Universidad Internacional de La Rioja | UNIR · iTED

Doctor of Philosophy

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132
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Publications

Publications (132)
Chapter
The OLE-Nepal project has deployed over 6,500 XO laptops in schools in Nepal, pre-installed with materials designed to support the national curriculum. This has raised hopes that technology can transform the quality of education available in remote regions. In order to investigate if and how the technology can have this impact, a case study was car...
Chapter
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The ethical context of Learning Analytics is framed by two related processes. Firstly, the amount of personal data available to organisations has been transformed by the computerisation and the subsequent development of the Internet. Secondly, the methods and ethical assumptions of Operations Research have been extended into new areas. Learning Ana...
Article
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Purpose This paper draws on the literature of cybernetics to argue that the resilience of organizations can be diminished by an unconsidered maximization of transparency and accountability. In doing so, it critically examines the concept of resilience and the relationship of resilience to neoliberalism. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual a...
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1.10 TEACHERS AND PATTERNS Ana Dias Eucen-European Universities Continuing Education Network As mentioned above, the adoption of IMS-LD in education and e-learning organizations depends largely on the speed of development of user friendly tools that can be used by learning managers, learning designers and teachers. Within the Learning Designers and...
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The WYRED project has undertaken a number of activities with children and young people in its first six months of operation. These include the development of manifestos, a questionnaire, Delphi activity, a series of dialogues and a slogan competition, in addition to the development of the online platform that will support the research activity and...
Conference Paper
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The discourse and practice of data governance in learning analytics, and the ethics which inform it, are confused and contradictory. This can be elucidated by considering the coming together of two contrasting research traditions: academic research and operations research.
Article
The practice of Learning Design (LD) and Learning Analytics (LA) is analysed using two lenses. Firstly, it is argued that both LD and LA involve the making of models. All models involve idealisation, i.e. the simplification of something complicated to make it more tractable. Various educational actors generate idealisations of the system they are w...
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The annual American Society for Cybernetics (ASC) conference took place on 1-5 June 2016 in Olympia, WA, and was hosted by Evergreen State College. The proceedings from this conference are presented in this volume of Kybernetes, continuing a tradition that has seen this journal publish the proceedings of recent ASC conferences in Troy, NY (Glanvill...
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En este artículo se discute el concepto y la utilidad del objeto de aprendizaje, proponiendo que el factor clave es su uso, y no tanto sus características. Después, se revisan las actuales especificaciones de eLearning para la definición de estos objetos, indicando sus ventajas y desventajas. La especificación IMS Learning Design (LD) es analizada...
Article
Upshot center dot This commentary supports Sweeting's case for the relationship between the design tradition, second-order cybernetics and second-order science. It argues, however, that the extension of this argument to other intellectual traditions and areas of practice is complicated by differing views of material agency.
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This deliverable (D1.4) is an intermediate document, expressly included to inform the first project review about RAGE’s methodology of software asset creation and management. The final version of the methodology description (D1.1) will be delivered in Month 29. The document explains how the RAGE project defines, develops, distributes and maintains...
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The Semester of Code initiative organised virtual placements for university students around Europe, working on authentic business problems using open source software. The project was welcomed by stakeholders, and many companies and open source foundations became involved. However, the response from students was disappointing. In this paper we exami...
Technical Report
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This deliverable explains the evaluations carried out regarding to the students’ intention to participate in the Semester of Code and VALS project and later the evaluation of the placements performed during the Semester of Code. The three main stakeholders involved performed these evaluations: students, mentors and academic supervisors. Apart of th...
Article
This paper explains the Virtual Alliances for Learning Society (VALS) European Project technological approach to support a virtual placements management process. Also, this paper shows the first results of the practical part of the project, the Semester of Code, explaining the detected problems, the issues, the challenges and some actions to improv...
Article
This deliverable explains the evaluations carried out regarding to the students’ intention to participate in the Semester of Code and VALS project and later the evaluation of the placements performed during the Semester of Code. The three main stakeholders involved performed these evaluations: students, mentors and academic supervisors.Apart of the...
Article
This deliverable explains the evaluations carried out regarding to the students’ intention to participate in the Semester of Code and VALS project and later the evaluation of the placements performed during the Semester of Code. The three main stakeholders involved performed these evaluations: students, mentors and academic supervisors.Apart of the...
Data
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This document presents the questionnaire filled by the academic supervisors in the Semester of Code process during the evaluation of the virtual placements performed.
Data
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This document presents the questionnaire filled by the students in the Semester of Code process during the evaluation of the virtual placements performed.
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On the 3rd of August 2014, the American Society for Cybernetics (ASC) celebrated their 50th anniversary at their annual conference, which that year was held in Washington, DC, hosted by George Washington University. The choice of venue reflected the fact that the first conference of the ASC was held in the same city in 1964. The proceedings from th...
Technical Report
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This document presents the questionnaire filled by the mentors in the Semester of Code process during the evaluation of the virtual placements performed.
Conference Paper
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Informal learning has been always an important source of knowledge, perhaps the most important at the workplace, but its own informal nature has caused difficulties to be recognized and introduced in the "official" ways of training and certification. TEEM conference has paid special attention to the problems associated with informal learning from t...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a way of understanding the resistance shown by teachers to the adoption of some educational technologies. Design/methodology/approach – The Wookie Widget Server is taken as a case study. This has been a long-term development project at the Institute for Educational Cybernetics, located at the Univer...
Chapter
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This chapter can be downloaded from http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-19366-3 This chapter introduces the technical artefacts of the iTEC project in the context of a cloud architecture. The rationale for the technology developed in the iTEC project follows from its overall aim to re-engineer the uptake of ICT in schools. To that e...
Conference Paper
VALS (Virtual Alliances for Learning Society) European Project intends to build knowledge partnerships between European Higher Education Institutions and Business stakeholders across the World to collaborate on resolving authentic business problems through Open Innovation and Open Source Software. To conduct these knowledge partnerships, the VALS p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explains the Virtual Alliances for Learning Society (VALS) European Project technological approach to support a virtual placements management process. Also this paper shows the first results of the practical part of the project, the Semester of Code, explaining the detected problems, the issues, the challenges and some actions to improve...
Article
The iTEC project undertook the task of distributing resources and services for learning activities across a wide range of technological platforms in many different countries. Interoperability was achieved through the W3C widget specification and the Apache Wookie widget server. A connector framework was developed to enable widgets to be embedded in...
Chapter
It seems undeniable that the choice of activities to be carried out by learners has some positive or negative effect on their learning. It also seems reasonable to assume that they can be characterised and grouped into structures which can be usefully exchanged between teachers as a basis for planning activities. These structures are known as learn...
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The conference theme reflects cybernetics as a subject concerned with, as the Macy conferences put it, "circular causality" – as well as the importance of action in cybernetics. Current western thinking tends, for instance, to promote understanding above acting: generally, we believe that theory directs practice and that in order to act we should f...
Conference Paper
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VALS (Virtual Alliances for Learning Society) European Project has the aim of establishing sustainable processes to build knowledge partnerships between Higher Education and companies to collaborate on resolving authentic business problems through open innovation mediated by the use of Open Source Software. To achieve this, VALS builds knowledge pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The placements and internships are one of the main paths to get professional background and some skills for students, especially in areas like informatics and computer sciences. The European-funded VALS project tries to promote the virtual placements and establish a new initiative in virtual placements called Semester of Code. This initiative binds...
Conference Paper
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There is a mismatch between the enthusiasm of policy makers and other actors for initiatives to support the validation of informal learning, and the lack of adoption of systems in practice. This problem is explored, with reference to the creation of the Informal Learning Collector in the European Commission TRAILER project. It is proposed that form...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this track is to analyze problems experienced with the validation of informal learning and to propose alternative approaches. There is a mismatch between the enthusiasm of policy makers and other actors for informal learning initiatives, and the lack of adoption of systems in real workplaces. The use of managerial tools, such as vali...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Learners do not only learn in the institutions, they learn during their live in different contexts, with different resources and from the interaction with different persons. This kind of learning that is not always intentionally carried out is known as informal learning. The application of Information and Communication Technologies to learning and...
Conference Paper
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VALS has the aims of establishing sustainable methods and processes to build knowledge partnerships between Higher Education and companies to collaborate on resolving authentic business problems through open innovation mediated by the use of Open Source Software. Open Source solutions provide the means whereby educational institutions, students, bu...
Article
Purpose – The education system worldwide is regulated through the dominant paradigm of planning and enactment, but the representations of curricula and lesson plans underpinning the paradigm are poorly correlated to classroom practice. This paper aims to understand how despite this the paradigm remains dominant and explores the implications of its...
Conference Paper
Researching the sharing of learning designs is a well-established domain within the technology-enhanced learning research community. However, until now tools supporting educational modelling languages such as IMS Learning Design have reached a wide adoption in today’s school practice. Following a design science research methodology we report on the...
Article
While many innovations in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) have emerged over the last two decades, the uptake of these innovations has not always been very successful, particularly in schools. The transition from proof of concept to integration into learning activities has been recognized as a bottleneck for quite some time. This major problem, w...
Conference Paper
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People do not learn only in formal educational institutions, but also throughout their lives, from their experiences, conversations, observations of others, exploration of the Internet, meetings and conferences, and chance encounters etc. However this informal and non-formal learning can easily remain largely invisible, making it hard for peers and...
Conference Paper
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Recently, widget-based Web applications, i. e., mashups have gained momentum, as they make it possible to address the "long tail" of software needs. By enabling data and control flow among widgets --- inter-widget communication (IWC) --- integration of data and functionality can be defined by the end users themselves. However, IWC entails several p...
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The application of information technologies (specially the Internet, Web 2.0 and social tools) make informal learning more visible. This kind of learning is not linked to an institution or a period of time, but it is important enough to be taken into account. On the one hand, learners should be able to communicate to the institutions they are relat...
Article
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IMS Learning Design (LD) is the only available interoperability specification in the area of technology enhanced learning that allows the definition and orchestration of complex activity flows and resource environments in a multirole setting. IMS LD has been available since 2003, and yet it has not been widely adopted either by practitioners or by...
Conference Paper
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The evolution of new technology and its increasing use, have for some years been making the existence of informal learning more and more transparent, especially among young and older adults in both Higher Education and workplace contexts. However, the nature of formal and non-formal, coursebased, approaches to learning has made it hard to accommoda...
Article
In order to provide interoperable services to a range of applications, platforms and devices a number of open source applications have been developed, many of them within the Apache Software Foundation. We analyse the way that these relate to research and development in education, which has also informed the functionality which they offer, providin...
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Apache Wookie (incubating) has generated considerable interest within the context of Technology Enhanced Learning where it was developed, as well as in mobile applications. The origins of the system in providing services for IMS Learning Design are described, together with an introduction to the system's design and functionality. However, the areas...
Article
Can widget technologies revolutionise the virtual learning environment (VLE) and challenge the dominant design of e-learning? Are widgets ready to be deployed in today's VLEs? The authors describe an experimental implementation of the Moodle VLE using the W3C widget specification and Google Wave Gadget API to replace existing core features. This ra...
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The concept of social role is a fundamental underpinning of the design and implementation of a wide range of learning technologies. However, the roles that are designed into technologies often ill-fit the real roles of teachers, learners and other stakeholders in educational institutions. This can exacerbate problems in adoption as stakeholders do...
Conference Paper
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In order to understand whether conceptual obscurity is truly the reason for the slow uptake of IMS Learning Design (LD), we have initiated an investigation into teachers’ understanding of IMS LD outside of technological environments. Using paper representations (“snippets”) of IMS LD component and method elements at levels A and B, 21 higher educat...
Article
Sharples, P., Popat, K., Llobet, L., Santos, P., Hernandez-Leo, D., Miao, Y., Griffiths, D. & Beauvoir, P. (2009) TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4 This release is composed of three files corresponding to CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI) v3.2-10cv1.4, the SLeD3 player v1.4, and the Wookie Widget servi...
Article
Sharples, Paul Wilson, S., Popat, K., Griffiths, D., Beauvoir, P. (2009) The Astro Learning Design Player. This software is distributed under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation
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The use of the Web to deliver open, distance, and flexible learning has opened up the potential for social interaction and adaptive learning, but the usability, expressivity, and interoperability of the available tools leave much to be desired. This article explores these issues as they relate to teachers and learning designers through the case of...
Chapter
Since the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification was published in 2003 (IMS Global Learning Consortium Inc. 2003) it has been recognised that the provision of effective and easy to use tooling is essential if the specification is to be widely adopted. Progress on tooling was discussed in Griffiths et al. (2005) and a more recent review of tooli...
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This document presents an implementation methodology for the preparation and execution of TENCompetence cycle 3 demonstrator pilots according to the infrastructure currently available. The methodology includes the description of the tasks and procedures needed to be considered from describing the training in terms of competences and selecting the u...
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These server applications provide runtime support for IMS-LD Units of Learning, widget based services for Units of Learning, and IMS-QTI. Available under the three clause BSD licence, Copyright TENCompetence Foundation. The used CopperCore service has a GPL license.
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This release includes improved integration of the APIS runtime system, and the link tool for launching UOLs. Available under the GNU GPL licence, Copyright TENCompetence Foundation.
Article
Wilson, S., Sharples, P., Popat, K., & Griffiths, D. (2009). Moodle Wave: Reinventing the VLE using Widget technologies. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Envrionments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009)...
Article
ReCourse is an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application. A number of plug-ins are included, enabling users to author QTI compliant tests, link to services, upload to repositories, and publish and populate Units of Learning. New features in version 2.0 include support for IMS LD levels B & C, and a visualiser. Available under the three clause BSD li...
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Full-text available
Johnson, M., Griffiths, D., & Hanslot, Z. (2010). Positioning Learning Design: Learner Experience and the challenges of transforming teaching practice. In D. Griffiths, & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open workshop (pp. 11-21). November, 19-20, 2009. Manch...
Conference Paper
The TENCompetence project has made the first release of IMS LD tools which provide significant improvements in usability and integration. The project and the user group are introduced, and the principal improvements described. The results of initial evaluation are outlined, and the direction of future work is indicated.
Article
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The IMS-QTI, and other related specifications have been developed to support the creation of reusable and pedagogically neutral learning scenarios and content, as stated by the IMS Global Learning Consortium. In this paper we discuss how current specifications both constrain the design of assessment scenarios, and limit content reusability. Key iss...
Article
Dialogic learning and interactive groups have proved to be a useful methodological approach applied in educational situations for lifelong adult learners. The principles of this approach stress the importance of dialogue and equal participation also when designing the training activities. This paper adopts these principles as the basis for a config...
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One of the issues for the Personal Learning Environment is the integration of personal tools with institution-centric information and services such as timetable information, and the coordination of cohort-specific group activities. One potential solution is the use of widgets - small, single-function applications that can be used in different appli...
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This deliverable contains the following 3 topics: - An analysis of the current status of the project in relation to the lessons learned in the first two years of the project and the changes observed in the world outside of the project. In addition an approach is outlined what to achieve and how to achieve this in the remaining life-time of the proj...
Chapter
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Group interaction has to be meticulously designed to foster effective and efficient collaborative learning. The IMS Learning Design specification (IMS LD) can be used to create a formal representation of group interaction, and the model can then be used to scaffold group interaction by means of coordination support at runtime. In this chapter, we i...
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IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) is the most widely adopted interoperability specification for assessment. It is, however, represented as XML, which teachers are not able to read or edit. The work reported here was the development of the first editor for the QTI Lite specifications. It is significant because it applied a collaborative d...
Article
This paper discusses PlanetDR, whose architecture supports very large federated educational digital repositories. It is based on the implementation of current open specifications for interoperability (such as IEEE Learning Object Metadata and IMS Digital Repositories Interoperability, in its Edusource Communication Language version), and its integr...
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Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
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The development of open, flexible eLearning specifications has significant implications for and interactions with the FOSS movement. A short overview of eLearning specifications is provided, focusing on the difference between SCORM and Learning Design (LD). The significance of LD for FOSS is examined, and common values identified. The particular co...