David Anthony Winter

David Anthony Winter
University of Hertfordshire | UH · Departmeny of Psychology, Sport and Geography

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108
Publications
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Publications

Publications (108)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Guillem Feixas & Joan Miquel Soldevilla Alberti Universitat de Barcelona David A. Winter University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K. Paper in Symposium Where is Personal Identity in the Cognitive Therapies? Presenters Simone Cheli - Center for Psychology & Health, Tages Charity, Florence, Italy Giovanni M. Ruggiero - Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Ric...
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George Kelly introduced the notion of formulation in his personal construct psychology and its associated form of psychotherapy. The process of assessing and sharing the formulation, in which the clinician attempts to construe the construction processes of the client using a set of diagnostic constructs, is an example of what Kelly termed sociality...
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The commentary endorses the use of shared case formulation as a main therapeutic tool, and discusses the role of personal meanings and constructions, and their level of awareness. In addition, the capacity of the axes of the LIBET procedure of case formulation to describe the adaptive value of clients’ constructions in certain areas of their lives,...
Article
A repertory grid method for the investigation of construing of ethical issues is presented. The elements in the grid are ethical dilemmas, and the use of dilemmas from different ethical domains (e.g., personal and professional) can allow investigation of the characteristics of ethical subsystems, as in a previous study of 39 clinical psychology doc...
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Following George Kelly’s notion of sociality, this study attempts to construe the construction processes of filicidal fathers in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews scheduled according to Experience Cycle Methodology phases were employed with four such fathers. Kelly’s diagnostic constructs were used in the analysis of the interviews, offering...
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This research explores the association between depression and aspects of construing, assessed by repertory grid technique, in women in Taiwan. Women diagnosed as depressed exhibited tighter, more unidimensional construing than women not so diagnosed. In addition, various aspects of self-construing were associated with depression, including construi...
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This paper will caution against a ‘cosy’ view of George Kelly’s notion of sociality since the role relationships that are facilitated by construing the other’s construction processes are not necessarily benign. It will be argued that it is when sociality is combined with hostility, in Kelly’s sense of extorting validational evidence for constructio...
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This paper revisits a measure of intrapsychic conflict derived from repertory grid technique. The measure is compared with other such measures and findings from studies that have employed it are reviewed. These studies encompass the areas of alternative identities (in relation to immigration and radicalization); a variety of issues related to clini...
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Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic are considered in terms of personal construct theory, including the diagnostic constructs proposed by George Kelly. The pandemic is seen to have caused transitions in people’s construing, experienced, for example, as anxiety, threat, guilt, and shame; and strategies to cope with it have included constriction and h...
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This cross-sectional study compared the moral reasoning of first-year and third-year doctoral students in clinical psychology. Nineteen first-year and 20 third-year students were recruited from 17 doctoral training programs in the UK. Most adopted a sophisticated approach to moral judgments, as assessed by the Defining Issues Test, although, surpri...
Article
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This article identifies common features of existing models of radicalization and deradicalization, such as the transition from uncertainty to certainty, before integrating these in a model based upon personal construct theory. It is proposed that the personal construct concepts of validation and invalidation are particularly relevant to processes o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Processes of identity reconstruction and reconstruction can be considered to be central to human meaning-making and personal transitions. They involve delicate balancing of the need for belonging with that for differentiation; and of the need for change in aspects of identity with that for continuity and coherence. The various theoretical approache...
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“Medically unexplained symptoms” (MUS) refers to chronic physical symptoms without a clear medical cause, which produce significant levels of distress and functional impairment. This project modified the repertory grid technique to explore how twenty participants experiencing MUS construed self and others in bodily and psychological ways. Findings...
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This article explores radicalization and deradicalization by considering the experiences of six young Tunisian people who had become Salafist Muslims. Their responses to narrative interviews and repertory grid technique are considered from a personal construct perspective, revealing processes of construing and reconstruing, as well as relevant aspe...
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Background Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is aimed to counteract cognitions and behaviours that are considered as dysfunctional. The aim of the study is to test whether the inclusion of a non-counteractive approach (dilemma-focused intervention, DFI) in combination with CBT group therapy will yield better short- and long-term outcomes than an...
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The implicative dilemma (ID) is gradually receiving attention of clinical psychologists and researchers. Although research on its clinical relevance is promising, there are still some issues regarding its measurement that need further consideration. This article explores the adequacy of the different thresholds used to determine construct associati...
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The frequent association of depression with somatic symptoms suggests that body psychotherapy may be an appropriate therapeutic intervention for people with chronic depression. Using a subset of twenty-three participants from a randomized controlled trial that had demonstrated the effectiveness of such an intervention in reducing depressive symptom...
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Aims: This study sought to explore the experiences of young people (aged 8–16) and their families following parental acquired brain injury (ABI), with the aim of developing an understanding of the ways in which members of a family make sense of events post-injury, and to consider the implications of different perspectives on adjustment and coping....
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Full access Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/qtr59ySEAHkFbNJU8aXH/full Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the resolution of cognitive conflicts (CCs) within a randomized controlled trial testing the differential efficacy of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus an individually tailored intervention module focused on CC...
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Sierra Leone, a country that has been recovering from a brutal civil war, was in 2014 struck by a new crisis in the Ebola epidemic. This article reports on interviews and repertory grids completed by two groups of people who had been affected by the epidemic: amputee footballers who had lost family members or friends, and burial workers. The interv...
Book
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Proceedings of the 2015 International Congress on Personal Construct Psychology
Article
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Negative self-views have proved to be a consistent marker of vulnerability for depression. However, recent research has shown that a particular kind of cognitive conflict, implicative dilemma, is highly prevalent in depression. In this study, the relevance of these conflicts is assessed as compared to the cognitive model of depression of a negative...
Article
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This study explores the lived experience of black and minority ethnic (BME) clinical psychologists employed in the U.K. National Health Service (NHS). A mixed method qualitative approach was employed using repertory grids and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Six female BME clinical psychologists took part. Four master themes emerged from t...
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Construct systems are subject to reorganisation at points of transition, and adjusting to parental ABI is no exception. This paper presents an analysis of the construal processes of three families affected by parental ABI. In particular, aspects of perceived similarity, commonality, and sociality are explored. The findings highlight some of the dif...
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This article is one of a series of personal construct investigations of the aftermath of the brutal civil war in Sierra Leone. It is based on interviews conducted with nine members of the Sierra Leone Single-Leg Amputee Football Club, all of whom lost a limb during the war. Interview themes concerned participants’ construing of this event and its p...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a diagram representing our constructivist model of the process of radicalisation and deradicalisation. It includes construing (upper part of the diagram) and contextual processes (lower part).
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Constructivist psychotherapy is not so much a single model of therapy as it is a metaperspective that informs many contemporary approaches to psychological treatment. This article reviews several traditions of clinical practice that are informed by a constructivist emphasis on meaning-making in personal, family, social and linguistic domains, and n...
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Applications of personal construct psychology to survivors of the brutal civil war in Sierra Leone, West Africa, are presented. These include explorations of self-construing in former child soldiers; of constructions of mental health problems and their treatment; of the chaining of people with such problems; of the impact of loss of their limbs on...
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This chapter contrasts Kelly's approach to formulation with psychiatric diagnosis, and reviews personal construct perspectives on clinical problems, and associated research, together with developments in, and the evidence base for, personal construct psychotherapy. It is argued that personal construct psychology continues to provide a radical alter...
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This chapter considers the extent to which a “credulous approach” can be taken to people who have committed homicide, trying to make sense of their perspectives and their actions in terms of the “diagnostic constructs” of personal construct psychology. This approach is applied to examples of “one-off” homicide, serial killing, mass murder, and geno...
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On July 22, 2011, Anders Behring Breivik emailed a compendium entitled, “2083: A Declaration of European Independence,” to more than 1,000 addresses before bombing government buildings in Oslo and attacking a Labor Party youth camp, killing 77 people. This article adopts a credulous attitude and analyzes a personal section of his compendium from a...
Article
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Objectives The notion of intrapsychic conflict has been present in psychopathology for more than a century within different theoretical orientations. However, internal conflicts have not received enough empirical attention, nor has their importance in depression been fully elaborated. This study is based on the notion of cognitive conflict, underst...
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This article analyzes the autobiography of Rudolf Hoess, commandant of Auschwitz. Textual grid, ABC, and self-characterization analyses of the autobiography are used to construe Hoess's writing. The textual grid analysis suggests that Hoess saw his adult self as being different from others but his young self as similar to Jews. Conflicts in self-co...
Article
Full-text available
A method for studying cognitive conflicts using the repertory grid technique is presented. By means of this technique, implicative dilemmas can be identified, cognitive structures in which a personal construct for which change is wished for implies undesirable change on another construct. We assessed the presence of dilemmas and the severity of sym...
Article
Full-text available
A method for studying cognitive conflicts using the repertory grid technique is presented. By means of this technique, implicative dilemmas can be identified, cognitive structures in which a personal construct for which change is wished for implies undesirable change on another construct. We assessed the presence of dilemmas and the severity of sym...
Article
Full-text available
En este estudio se presenta un método para el estudio de los conflictos cognitivos utilizando la técnica de rejilla. Por medio de ella, se identificaron los dilemas implicativos, una estructura cognitiva en la que un constructo personal en el que se desea un cambio se asocia con otro constructo en el que el cambio no es deseable. Se evaluó la prese...
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Background Depression is one of the more severe and serious health problems because of its morbidity, disabling effects and for its societal and economic burden. Despite the variety of existing pharmacological and psychological treatments, most of the cases evolve with only partial remission, relapse and recurrence. Cognitive models have contribute...
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Scope of review: The paper reports a meta-review of 15 previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the literature concerning the outcome of counselling and psychotherapy with people at risk of suicide; a meta-analysis of 67 outcome studies in this area; and a narrative review of 17 studies of the therapeutic process. Publication time span: The...
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The utility of Fay Fransella's notion of the symptom as a way of life, and of the methodology that she used to demonstrate this, will be considered. It will be argued that personal construct psychology was her way of life. As indicated in her work on threat and the scientist, challenge to such a way of life will be threatening. These notions will b...
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This study explored the contribution of personal construct psychology (PCP) and the repertory grid technique to understanding stress when raising a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Associations between child level of functional impairment, parenting stress, psychological distress, and maternal construing were examined in mothers...
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This article presents a repertory grid study of young people who had experienced civil war in Sierra Leone, some as child soldiers and others as noncombatants. Unexpected findings included that the former combatants viewed themselves more favorably than did noncombatants. The findings are discussed in terms of individual and social construing proce...
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George Kelly's The Psychology of Personal Constructs put forward a new psychology that viewed people as actively constructing and anticipating their worlds. This paper considers personal construct theory and its philosophy; personal construct assessment techniques; the personal construct view of psychological disorder and its treatment; and the wid...
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Introduction First Encounters with Personal Construct Psychology and its Credulous Approach Clinical Psychology A Buddhist Interlude Personal Styles and Therapeutic Alternatives The Evidence Base for Psychological Therapies The Limits of Credulity Further Hazards of Credulity Postscript from Sierra Leone
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ChoiceAdvantages and Disadvantages of the SymptomExploring Dilemmas and ConflictsABC ModelCase ExampleFurther DirectionsConclusion References
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Objectives. This study investigated the role of family variables in the development of psychological problems in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, contributing to the debate between the ‘abuse related’ perspective, which assumes a direct causal link between abuse and later problems, and the ‘family dysfunction’ perspective, which assumes that...
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This study aimed to investigate how childhood sexual abuse (CSA) affects self-construction and construction of other people in people who have experienced psychosis. A sample of 21 such people was divided into 2 groups, according to whether they had experienced CSA or not. They were compared on repertory grids that included the element “self now” a...
Article
Clients attending a London voluntary sector counselling centre completed assessments pre- and post-psychodynamic counselling and at follow-up. Although there was a very high attrition rate following initial assessment, this did not appear to affect adversely the representativeness of the sample completing the later assessments. Clients were found t...
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Full-text available
Midpoint ratings of elements on personal constructs have been given various interpretations, and the placement of the ideal self at the midpoint of a construct has been viewed as violating Kelly's (1955)19. Kelly , G. A. 1955 . The psychology of personal constructs , Vol. 2 , New York : Norton . Reprinted by Routledge, 1991) View all references dic...
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A methodology for representing the patterns of dependency in a dependency grid using partial order scalogram analysis by coordinates (POSAC) is presented. The technique, devised by Shye (1985)17. Shye , S. 1985 . Multiple scaling: The theory and application of partial order scalogram analysis , Amsterdam : North Holland . View all references, shows...
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A clinical sample of people diagnosed with PTSD (n = 36) was tested using repertory grids and questionnaires. The study examined the viability of the personal construct model of PTSD (Sewell et al., 1996). Results did not support the model, and the authors critique the methodology previously used to support it. In contrast to the model's alleged un...
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Treatment guidelines indicate that the treatment of choice for most psychological problems is cognitive-behavioural therapy. This paper suggests that there are alternative constructions of the evidence base from which such guidelines are drawn, and reviews another relevant evidence base, concerning the relationship between clients' and therapists'...
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TheoryTherapeutic practiceCase exampleResearch evidenceConclusions
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Kelly's use of the term ‘disorder’What is optimal functioning?Non-optimal functioningThe therapeutic process‘Resistance’ to therapyConclusions
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TheoryTherapeutic practiceCase examplesResearchConclusions
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IntroductionAimsMethods ResultsDiscussionConclusions Papers included in the review
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IntroductionMethod Results and discussionConclusion
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TheoryTherapeutic practiceCase exampleResearch on personal construct psychotherapy for agoraphobiaConclusions Appendix: A manual for personal construct psychotherapy for agoraphobia
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IntroductionMethod MeasuresResultsConclusions References
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IntroductionDevising the Trust GridHypothesesMethod Results and DiscussionClinical ImplicationsAppendix 13.1Appendix 13.2Appendix 13.3Appendix 13.4References
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Constructivist TherapiesHumanistic TherapiesSummaryReferences
Article
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Los autores presentan una propuesta para la operativización e investigación sobre el cambio de un tipo de conflicto cognitivo, denominado dilema implicativo (DI) en la teoría de los constructos personales. En una muestra de 87 pacientes se miden los DIs y la sintomatología al comienzo y al final de la psicoterapia. Los datos sugieren que la psicote...
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This paper considers how love may be conceptualised from a personal construct theory perspective, part icu- larly in relation to experiences of validation and invalidation. This model is applied to writings abo ut love, and the findings of a repertory grid and interview exploration of love, indicating differences in stud ents' con- struing of roman...
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This chapter presents a personal construct theory view of serial killing and other acts of homicide and extreme violence. Such acts may be considered, as any others, a reflection of the individual’s attempts to anticipate his or her world and are therefore, from the perpetrator’s perspective, constructive choices. A personal construct theory taxono...
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This article presents a categorization of pathways to violence and homicide, including serial killing, in terms of personal construct theory. Violent offenders’ reactions to their offences are considered in relation to the degree of consistency between their actions and their construing of the self and the world. Implications for the assessment and...
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This study updates a systematic review of the effectiveness of personal construct psychotherapy and refines a previous meta-analysis by focusing on studies conducted in clinical settings. Twenty-seven studies satisfied the criteria for the systematic review, including 20 in clinical settings. Meta-analysis of the latter provided strong evidence of...
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Evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapies for people who self-harm is limited. Personal construct theory provides a model of self-harm and a framework for therapeutic intervention, which was evaluated in the present study. Sixty-four adults presenting to Accident and Emergency departments following self-harm were allocated to a pers...
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More than half a century has passed since the publication of George Kelly's (1955/1991) The Psychology of Personal Constructs. This review considers the elaboration of personal construct psychology (PCP) during this time, both by Kelly and by others who developed his ideas. Advances to the theory have principally concerned implicative relationships...
Chapter
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In this chapter wehavetried to introduce the reader to a range of between-session assignments that are congruent with the spiritand focus of personal construct therapy, which aims to help clients articulate, elaborate, and extend the network of meanings by which they construct a sense of self. We believe that these methods, and the larger repertory...
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This article presents analyses of two narratives: a book written by a serial killer, Ian Brady, and an autobiographical account written by a serially violent offender. In both cases, the narrative was subjected to a content analysis and converted to a textual grid. It is argued that narratives provide not only a means of better understanding the vi...
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This article investigated whether a personal construct group intervention would enhance the effectiveness of graduated exposure therapy for agoraphobia more than a supportive group intervention. Fifty-four clients were randomly allocated to the treatment conditions. Personal construct and supportive therapy sessions were differentiated on process m...
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Strategies in Psychological DisorderCorrelates of Psychological DisorderThe SymptomAn Illustration of Personal Construct Formulations of Disorder: Deliberate Self-harmSummary and Conclusions
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This paper reports two studies of individual psychodynamic counselling provided by a voluntary sector service. The first study examines evidence of the effectiveness of counselling, as evaluated by the General Health Questionnaire and Personal Opinion Survey. Measures of the process of counselling indicated the improvements that clients attributed...
Article
Clients attending a London voluntary sector counselling centre completed assessments pre- and post-psychodynamic counselling and at follow-up. Although there was a very high attrition rate following initial assessment, this did not appear to affect adversely the representativeness of the sample completing the later assessments. Clients were found t...
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To investigate whether women who possess a repressive coping style (repressors) self-report more positive judgments of their childhood on questionnaire and repertory grid measures compared with non-repressors. Repressors (low anxiety-high defensiveness) were compared with a composite group of non-repressors, containing some low anxious (low anxiety...
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Law enforcement is a highly stressful occupation, although the primary stressors involved are different from what might be expected. These stressors, and police officers' responses to them, were examined from the perspective of personal construct theory. The personal construct systems of police officers whose response to stress involved lawbreaking...
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This article provides a brief description of repertory grid technique and the measures which can be derived from it which may be of value to the investigator of group therapy. It reviews the technique `s application in this area of research, with particular reference to studies of group therapy outcome, studies of the prediction of therapeutic chan...
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Mental health policies on resettlement of the long-stay residents of psychiatric hospitals are presenting both the clients and staff of such hospitals with major transitions. In this article, we explore their reactions to these transitions from a personal construct theory perspective by considering the possible effects of hospitalization on a clien...
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Surveyed 33 group analysts with regard to the type of interventions used in group sessions and the configuration within the group to which the interventions referred. The study occurred under the auspices of the Institute of Group Analysis/Group-Analytic Society (IGA/GAS). A little over half of the interventions solely concerned the group as a whol...