David Wardle

David Wardle
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Department of Forest Ecology and Management

About

544
Publications
291,845
Reads
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76,499
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - present
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Position
  • Professor of Soil and Plant Ecology

Publications

Publications (544)
Article
• Mycorrhizal fungi associated with boreal trees and ericaceous shrubs are central actors in organic matter (OM) accumulation through their belowground carbon allocation, their potential capacity to mine organic matter for nitrogen (N) and their ability to suppress saprotrophs. Yet, interactions between co-occurring ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), eri...
Article
Wildfires are natural and important disturbances of boreal forest ecosystems, and they are expected to increase in parts of the boreal zone through climate warming. There is a broad understanding of the immediate effects of fire on soil nitrogen (N) transformation rates, but less is known about these effects several years after fire. In July 2014,...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that application of biochar to soils can promote soil fertility, which ultimately may enhance plant growth. While many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this, one specific mechanism, the “microbial refugia hypothesis” suggests that biochar may provide physical protection for soil microbe from soil micro‐fauna that othe...
Article
Full-text available
Degraded tropical peatlands lack tree cover and are often subject to seasonal flooding and repeated burning. These harsh environments for tree seedlings to survive and grow are therefore challenging to revegetate. Knowledge on species performance from previous plantings represents an important evidence‐base to help guide future tropical peat swamp...
Article
Elevational gradients are useful for predicting how plant communities respond to global warming, because communities at lower elevations experience warmer temperatures. Fine root traits and root trait variation could play an important role in determining plant community responses to warming in cold‐climate ecosystems where a large proportion of pla...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire is the main disturbance in most boreal forests. In the prolonged absence of wildfire, ecosystem retrogression occurs, which is characterized by reduced productivity, plant biomass and belowground process rates. Previous evidence suggests that phosphorus (P) decreases during retrogression, but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understoo...
Article
Full-text available
Foundation species provide habitat and modify the availability of resources to other species. In nature, multiple foundation species may occur in mixture, but little is known on how their interactions shape the community assembly of associated species. Lichens provide both structural habitat and resources to a variety of associated organisms and th...
Article
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Environmental gradients influence plant establishment, survival, and functional traits. Along the Panama Canal Isthmus there is a strong rainfall gradient with an underlying mosaic of soil types ranging in soil nutrient availability. In this region, tree species distribution patterns are correlated with soil phosphorus availability and rainfall pat...
Article
Fire is one of the predominant drivers of the structural and functional dynamics of forest ecosystems. In recent years, novel fire regimes have posed a major challenge to the management of pyrodiverse forests. While previous research efforts have focused on quantifying the impacts of fire on above‐ground forest biodiversity, how microbial communiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the long-term absence of disturbance, ecosystems often enter a decline or retrogressive phase which leads to reductions in primary productivity, plant biomass, nutrient cycling and foliar quality. However, the consequences of ecosystem retrogression for higher trophic levels such as herbivores and predators, are less clear. Using a post-fire for...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire disturbance is important for tree regeneration in boreal ecosystems. A considerable amount of literature has been published on how wildfires affect boreal forest regeneration. However, we lack understanding about how soil-mediated effects of fire disturbance on seedlings occur via soil abiotic properties versus soil biota. We collected soi...
Article
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The bryosphere (that is, ground mosses and their associated biota) is a key driver of nutrient and carbon dynamics in many terrestrial ecosystems, in part because it regulates litter decomposition. However, we have a poor understanding of how litter decomposition responds to changes in the bryosphere, including changes in bryosphere cover, moss spe...
Article
Question Cold environments are stressful for vascular plants, and stress-tolerant non-vascular photoautotrophs, e.g. bryophytes and lichens, become relatively more important as competition from vascular plants decreases towards higher elevations. Under increasingly stressful climatic conditions, species assembly of vascular plants is commonly drive...
Article
Tundra ecosystems hold large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM), likely due to low temperatures limiting rates of microbial SOM decomposition more than those of SOM accumulation from plant primary productivity and microbial necromass inputs. Here we test the hypotheses that distinct tundra vegetation types and their carbon supply to characteristic...
Article
Most biological invasion literature—including syntheses and meta-analyses and the resulting theory—is reported from temperate regions, drawing only minimally from the tropics except for some island systems. The lack of attention to invasions in the tropics results from and reinforces the assumption that tropical ecosystems, and especially the conti...
Article
Full-text available
1. Plant‐soil feedback (PSF) results from the influence of plants on the composition and abundance of various taxa and functional groups of soil microorganisms, and their reciprocal effects on the plants. However, little is understood about the importance of fine root traits and root economic strategies in moderating microbial‐driven PSF. 2. We exa...
Article
Full-text available
Most biological invasion literature—including syntheses and meta-analyses and the resulting theory—is reported from temperate regions, drawing only minimally from the tropics except for some island systems. The lack of attention to invasions in the tropics results from and reinforces the assumption that tropical ecosystems, and especially the conti...
Article
Full-text available
Biochar soil amendment may provide the forestry sector with a formidable tool to simultaneously sequester carbon (C) in the soil and aboveground by enhancing plant productivity, yet several key uncertainties remain. Crucially, empirical evidence of long‐term effects of biochar management on vegetation and on greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosy...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
The success of invasive plants is influenced by many interacting factors, but evaluating multiple possible mechanisms of invasion success and elucidating the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers is challenging, and therefore rarely achieved. We used live, sterile or inoculated soil from different soil origins (native range and introduc...
Article
Full-text available
Plants often associate with specialized decomposer communities that increase plant litter breakdown, which is known as the ‘home‐field advantage’ (HFA). Although the concept of HFA has long considered only the role of the soil microbial community, explicit consideration of the role of the microbial community on the foliage prior to litter fall (i.e...
Conference Paper
Changes in fire regime of boreal forests are predicted to alter plant and soil community structure and cause elevated tree mortality, increased loss of soil organic matter and reduced survival and functioning of soil microbial communities. While the impact of wildfire disturbance on plant mortality and post-fire successions in boreal forests has be...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The impacts of warming on communities and ecosystems are predicted to be significant in mountain ecosystems because physiological processes, including rates of carbon (C) cycling, are often more temperature‐sensitive in colder environments. Plant biodiversity can also influence C exchange, yet few studies integrate how biotic and abiotic f...
Article
Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of plants and soil have been used to study changes in the N cycle during ecosystem succession and retrogression. However, little is known about how δ15N of soil mineral N and dissolved organic N (DON) change during retrogression, despite their potential to inform on processes contributing to N loss. Here, we ex...
Article
Full-text available
In arctic and boreal ecosystems, ground bryophytes play an important role in regulating carbon (C) exchange between vast belowground C stores and the atmosphere. Climate is changing particularly fast in these high‐latitude regions, but it is unclear how altered precipitation regimes will affect C dynamics in the bryosphere (i.e. the ground moss lay...
Article
Full-text available
Unprecedented rates of introduction and spread of non-native species pose burgeoning challenges to biodiversity, natural resource management, regional economies, and human health. Current biosecurity efforts are failing to keep pace with globalization, revealing critical gaps in our understanding and response to invasions. Here, we identify four pr...
Article
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Soil is one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats. Yet, we lack an integrative conceptual framework for understanding the patterns and mechanisms driving soil biodiversity. One of the underlying reasons for our poor understanding of soil biodiversity patterns relates to whether key biodiversity theories (historically developed for aboveground...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular plants and lichens often produce a diversity of carbon‐based secondary compounds (CBSCs) to protect them against biotic and abiotic stresses. These compounds play important but often compound‐specific roles in community and ecosystem processes by affecting herbivore and decomposer activity. However, our understanding of what drives communi...
Article
Full-text available
1. Wildfire shapes the structure, dynamic and functioning of boreal forests. With predicted warmer and drier summers, increased incidence and intensity of crown-fires may affect plant-soil interactions with consequences for post-fire fertility and forest productivity. 2. We assessed how severity of crown-and ground-fire in boreal pine forests affec...
Article
Full-text available
Fine roots, and their functional traits, influence associated rhizosphere microorganisms via root exudation and root litter quality. However, little is known about their relationship with rhizosphere microbial taxa and functional guilds. We investigated the relationships of eleven fine root traits of twenty sub-arctic tundra meadow plant species an...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of soil age as an ecosystem driver across biomes remains largely unresolved. By combining a cross-biome global field survey, including data for 32 soil, plant, and microbial properties in 16 soil chronosequences, with a global meta-analysis, we show that soil age is a significant ecosystem driver, but only accounts for a relatively s...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in plant communities can have large effects on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and long term C stocks. However, how these effects are mediated by environmental context or vary among ecosystems is not well understood. To study this, we used a long‐term plant removal experiment set up across 30 forested lake islands in northern Sweden which col...
Article
Full-text available
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations induce adverse effects in plants. We reviewed how ozone affects (i) the composition and diversity of plant communities by affecting key physiological traits; (ii) foliar chemistry and the emission of volatiles, thereby affecting plant-plant competition, plant-insect interactions, and the composition of ins...
Article
Full-text available
Boreal forests store 30% of the world's terrestrial carbon (C). Consequently, climate change mediated alterations in the boreal forest fire regime can have a significant impact on the global C budget. Here we synthesize the effects of forest fires on the stocks and recovery rates of C in boreal forests using 368 plots from 16 long‐term (≥100 year)...
Article
Full-text available
Climate warming enables tree seedling establishment beyond the current alpine tree- line, but to achieve this, seedlings have to establish within existing tundra vegetation. In tundra, mosses are a prominent feature, known to regulate soil temperature and moisture through their physical structure and associated water retention capacity. Moss presen...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how plant species influence soil nutrient cycling is a major theme in terrestrial ecosystem ecology. The prevailing paradigm has however mostly focused on litter decomposition, while rhizosphere effects on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition have attracted little attention. ▪Using a dual 13C/15N labeling approach in a ‘common gard...
Article
Full-text available
Lichens and bryophytes are abundant primary producers in high latitude and high elevation ecosystems, and they play an important role in ecosystem processes such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Despite their importance, little is known about the decomposability of lichens and bryophytes either among or within species, at the whole community...
Article
1.Rising temperatures can influence ecosystem processes both directly and indirectly, through effects on plant species and communities. An improved understanding of direct versus indirect effects of warming on ecosystem processes is needed for robust predictions of the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. 2.To exp...
Article
Full-text available
As the most abundant animals on earth, nematodes are a dominant component of the soil community. They play critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and vegetation dynamics within and across landscapes and are an indicator of soil biological activity. Here, we present a comprehensive global dataset of soil nematode abundance and functional...
Article
1. In the prolonged absence of catastrophic disturbance, ecosystem retrogression occurs, which is characterized by declining soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, increasing plant and soil N to P ratios, and reduced plant biomass and productivity. It is, however, largely unknown as to how the effects of plant communities on soil nutrie...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are a major driver of ecosystem change but causes of variation in their environmental impacts over space and time remain poorly understood. Most approaches used to quantify the impacts of non‐native species assume there are interactions among per capita (i.e., individual level) effects, species abundance and the area occupied b...
Article
Full-text available
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) are interactions among plants, soil organisms, and abiotic soil conditions that influence plant performance, plant species diversity, and community structure, ultimately driving ecosystem processes. We review how climate change will alter PSFs and their potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. Climate change inf...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Article
Full-text available
Across environmental gradients, community‐level functional traits of plants can change due to species turnover, intraspecific variation and their covariation. Studies on vascular plants suggest that species turnover is the main driver of trait variation across gradients, although intraspecific variation can also be important. However, there is limi...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms are a crucial part of the terrestrial biosphere. Despite their importance for ecosystem functioning, few quantitative, spatially explicit models of the active belowground community currently exist. In particular, nematodes are the most abundant animals on Earth, filling all trophic levels in the soil food web. Here we use 6,759 geore...
Article
Full-text available
Loss of plant diversity has an impact on ecosystems worldwide, but we lack a mechanistic understanding of how this loss may influence below-ground biota and ecosystem functions across contrasting ecosystems in the long term. We used the longest running biodiversity manipulation experiment across contrasting ecosystems in existence to explore the be...
Preprint
Soil organisms provide crucial ecosystem services that support human life. However, little is known about their diversity, distribution, and the threats affecting them. Here, we compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from over 7000 sites in 56 countries to predict patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We ident...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the landscape affect not only people's well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape's recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people's perceptions of a mountain landscape to physic...