David Walwyn

David Walwyn
University of Pretoria | UP · Department of Engineering and Technology Management

PhD
Sustainability transitions; turning points; techno-economics; energy systems; renewable energy; decarbonization

About

106
Publications
33,774
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Introduction
Professor at the University of Pretoria in the Graduate School of Technology Management Director of Reseva, a consultancy offering expertise in research management, research evaluation and science & technology policy (see www.reseva.co.za)
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Research methodology
January 2006 - present
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Professor
Education
September 1980 - September 1983
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Organic Chemistry

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Full-text available
Solar lighting has become the primary lighting source for households within rural Malawi, where many households remain off-grid and are unable to afford the purchase of large, independent power systems. However, this success has not been without its challenges. The paradox is that, historically, even the lowest cost systems require an initial inves...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hydrogen could play a critical role as both an energy carrier and a chemical feedstock in the decarbonisation of South Africa's electricity and liquid fuel sectors. This potential has sparked major international and local effort in technologies for the production of green hydrogen, with much of the focus being directed at the use of hydrolysis and...
Presentation
Full-text available
Contest and Conflagration in South Africa’s Energy Transformation; Justice for Whom and at What Cost?
Presentation
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This presentation covers thoughts about epistemic transformation at Masters level. The students were already working, employed in a diversity of sectors including private energy companies, the financial services sector, government, the Energy Regulator and higher education. They held a diversity of views. My challenge was to raise their awareness o...
Presentation
Full-text available
COVID-19 has reignited the debate about the local manufacture of vaccines and its critical link to public health. There are now multiple initiatives to build more resilient health systems and establish a global capability in vaccine supply. The possibility of future pandemics, and the need to avoid a repetition of the economic disintegration which...
Presentation
Full-text available
Text of Inaugural Address September 2021
Presentation
Full-text available
Strategies for Industrial Development
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic, taking place in conjunction with an economy that has been resistant to growth, has driven national debt to extreme levels. Within a 5-year period, the debt to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio has risen from 51% to 83% and is projected to reach 100% unless revenue grows and expenditure is curtailed. Our study started with a...
Article
The financial sector could play a more significant and transformative role in supporting the energy transition. Portraying techno-economic models, upon which the sector depends for the support of its investment decisions, as performative or self-fulfilling agents which serve only to entrench the hegemony of the present incumbents, undermines the po...
Presentation
Full-text available
A Scopus search of research publications using the keywords (techno-economic) AND (energy) reveals that between 1980 and 2020, nearly 6,000 articles, books, book chapter and conference proceedings (referred to collectively as academic publications) listing these two words as part of the title, abstract or as a keyword, were published, growing from...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation to the https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David-Walwyn Conference
Article
Current pedagogical approaches to science and technology policy studies in southern African universities may fail to provide students with the necessary capabilities to be effective as innovation policy practitioners. This study investigated whether consideration of epistemic diversity and the situatedness of knowledge could enhance student outcome...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sales of new petrol and diesel passenger vehicles may not be permitted in the United Kingdom (UK) post-2030. Should this happen, it is likely that vehicles presently powered by hydrocarbons will be progressively replaced by Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This paper describes the use of mathematical modelling, drawing on real time records of the...
Article
Existing socio-technical systems tend to be intransigent to change. Decarbonisation, on the other hand, is an imperative, leading to an obvious conflict between the need for, and highly effective resistance to, change. Moreover, the abandonment of fossil fuel-based technologies in favour of more sustainable alternatives will require substantial rea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of a digital world will require digital industry, which will, in turn, require a set of innovation policy instruments to facilitate its establishment as a positive component of national economies. This article uses the overall approach of policy mix and technological innovation systems to understand what policy framework could provi...
Presentation
Full-text available
Techno Economics of API Manufacture; A Case Study of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Presentation
Full-text available
Multi-level perspective and its application to commercialisation
Article
Full-text available
Wide-scale deployment of variable renewable energy (wind and solar photovoltaic) is constrained by its associated requirements for energy storage, the technologies for which are currently too expensive to be routinely used. Concentrated solar power (CSP), with its inherent storage capacity, offers semi-dispatchable electricity at large scale. Howev...
Book
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This book presents relevant achievements in the expanding field of wind farms modeling and hybrid systems optimization.The contributing authors combine simulation and optimization basis of wind farms and hybrid wind/solar systems with description of the implemented mathematical approaches. Within this framework, each author has dealt with the indiv...
Article
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Background: Coopetition is a powerful means by which microenterprises can compete against large firms in low margin sectors, such as the small retail outlets in South African townships, known locally as spaza shops. Although coopetition is widely used by foreign nationals who own and manage such shops, and who are reported to be more successful, So...
Article
Although innovation policy mix as an analytical framework has been widely used and reported for developed countries, its application to developing countries has been minimal. In this study, an exploratory sequential approach has been followed in order to initially profile the policy mix in South Africa and then develop an understanding of how the p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The literature is surprisingly silent on the issue of public financing for sustainability transitions, whether this be manifest in research and development, technology transfer, licensing and regulatory issues, or fixed capital investment. In this presentation, the question of how decisions relating to budget allocations are made, and whether such...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Public funding of initiatives to transform socio-technical systems is essential to their implementation and potential success. Without such funding, niche experimentation and its subsequent upscaling, could rarely take place. In this paper, we consider the political processes which direct the allocation of resources in the public sector, using exam...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although the discipline of innovation policy is well established and extensively presented in the literature, policy mix as an analytical framework and particularly its application to developing countries, is largely neglected. In this study, a mixed methods approach has been followed in order to initially profile the policy mix in South Africa and...
Article
The release for public comment of the Draft 2018 White Paper on Science, Technology and Innovation marks the culmination of a lengthy internal process within the Department of Science and Technology (DST). As noted in the Minister’s Foreword to the Draft White Paper, the document is intended to replace both the 1996 White Paper on Science and Techn...
Article
Purpose Hydrogen fuel cells could play an important role in meeting the challenges of the Two Degrees Scenario. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of this technology in South Africa with the aim of understanding how the country can transform its existing socio-technical systems and act to support a hydrogen-based technological...
Article
The decision by the government in December 2007 that the United Kingdom (UK) should build a 33 gigawatt wind fleet, capable of generating about 10 gigawatts or 25% of the country’s electricity total requirement, was a controversial one. Proponents argued that it was the most attractive means of lowering the country’s greenhouse gas emissions, where...
Article
Full-text available
Established in 2003 as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) covering vaccine research and development, manufacturing and supply, the Biovac Institute has grown from an initial base of 24 staff and a revenue of R188 million to an organisation of 250 people and an annual revenue of R1.8 billion (as of January 2018). The institute earns a premium on the...
Article
Established in 2003 as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) covering vaccine research and development, manufacturing and supply, the Biovac Institute has grown from an initial base of 24 staff and a revenue of R188 million to an organisation of 250 people and an annual revenue of R1.8 billion (as of January 2018). The institute earns a premium on the...
Article
Full-text available
Established in 2003 as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) covering vaccine research and development, manufacturing and supply, the Biovac Institute has grown from an initial base of 24 staff and a revenue of R188 million to an organisation of 250 people and an annual revenue of R1.8 billion (as of January 2018). The institute earns a premium on the...
Conference Paper
This research paper deals with steps being taken by companies to avoid and or minimize destruction of shareholder value and maximize social return on investment in the event of R&D portfolio changes
Preprint
Full-text available
Methods for predicting the likely upper economic limit for the wind fleet in the United Kingdom should be simple to use whilst being able to cope with evolving technologies, costs and grid management strategies. This paper present two such models, both of which use data on historical wind patterns but apply different approaches to estimating the ex...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Public-private partnerships (PPPs), widely used as a means of leveraging the skills, expertise and resources of the private sector to mutual advantage, were similarly adopted by South Africa to support public sector delivery. This study has evaluated one such partnership, namely the Biovac Institute, which was established in 2003 to co...
Article
Energy policy in Europe has been driven by the three goals of security of supply, economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability, referred to as the energy trilemma. Although there are clear conflicts within the trilemma, member countries have acted to facilitate a fully integrated European electricity market. Interconnection and cross-b...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation covers the proposal that rooftop solar should be used as a means of uplifting low income areas and as an alternative to social grants
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation covers a simple approach to determining the required level of funding for a university technology transfer office based on its mandate
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation is based on research undertaken on the development of a hydrogen technological innovation system in South Africa. A full paper is available through IAMOT.
Chapter
South Africa has a large unemployment rate with many households almost completely dependent on social grants for survival. Under such circumstances the potential of rooftop solar in developing vibrant and local energy micro-economies, which can generate and trade in electricity, is highly attractive. In this chapter, it is shown that such systems a...
Article
Rapid and pervasive technology diffusion presents one of the more difficult challenges for innovation policy and South Africa is no exception. In this study, the diffusion of additive manufacturing (AM) in a single geographic cluster of the main manufacturing province was studied. It was established that adoption of AM within this cluster is slow w...
Article
Rapid and pervasive technology diffusion presents one of the more difficult challenges for innovation policy and South Africa is no exception. In this study, the diffusion of additive manufacturing (AM) in a single geographic cluster of the main manufacturing province was studied. It was established that adoption of AM within this cluster is slow w...
Article
Full-text available
The decision by the United Kingdom (UK) government in 2007 that the country should build a 33GW wind fleet, capable of generating 25 percent of the UK electricity requirement, was controversial. Proponents argued that it was the most attractive means of lowering the UK greenhouse gas emissions, whereas opponents noted that it would result in an unn...
Article
Full-text available
Research funding agencies routinely use a proportion of their total revenues to support internal administration and marketing costs. The ratio of administration to total costs, referred to as the administration ratio, is highly variable and within any single fund depends on many factors including the number and average size of projects and the over...
Article
Full-text available
Notwithstanding the 2014/15 plunge in crude oil prices, Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology has been acclaimed as an important alternative to existing sources of liquid fuels, leading to significant efforts by many oil and gas companies, including Sasol, Shell, Axens, BP, GTL.F1, JOGMEC and Rentech, to develop GTL processes. However, only two companies...
Article
Based on data from South Africa’s research and development (R and D) surveys, the country’s R and D expenditure has grown in real terms by 52% over the period 2001 to 2012. This growth has been driven by government funding, which rose from 34% of the total funding in 2003 to 45% by 2012. Much of the additional funding has been granted to universiti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge begins life as a public good available to all (non-rival and non-excludable), and as an input into the generation of additional knowledge is made, it subsequently becomes artificially scarce as countries grants intellectual property rights to stimulate investment in the production of private knowledge goods (Maskus and Reichman, 2004). Ho...
Article
The current three-step manufacturing route for the preparation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (1) was assessed and optimized leading to a higher yielding, simpler and greener process. Key improvements in the process route include the refinement of the second stage through the replacement of the problematic magnesium tert-butoxide (MTB) with a 1:1...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Solar energy is a much discussed renewable resource in South Africa. Possible reasons are ongoing energy crisis as well as very high solar radiation intensities in the country. Among numerous technical challenges with increase of solar energy capacity, countries like South Africa must also be very concerned with the cost issues related to renewable...
Chapter
South African local government, anxious to protect their revenue streams, contends that photovoltaic (PV) energy will be a disruptive and retrogressive technology, threatening the delivery of services to poor communities and causing job losses within the energy sector. In this paper, a quantitative approach is used to proportion the extent of the r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Public health research and development (R&D) in developing countries is generally both underfunded and misdirected. Using data from national R&D surveys, it is shown that the health R&D is directly predominantly at basic and applied research, with experimental development and commercialisation being funded and undertaken by business enterprise. Thi...
Article
South Africa׳s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers Procurement Programme (the REI4P) is an extensive initiative to install 17.8 GW of electricity generation capacity from renewables – wind, solar, biomass, biogas and hydropower – over the period 2012–2030. Although at the outset the REI4P seemed an expensive option, designed only to deflec...
Chapter
South African local government, anxious to protect their revenue streams, contends that photovoltaic (PV) energy will be a disruptive and retrogressive technology, threatening the delivery of services to poor communities and causing job losses within the energy sector. In this paper, a quantitative approach is used to proportion the extent of the r...
Article
Despite the advantages of plant-based transient expression systems relative to microbial or mammalian cell systems, the commercial production of recombinant proteins using plants has not yet been achieved to any significant extent. One of the challenges has been the lack of published data on the costs of manufacture for products other than biopharm...
Conference Paper
Based on a learning curve methodology, the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) from photovoltaic (PV) systems is predicted to fall below the equivalent cost from new coal-based power stations in South Africa by the end of 2016. The emergence of PV as a dominant energy source will put considerable pressure on the national regulator and local author...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Higher educational institutions have an ambiguous relationship with the consulting practices of its full-time academics. Whilst these activities may serve to extend the impact of such institutions, and to socialise the outputs of their research, the pursuit of independent consulting income may also divert academics from their teaching, supervision...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
South African local authorities, anxious to protect their revenue streams, contend that photovoltaic (PV) energy will be a highly disruptive technology, threatening the delivery of services to poor communities and resulting in job losses within the energy sector. In this paper, a quantitative approach is used to proportion the extent of the revenue...
Conference Paper
Return on R&D can be quickly and conveniently estimated using a method to calculate affordable R&D and estimated R&D cost
Article
Full-text available
South Africa's expenditure on tuberculosis (TB) research and development (R&D) is insignificant relative to both its disease burden and the expenditure of some comparator countries with a minimal TB incidence. In 2010, the country had the second highest TB incidence rate in the world (796 per 100,000 population), and the third highest number of new...
Data
Data on TB treatment cost and disease burden in South Africa. Appendix B. Costs of TB Drug Development [36,37].
Article
Registered in 2001, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has quickly become a mainstay of first line regimens for the treatment of HIV. Initially only available in developed countries at a cost of US$5 000 per person per year (ppy), Gilead’s Access Programme (GAP) has extended the use of the product to 2.4 million patients in low and middle income c...
Article
Population-type models, accounting for phenomena such as population lifetimes, mixing patterns, recruitment patterns, genetic evolution and environmental conditions, can be usefully applied to the biology of HIV infection and viral replication. A simple dynamic model can explore the effect of a vaccine-like stimulus on the mortality and infectiousn...
Article
Full-text available
In many South African communities, Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are significant participants within a plural health care system. For several years, it has been argued that this role, especially in the context of HIV/AIDS, has not been fully optimised and THPs continue to operate outside the formal biomedical sector, where the latter form...
Article
Full-text available
In many South African communities, Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are significant participants within a plural health care system. For several years, it has been argued that this role, especially in the context of HIV/AIDS, has not been fully optimised and THPs continue to operate outside the formal biomedical sector, where the latter form...
Article
A chemo-enzymatic method for production of β-thymidine, an intermediate in the synthesis of antiretrovirals, is described. Guanosine and thymine were converted by means of enzymatic transglycosylation to yield 5-methyluridine (5-MU), which was reproducibly synthesised at a 10−20-L scale in 85% yield at a final product concentration of 80 g·L−1. A d...
Article
Full-text available
Background A large proportion of HIV positive South Africans regularly consult Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) for their healthcare needs, despite some evidence of negative interactions with antiretrovirals (ARVs) and no published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. In this stud...
Article
Full-text available
Background A large proportion of HIV positive South Africans regularly consult Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) for their healthcare needs, despite some evidence of negative interactions with antiretrovirals (ARVs) and no published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. In this stud...
Article
Full-text available
Gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD), usually expressed as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), is a widely used indicator to reflect the research intensity within a national economy, and hence its capacity to develop new and innovative products or services. It is also used as a key target in the management of nati...
Article
Full-text available
1. Background Arvir Technologies is a drug discovery company that was established to develop a fully validated and registered herbal medicine for the treatment of HIV. As a result, the company has funded and managed a project which has been evaluating the antiretroviral (ARV) properties of three plant extracts, whose use by Traditional Health Pract...
Article
Carotenoprotein, containing astaxanthin as the prosthetic group was extracted from the carapace shells of the lobster, Jasus lalandii. The material, with a molecular mass of around 400,000 Da and lambda(max) 525 nm (alpha-crustacyanin), was readily converted under the conditions used for extraction and on standing to the subunit (beta-crustacyanin)...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of labour and overhead costs to both funders and performers of research in South Africa, there is little published information on the remuneration structures for researchers, technician and research support staff. Moreover, there are widely different pricing practices and perceptions within the public research and higher educ...
Article
The importance of migrating the South African economy from its present dependence on resource-based industries towards more knowledge-intensive economic activities has been repeatedly emphasized in many policy documents over the last decade. A higher business expenditure on research and development (BERD) is fundamental to this restructuring. Altho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD), usually expressed as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), is a widely used indicator to reflect the research intensity within a national economy, and hence its capacity to develop new and innovative products or services. It is also used as a key target in the management of nati...
Article
Isabel Dalhousie is the heroine of the new Alexander McCall Smith series, The Sunday Philosophy Club. She is an editor, a philosopher, an ethicist, and an astute observer, all of which mean that she is well qualified to reflect on the social world of Edinburgh with its slow-paced charm and beneficence. Isabel declares in her debut novel The Right A...
Article
Full-text available
The performance management of higher education institutions is a major challenge for many countries. Such institutions deliver mostly a social as opposed to an economic return, and cannot be evaluated using the same approach as is applicable to a business enterprise. Many countries have developed rather complex and elaborate approaches to this chal...
Article
The sudden and dramatic growth of the mobile phone manufacturing sector in Finland is an interesting case study for science and technology (S&T) policy analysts. Mostly on account of the rapidity of this growth against a relatively static situation for the other sub-sectors, the Finnish economic data over the period 1990–2001 can be used without am...
Article
Full-text available
CSIR Research and Innovation Conference: 1st CSIR Biennial Conference, CSIR International Convention Centre Pretoria, 27-28 February 2006 Natural product research has been a major component of the CSIR's bioscience activities for its entire history, and particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. This type of work is also strongly aligned with one of the...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing shift towards external contract research income (in contrast to grant income) as the primary means of funding public research institutions and universities has extracted a high toll on these institutions and on their stakeholders. Although this policy has the benefits of increasing the relevance of public research institutions to bro...
Article
Full-text available
CSIR Research and Innovation Conference: 1st CSIR Biennial Conference, CSIR International Convention Centre Pretoria, 27-28 February 2006 The CSIR is a unique and significant institution within the science and technology landscape of South Africa. It covers a wide range of research areas, and is highly integrated across the research and innovation...
Article
Business organisations are presented with many options in the commercialisation of the outcome of a research and development project, including licensing, in-house product launch, direct sale of a technology packaging or spinning off a new venture with other investors. In this article, a simple framework is introduced that can be used to select a s...