David Vlahov

David Vlahov
Yale University | YU

RN PhD

About

965
Publications
118,738
Reads
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71,894
Citations
Citations since 2016
63 Research Items
16905 Citations
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Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
January 2007 - December 2008
Cornell University
January 2002 - December 2012
Education
September 1984 - June 1988
Johns Hopkins University
Field of study
  • Epidemiology
September 1974 - June 1980
September 1970 - June 1974
Earlham College
Field of study
  • History

Publications

Publications (965)
Article
Full-text available
Background Preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a key element of the US Ending the HIV Epidemic strategy and includes both pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). While both lead to decreases in HIV transmission, MOUD has other social and health benefits; meanwhile, PrEP has add...
Article
Background: The ongoing volatile opioid epidemic remains a significant public health concern, alongside continued outbreaks of HIV and hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs. The limited access to and scale-up of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) among people who inject drugs, coupled with multilevel barriers to pre-exposure prop...
Article
Full-text available
Persons living with HIV (PWH) are at elevated risk for suicide. We conducted a systematic literature review following PRISMA-P guidelines to examine risk factors associated with suicide as a cause of morbidity among PWH. We searched six electronic databases using search terms (suicide, suicide attempt, self-harm, self-injurious behavior, HIV, AIDS,...
Article
This analysis investigates how age, race/ethnicity, and geographic location contributed to vaccine hesitancy in a sample of 645 New York City (NYC) Transport Workers Union (TWU), Local 100 members surveyed in August 2020. Union members ages 50+ were 46% less likely to be vaccine hesitant than their younger counterparts (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.42, 0.97)....
Article
Full-text available
There has been a dearth of reports that examine the effect of immigration status on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. While intention to be vaccinated has been higher among adults in immigrant families than non-immigrant adults, uptake of the vaccine has been lower among immigrants and especially those who are undocumented. Concerns raised by immigrants...
Article
Full-text available
Latinx people in the USA have had a high burden of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and death, yet rates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among Latinx individuals were lower than other demographic groups. Effective strategies to promote vaccine uptake among Latinx communities are needed. We conducted a rapid review of information available between Decem...
Article
Purpose . Social policies are important determinants of population health but may have varying effects on subgroups of people. Evaluating heterogeneous treatment effects (HTEs) of social policies is critical to determine how social policies will affect health inequities. Methods for evaluating HTEs are not standardized. Little is known about how of...
Article
Full-text available
The use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention within the U.S. military is low. Implementing preference-based alternative modalities of PrEP delivery, however, can be an innovative strategy to address the specific barriers to PrEP uptake among military MSM. We sought to identify population-based, segment-specific preferences for long...
Article
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Black communities have had a high burden of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and death, yet rates of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among Blacks lag behind other demographic groups. This has been due in part to vaccine hesitancy and multi-level issues around access to COVID-19 vaccines. Effective strategies to promote vaccine uptake among Black communiti...
Article
Full-text available
Black and Hispanic Americans have been hardest hit with COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths, yet during the first several months of vaccine roll-out they had the lowest level of vaccine uptake. Primarily, our research on vaccine hesitancy focused on skepticism around the vaccine itself and its roll-out. Our search strategy used PUBMED...
Article
Full-text available
Background Men with have sex with men (MSM) in Africa face high levels of stigma due to elevated HIV exposure (actual or perceived), same-sex practices, and gender non-conformity. These stigmas are documented barriers to HIV prevention and treatment. Most stigma-reduction interventions have focused on single-level targets (e.g., health care facilit...
Article
Significance The search for genetic variants associated with resistance or susceptibility to HIV/AIDS already yielded insights that allowed developing therapeutics that contribute to dramatic reduction in AIDS-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, nearly all studies focused on European-descent populations, even though most infections happen in Afri...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive empirical health research leverages variation in the timing and location of policy changes as quasi-experiments. Multiple social policies may be adopted simultaneously in the same locations, creating co-occurrence which must be addressed analytically for valid inferences. The pervasiveness and consequences of co-occurring policies have re...
Article
Full-text available
Co-infections with sexually transmittable pathogens are common and more likely in women with disturbed vaginal bacteriome. Among those pathogens, the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is most common after accounting for the highly persistent DNA viruses human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital herpes. The parasitic infection often concurs...
Article
Background and Aims Over the past decades, people who inject drugs (PWID) have been impacted by the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to combat HIV/AIDS, the prescription opioid crisis, and increased use of lethal synthetic opioids. We measured how these dynamics have impacted mortality among PWID in an urban U.S. city. Desi...
Article
Full-text available
Social policies have great potential to improve population health and reduce health disparities. Thus, increasing empirical research seeks to quantify the health effects of social policies by exploiting variation in the timing of policy changes across places. Multiple social policies are often adopted simultaneously or in close succession in the sa...
Article
Full-text available
Background and purpose: Early on in the COVID-19 pandemic, New York City (NYC) vowed to “keep the subways running” despite the lack of plans in place for protecting the health and well-being of transit workers. This study was designed to assess the impact of employment during the early phase of the pandemic on this essential frontline workforce. Me...
Article
Background A growing number of studies indicate that exposure to social stress, such as perceived racial discrimination, may contribute to poor health, health behaviors, and health disparities. Increased physical activity (PA) may buffer the impact of social stress resulting from racial discrimination. However, to date, data on the relationship bet...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but its use remains low among U.S. military men who have sex with men (MSM), likely due to mis-matching with personal preferences. We conducted a study to characterize preferences to PrEP measures within this population. Methods: HIV-negative milit...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence for Action (E4A), a signature program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, funds investigator-initiated research on the impacts of social programs and policies on population health and health inequities. Across thousands of letters of intent and full proposals E4A has received since 2015, one of the most common methodological challenges...
Article
Full-text available
The article “Slum Health: Arrresting COVID-19 and Improving Well-Being in Urban Informal Settlements”, written by Jason Corburn et al.
Preprint
Full-text available
Evidence for Action (E4A), a signature program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, funds investigator-initiated research on the impacts of social programs and policies on population health and health inequities. Across thousands of letters of intent and full proposals E4A has received since 2015, one of the most common methodological challenges...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated catastrophic job loss, unprecedented unemployment rates, and severe economic hardship in renter households. As a result, housing precarity and the risk of eviction increased and worsened during the pandemic, especially among people of color and low-income populations. This paper considers the implications of this...
Preprint
BACKGROUND A growing number of studies indicate that exposure to social stress, such as perceived racial discrimination, may contribute to poor health, health behaviors, and health disparities. Increased physical activity (PA) may buffer the impact of social stress resulting from racial discrimination. However, to date, data on the relationship bet...
Preprint
Full-text available
A growing body of empirical research seeks to quantify the causal effects of social policies on health by exploiting variation in the timing of policy changes across places. However, multiple social policies are often adopted simultaneously or in close succession in the same locations, creating clustering which must be handled analytically for vali...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extensive empirical health research leverages variation in the timing and location of policy changes as quasi-experiments. Multiple social policies may be adopted simultaneously in the same locations, creating clustering which must be addressed analytically for valid inferences. The pervasiveness and consequences of policy clustering have received...
Article
Perceived racial discrimination is linked to unhealthy behaviors and stress‐related morbidities. A compelling body of research indicates that perceived racial discrimination may contribute to health disparities among African Americans (AAs). The purposes of this study were to describe the study protocol including data collection procedures and stud...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) effectively prevents HIV infection, yet its uptake remains low among U.S. military men who have sex with men (MSM). Research shows that health services matching preferences produce favorable outcomes. Therefore, an early step for planning program design is to characterize and identify preferences for impr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) effectively prevents HIV infection, yet its uptake remains low among U.S. military men who have sex with men (MSM). Research shows that health services matching preferences produce favorable outcomes. Therefore, an early step for planning program design is to characterize and identify preferences for impro...
Article
Full-text available
Effective responses to a global pandemic require local action. In the face of a pandemic or similar emergencies, communities of people who use drugs face risks that result from their ongoing drug use, reduced ability to secure treatment for drug use and correlated maladies, lack of access to preventive hygiene, and the realities of homelessness, st...
Article
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Hepatitis C (HCV) is a global pandemic. The World Health Organization has developed a strategic plan for HCV elimination that focuses on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-risk populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). While direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are highly effective at eliminating HCV infections and ha...
Article
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The informal settlements of the Global South are the least prepared for the pandemic of COVID-19 since basic needs such as water, toilets, sewers, drainage, waste collection, and secure and adequate housing are already in short supply or non-existent. Further, space constraints, violence, and overcrowding in slums make physical distancing and self-...
Article
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Population health researchers from different fields often address similar substantive questions but rely on different study designs, reflecting their home disciplines. This is especially true in studies involving causal inference, for which semantic and substantive differences inhibit interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration. In this paper, we...
Article
People who inject drugs (PWID) face disparities in HIV treatment outcomes and may be less likely to achieve durable viral suppression. We characterized transitions in and out of viral suppression from 1997-2017 in a long-standing community-based cohort of PWID (AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE)) among HIV+ participants with a study...
Article
Full-text available
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)'s Culture of Health Action Framework guides a movement to improve health and advance health equity across the nation. Action Area One of the Framework, Making Health a Shared Value, highlights the role of individual and community factors in achieving a societal commitment to health and health equity, center...
Article
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a mHealth method of real-time data collection in which people report on behavior and the context of the behavior at multiple time points in their natural environment. It is an innovative counterpart to traditional research methods that have relied on retrospective measures. The aim of this systematic review...
Chapter
The growth of urban health, perhaps in parallel with the global growth of urban living, represents an exciting evolution in an interdisciplinary field. As more scholarship emerges in this area, the opportunity for transdisciplinary synthesis increases, making way for a whole new scholarship that will help us better understand the particular challen...
Chapter
Urban health is concerned with understanding how features of cities influence the health of urban populations, thus pointing the way to interventions that can improve health. An understanding of urban health requires a grounding in the fundamentals of causal thinking. How do cities influence the health of populations? And what is unique or uniquely...
Chapter
Most people in the world live in cities and the trend toward urban living is only going to accelerate in coming decades. Features of cities represent in many ways the only truly ubiquitous population exposure, a set of “causes of causes” that are shared by most people in the world. At the same time, cities are often misunderstood, and there is conf...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction State legalization of marijuana for medical purposes could increase illicit marijuana use among young people. Medical marijuana laws may boost the availability of marijuana and reduce perceptions of its harmfulness, leading more young people to try it. Prior studies report little evidence that these laws are impacting marijuana consump...
Article
The prevalence of obesity among African Americans is higher than among other racial/ethnic groups. African American churches hold a central role in promoting health in the community; yet, church-based interventions have had limited impact on obesity. While recent studies have described the influence of social networks on health behaviors, obesity i...
Book
To improve the health status of the growing urban population of Bangladesh, the Local Government Division has been implementing the Urban Primary Health Care Project since 1998. Delivering primary health care services through urban local bodies and partner NGOs, the project has seen three phases: Urban Primary Health Care Project (1998-2005), Secon...
Article
Background: Competency-based education is essential to prepare future nurse scientists to compete in the world of data-driven science. Yet, few schools of nursing have developed core competencies that guide quantitative research instruction. We described development of new competency-based curriculum in quantitative research for doctor of philosop...
Article
Study objective: Previous studies have suggested that the initial emergency department (ED) lactate concentration may be an important prognostic indicator for inhospital mortality from acute drug poisoning. We conduct this cohort study to formally validate the prognostic utility of the initial lactate concentration in a larger, distinct patient po...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Stimulant and heavy alcohol use are prevalent and associated with elevated risk for HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. In addition, each can pose difficulties for antiretroviral adherence among people living with HIV. Scant research has examined the associations of stimulant and heavy alco...
Article
In a community-based clinic serving men who have sex with men in San Francisco, California, this study characterized key steps of the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cascade and identified correlates of retention in care. In total, 344 patients were evaluated for PrEP. Three-fourths (78%) of those who sought PrEP services initiated PrEP. The overal...
Article
In 2016 the American Association of Colleges of Nursing issued a report, Advancing Healthcare Transformation: A New Era for Academic Nursing that included recommendations for more fully integrating nursing education, research, and practice. The report calls for a paradigm shift in how nursing leaders in academia and practice work together and with...
Article
Full-text available
HIV pre-exposure prophyalxis (PrEP) might lead individuals to view serodisclosure as unnecessary. We examined the prevalence of non-disclosure and lack of knowledge of partner status in a global cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) enrolled in the iPrEx Open Label Extension (OLE). We calculated prevalence ratios by f...
Article
Background and aims: Prescription opioid overdose is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with clinical severity in emergency department patients with prescription opioid overdose. Design: This was a secondary data analysis of adult prescription opioid overdoses from...
Article
Full-text available
Background While it is certain that some emergency department patients with acute drug overdose suffer adverse cardiovascular events (ACVE), predicting ACVE is difficult. The prognostic utility of the ECG for heterogeneous drug overdose patients remains to be proven. This study was undertaken to validate previously derived features of the initial E...
Chapter
Urban health is the study of urban characteristics that can influence health and disease in the urban context. These characteristics include features of the social and physical environment as well as of the urban resource infrastructure. Features of the social and physical environment and the urban resource infrastructure in turn are shaped by muni...
Article
Full-text available
Drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury-related mortality in the USA, but the prognostic utility of cardiac biomarkers is unknown. We investigated whether serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was associated with overdose mortality. This prospective observational cohort studied adults with suspected acute drug overdose at two university hospital...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are heterogeneous compounds originally intended as probes of the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutic agents. We assessed the clinical toxicity associated with recent SCRA use in a large cohort of drug overdose patients. Methods: This subgroup analysis of a large...
Article
Background: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are curative in most persons with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, high cost and concerns about adherence and reinfection may present continued barriers to treatment, particularly for people who inject drugs (PWID). Objective: To understand changes in assessments of treatment candida...
Article
Full-text available
This pre–post evaluation aimed to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes towards drug users among community representatives in Kabul, Afghanistan, over a period of expansion of harm reduction and drug dependence programming. A convenience sample of 160 professionals aged 18+ years completed interview questionnaires in 2007 and 2009. Views endor...
Article
Background: There are no effective pharmacologic strategies for non-dependent methamphetamine (meth)-using and binge-drinking MSM at high-risk for HIV. We sought to determine the feasibility of enrolling and retaining this population in a pharmacologic trial; the acceptability of pharmacotherapy study procedures; and the tolerability of targeted n...
Article
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With mounting evidence of how neighborhood socioeconomic context influences individual behavior, investigation of neighborhood social context and sex/drug use risk behavior could help explain and provide insight into solutions to solve persistent racial disparities in HIV. Interviewer-administered surveys and HIV testing among street-recruited indi...
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Background Armed conflict may increase the risk of HIV and other pathogens among injecting drug users (IDUs); however, there are few prospective studies. This study aimed to measure incidence and potential predictors, including environmental events and needle and syringe distribution and collection program (NSP) use, of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and...