David Traum

David Traum
University of Southern California | USC · Institute for Creative Technologies

PhD U Rochester

About

320
Publications
102,407
Reads
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10,961
Citations
Citations since 2017
38 Research Items
3584 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (320)
Book
The Handbook on Socially Interactive Agents provides a comprehensive overview of the research fields of Embodied Conversational Agents, Intelligent Virtual Agents, and Social Robotics. Socially Interactive Agents (SIAs), whether virtually or physically embodied, are autonomous agents that are able to perceive an environment including people or othe...
Book
The Handbook on Socially Interactive Agents provides a comprehensive overview of the research fields of Embodied Conversational Agents, Intelligent Virtual Agents, and Social Robotics. Socially Interactive Agents (SIAs), whether virtually or physically embodied, are autonomous agents that are able to perceive an environment including people or othe...
Article
Full-text available
With robotics rapidly advancing, more effective human–robot interaction is increasingly needed to realize the full potential of robots for society. While spoken language must be part of the solution, our ability to provide spoken language interaction capabilities is still very limited. In this article, based on the report of an interdisciplinary wo...
Article
This demonstration showcases a virtual agent, Mr. Clue, capable of acting in the role of clue-giver in a word-guessing game. The agent has the ability to automatically generate clues and update its dialogue policy dynamically based on user input.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Embodied interactive agents possessing emotional intelligence and empathy can create natural and engaging social interactions. Providing appropriate responses by interactive virtual agents requires the ability to perceive users’ emotional states. In this paper, we study and analyze behavioral cues that indicate an opportunity to provide an empathet...
Technical Report
Here we provide detailed guidelines on how to annotate a multifloor human‒robot dialogue for structure elements relevant to informing dialogue management in robotic systems. We start with transcribed and time-aligned dialogue data collected from participants and Wizards of Oz across multiple years of an Army Research Laboratory human‒robot interact...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The child developmental period of ages 6-12 months marks a widely understood "critical period" for healthy language learning, during which, failure to receive exposure to language can place babies at risk for language and reading problems spanning life. Deaf babies constitute one vulnerable population as they can experience dramatically reduced or...
Conference Paper
Search and rescue missions involving robots face multiple challenges. The ratio of operators to robots is frequently one to one or higher,operators tasked with robots must contend with cognitive overload for long periods, and the robots themselves may be discomfiting to located survivors. To improve on the current state, we propose a swarm of robot...
Conference Paper
The Digital Survivor of Sexual Assault (DS2A) is an interface that allows a user to have a conversational experience with a survivor of sexual assault, using Artificial Intelligence technology and recorded videos. The application uses a statistical classifier to retrieve contextually appropriate pre-recorded video utterances by the survivor, togeth...
Chapter
Collecting a large amount of real human-computer interaction data in various domains is a cornerstone in the development of better data-driven spoken dialog systems. The DialPort project is creating a portal to collect a constant stream of real user conversational data on a variety of topics. In order to keep real users attracted to DialPort, it is...
Conference Paper
This work explores whether culture impacts the extent to which social dialogue can mitigate (or exacerbate) the loss of trust caused when agents make conversational errors. Our study uses an agent designed to persuade users to agree with its rankings on two tasks. Participants from the U.S. and Japan completed our study. We perform two manipulation...
Preprint
We describe a multi-phased Wizard-of-Oz approach to collecting human-robot dialogue in a collaborative search and navigation task. The data is being used to train an initial automated robot dialogue system to support collaborative exploration tasks. In the first phase, a wizard freely typed robot utterances to human participants. For the second pha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present dialogue management routines for a system to engage in multiparty agent-infant interaction. The ultimate purpose of this research is to help infants learn a visual sign language by engaging them in naturalistic and socially contingent conversations during an early-life critical period for language development (ages 6 to 12 months) as ini...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present dialogue management routines for a system to engage in multiparty agent-infant interaction. The ultimate purpose of this research is to help infants learn a visual sign language by engaging them in naturalistic and socially contingent conversations during an early-life critical period for language development (ages 6 to 12 months) as ini...
Preprint
This paper identifies stylistic differences in instruction-giving observed in a corpus of human-robot dialogue. Differences in verbosity and structure (i.e., single-intent vs. multi-intent instructions) arose naturally without restrictions or prior guidance on how users should speak with the robot. Different styles were found to produce different r...
Preprint
ScoutBot is a dialogue interface to physical and simulated robots that supports collaborative exploration of environments. The demonstration will allow users to issue unconstrained spoken language commands to ScoutBot. ScoutBot will prompt for clarification if the user's instruction needs additional input. It is trained on human-robot dialogue coll...
Conference Paper
In this paper, dialogue overlap at the transaction unit structure level is examined. In particular we investigate a corpus of multi-floor dialogue in a human-robot navigation domain.Two conditions are contrasted: a human wizard typing with a keyboard vs using a constricted GUI. The GUI condition leads to more utterances and transaction units, but l...
Conference Paper
We present an annotation scheme for meso-level dialogue structure, specifically designed for multi-floor dialogue. The scheme includes a transaction unit that clusters utterances from multiple participants and floors into units according to realization of an initiator’s intent, and relations between individual utterances within the unit. We apply t...
Conference Paper
Collaboration with a remotely located robot in tasks such as disaster relief and search and rescue can be facilitated by grounding natural language task instructions into actions executable by the robot in its current physical context. The corpus we describe here provides insight into the translation and interpretation a natural language instructio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with insufficient exposure to language during critical developmental periods in infancy are at risk for cognitive, language, and social deficits [55]. This is especially difficult for deaf infants, as more than 90% are born to hearing parents with little sign language experience [48]. We created an integrated multi-agent system involving a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the potential of regulatory focus theory as a framework for personalizing human-machine interactions. We manipulate framing (gain or loss) of a collaborative word-guessing game where a fully-automated virtual human gives clues. Consistent with previous work on regulatory focus, we find evidence of significantly higher perc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work explores the extent to which social dialogue can mitigate (or exacerbate) the loss of trust caused when robots make conversational errors. Our study uses a NAO robot programmed to persuade users to agree with its rankings on two tasks. We perform two manipulations: (1) The timing of conversational errors - the robot exhibited errors eithe...
Article
HIV status disclosure is associated with increased sorcial support and protective behaviors against HIV transmission. Yet disclosure poses significant challenges in the face of persistent societal stigma. Few interventions focus on decision-making self-efficacy, and communication skills to support disclosing HIV status to an intimate partner. Virtu...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes recent and ongoing annotation efforts using the ISO 24617-2 standard for dialogue act annotation. Experimental studies are reported on the annotation by human annotators and by annotation machines of some of the specific features of the ISO annotation scheme, such as its multidimensional annotation of communicative functions,...
Conference Paper
Social robots establish rapport with human users. This work explores the extent to which rapport-building can benefit (or harm) conversations with robots, and under what circumstances this occurs. For example, previous work has shown that agents that make conversational errors are less capable of influencing people than agents that do not make erro...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the adaptation and refinement of a graphical user interface designed to facilitate a Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) approach to collecting human-robot dialogue data. The data collected will be used to develop a dialogue system for robot navigation. Building on an interface previously used in the development of dialogue systems for virtual agents an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our research aims to develop a natural dialogue interface between robots and humans. We describe two focused efforts to increase data collection efficiency towards this end: creation of an annotated corpus of interaction data, and a robot simulation, allowing greater flexibility in when and where we can run experiments.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Our research aims to develop a natural dialogue interface between robots and humans. We describe two focused efforts to increase data collection efficiency towards this end: creation of an annotated corpus of interaction data, and a robot simulation, allowing greater flexibility in when and where we can run experiments.
Conference Paper
Exposure to the patterns of natural language in early life—especially in ways that are rich in socially contingent interaction and conversation—is among the most powerful facilitators of the human language acquisition process (Petitto et al., 2016). Adults’ infant-directed language (e.g., simple rhythmic nursery rhymes), communicated in social inte...
Conference Paper
Exposure to the patterns of natural language in early life—especially in ways that are rich in socially contingent interaction and conversation—is among the most powerful facilitators of the human language acquisition process (Petitto et al., 2016). Adults’ infant-directed language (e.g., simple rhythmic nursery rhymes), communicated in social inte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We demonstrate two agents, a robot and a virtual human, which can be used for studying factors that impact social influence. The agents engage in dialogue scenarios that build familiarity, share information, and attempt to influence a human participant. The scenarios are variants of the classical “survival task,” where members of a team rank the im...
Conference Paper
Telling stories is an important aspect virtual agents designed to interact with people socially over time. We describe an experiment designed to investigate the impact of the identity, presentation form, and perspective of a virtual storyteller on a human user who engages in a story-swapping activity with two virtual characters. For each interactio...
Conference Paper
The Wizard-of-Oz (WOz) method is a common experimental technique in virtual agent and human-robot dialogue research for eliciting natural communicative behavior from human partners when full autonomy is not yet possible. For the first phase of our research reported here, wizards play the role of dialogue manager, acting as a robot’s dialogue proces...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Team word-guessing games where one player, the clue-giver, gives clues attempting to elicit a target-word from another player, the receiver, are a popular form of entertainment and also used for educational purposes. Creating an engaging computational agent capable of emulating a talented human clue-giver in a timed word-guessing game depends on th...
Chapter
We propose a new metric, Voted Appropriateness, which can be used to automatically evaluate dialogue policy decisions, once some wizard data has been collected. We show that this metric outperforms a previously proposed metric Weak agreement. We also present a taxonomy for dialogue model evaluation schemas, and orient our new metric within this tax...
Article
Full-text available
It has long been recognized that facial expressions, body posture/gestures and vocal parameters play an important role in human communication and the implicit signalling of emotion. Recent advances in low cost computer vision and behavioral sensing technologies can now be applied to the process of making meaningful inferences as to user state when...
Book
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2016, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA, in September 2016. The 12 full papers, 18 short papers, and 37 demo and poster papers accepted were carefully reviewed and selected from 81 submissions. IVA 2016 also includes three workshops: Workshop on...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the cultural differences in decision making behavior of people from the US and India. We study players from these cultures playing the Multi Round Ultimatum Game and the Centipede Game online. In order to study how people from different cultures evaluate decisions we use criteria from the Multi Attribute Relational Values (M...
Conference Paper
We describe a digital system that allows people to have an interactive conversation with a human storyteller (a Holocaust survivor) who has recorded a number of dialogue contributions, including many compelling narratives of his experiences and thoughts. The goal is to preserve as much as possible of the experience of face-to-face interaction. The...
Conference Paper
This article briefly explores potential synergies between the fields of virtual human and human-robot interaction research. We consider challenges in advancing the effectiveness of human-robot teams makes recommendations for enhancing this by facilitating synergies between robotics and virtual human research.
Article
Trading dialogs are a kind of negotiation in which an exchange of ownership of items is discussed, and these kinds of dialogs are pervasive in many situations. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of research on applying reinforcement learning (RL) to negotiation dialog domains. However, in previous research, the focus was on negotiation d...
Article
Full-text available
We present the SimSensei system, a fully automatic virtual agent that conducts interviews to assess indicators of psychological distress. We emphasize on the perception part of the system, a multimodal framework which captures and analyzes user state for both behavioral understanding and interactional purposes.
Conference Paper
We explore different evaluation methods for 4 different synthetic voices and 1 human voice. We investigate whether intelligibility, naturalness, or likability of a voice is correlated to the voice’s evocative function potential, a measure of the voice’s ability to evoke an intended reaction from the listener. We also investigate the extent to which...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning (RL) to a multi-party trading scenario where the dialog system (learner) trades with one, two, or three other agents. We experiment with different RL algorithms and reward functions. The negotiation strategy of the learner is learned through simulated dialog with trader simulators. In our experiments,...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present the first version of our Virtual Neighbor, who can talk with users about people employed in the same institution. The Virtual Neighbor can discuss information about employees in a medium-sized company or institute with users. The system acquires information from three sources: a personnel directory database, public web-pages, and through...
Article
We posit that observed differences in negotiation performance across cultures can be explained by participants trying to optimize across multiple values, where the relative importance of values differs across cultures. We look at two ways for specifying weights on values for different cultures: one in which the weights of the model are hand-crafted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the ways of distinguishing different dia-logue genres is the differences in patterns of in-teractions between the participants. Morbini et al (2013) informally define dialogue genres on the basis of features like user vs system initiative, amongst other criteria. In this paper, we apply the multi-label initiative annotation scheme and relate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Building computational models of cultural decision making for virtual agents based on behavioral data is a challenge because finding a reasonable mapping between the statistical data and the computational model is a difficult task. This paper shows how the weights on a multi attribute utility based decision making model can be set according to the...
Conference Paper
Building computational models of cultural decision making for virtual agents based on behavioral data is a challenge because finding a reasonable mapping between the statistical data and the computational model is a difficult task. This paper shows how the weights on a multi attribute utility based decision making model can be set according to the...
Article
Full-text available
We present FLoReS, a new information-state based dialogue manager, making use of forward inference, local dialogue structure, and plan operators repre-senting sub-dialogue structure. The aim is to support both advanced, flexible, mixed initiative interaction and efficient policy creation by domain experts. The dialogue manager has been used for two...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We examine the relationship between ini-tiative behavior in negotiation dialogues and the goals and outcomes of the ne-gotiation. We propose a novel annota-tion scheme for dialogue initiative, includ-ing four labels for initiative and response behavior in a dialogue turn. We anno-tate an existing human-human negotiation dataset, and use initiative-...
Conference Paper
We use single-agent and multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL) for learning dialogue policies in a resource allocation negotiation scenario. Two agents learn concurrently by interacting with each other without any need for simulated users (SUs) to train against or corpora to learn from. In particular, we compare the Qlearning, Policy Hill-Climbing...
Article
We present a computational model of incremental grounding, including state updates and action selection. The model is inspired by corpus-based examples of overlapping utterances of several sorts, including backchannels and completions. The model has also been partially implemented within a virtual human system that includes incremental understandin...
Conference Paper
Time-offset interaction is a new technology that allows for two-way communication with a person who is not available for conversation in real time: a large set of statements are prepared in advance, and users access these statements through natural conversation that mimics face-to-face interaction. Conversational reactions to user questions are ret...
Conference Paper
Time-offset interaction is a new technology that allows for two-way communication with a person who is not available for conversation in real time: a large set of statements are prepared in advance, and users access these statements through natural conversation that mimics face-to-face interaction. Conversational reactions to user questions are ret...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Efficient interaction between computational agents and users in tasks such as negotiation and bargaining requires recognition and understanding of potential differences in human behavior. Cultural differences in humans bargaining behavior are the focus of this study. We investigate the dynamics of human game playing with a conversational computatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present SimSensei Kiosk, an implemented virtual human interviewer designed to create an engaging face-to-face interaction where the user feels comfortable talking and sharing information. SimSensei Kiosk is also designed to create interactional situations favorable to the automatic assessment of distress indicators, defined as verbal and nonverb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This demonstration highlights the dialogue processing in SimSensei Kiosk, a virtual human dialogue system that conducts interviews related to psychological distress conditions such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dialogue processing in SimSensei Kiosk allows the system to conduct coherent spoken interviews of...
Conference Paper
We present a tool that allows human wizards to select appropriate response utterances for a given dialogue context from a set of utterances observed in a dialogue corpus. Such a tool can be used in Wizard-of-Oz studies and for collecting data which can be used for training and/or evaluating automatic dialogue models. We also propose to incorporate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While virtual humans are proven tools for training, education and research, they are far from realizing their full potential. Advances are needed in individual capabilities, such as character animation and speech synthesis, but perhaps more importantly, fundamental questions remain as to how best to integrate these capabilities into a single framew...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Negotiations can be characterized by the strategy participants adopt to achieve their ends (e.g., individualistic strategies are based on self-interest, cooperative strategies are used when participants try to maximize the joint gain, while competitive strategies focus on maximizing each participant's score against the other) and the outcomes that...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the goals, architecture, and functioning of the TRAINS-93 system, with emphasis on the representational issues involved in putting together a complex language processing and reasoning agent. The system is intended as an experimental prototype of an intelligent, conversationally proficient planning advisor in a dynamic domain of cargo tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an online system that provides a complete web-based sandbox for creating, testing and publishing embodied conversation- al agents. The tool, called Roundtable, em- powers many different types of authors and varying team sizes to create flexible interac- tions by automating many editing workflows while limiting complexity and hiding archi...