David R Thomas

David R Thomas
University of Auckland · Section of Social and Community Health

PhD University of Queensland

About

99
Publications
698,140
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Introduction
David R Thomas taught research methods and evaluation courses in Social and Community Health, School of Population Health, University of Auckland until he retired. His research experience covers a range of topics including research methods, evaluation research and qualitative research. He is currently working on literature reviews in three areas; nutrition and health, social determinants of the management of diabetes, and social support and social identity.
Additional affiliations
February 1997 - December 2010
University of Auckland
Position
  • Professor
August 1977 - December 1996
The University of Waikato
Position
  • Professor
February 1969 - December 1972
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Tutor in Psychology
Education
March 1969 - April 1973
The University of Queensland
Field of study
  • Cross-cultural psychology

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
It is often assumed that use of member checks improves the credibility of qualitative research. Published literature mentioning ‘member checks’ was reviewed to identify the purposes and procedures for seeking feedback from research participants, and outcomes reported from the use of member checks. Four themes reflecting underlying assumptions about...
Chapter
Full-text available
Writing research reports can be one of the most difficult tasks researchers have to do. Often it involves long days struggling with tricky concepts, trying to produce a coherent description of how a research project was done and its findings. This chapter offers a set of guidelines intended to help researchers plan and write research reports that a...
Article
Full-text available
Meta-analyses have reported higher levels of coffee consumption to be associated with lower mortality. In contrast, some systematic reviews have linked coffee consumption to increased risks for lung cancer and hypertension. Given these inconsistencies, this narrative review critically evaluated the methods and analyses of cohort studies investigati...
Preprint
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Managing type 1 diabetes presents major challenges for children and adolescents following diagnosis. Social and behavioural factors play a crucial role in maintaining effective glycaemic control. Among people at risk for poor glycaemic control are those that skip insulin to lose weight, a pattern referred to as diabulimia. This paper investigated s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This narrative review focuses on why some people with diabetes are more successful than others at keeping their blood glucose levels within healthy limits. It investigates the social and community factors that influence how people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes manage their condition. Six general trajectories of glycaemic control, based on HbA 1c l...
Preprint
Full-text available
This narrative review explores why some people with diabetes are more successful than others at keeping their blood glucose levels within healthy limits. It describes key social and behavioural factors that influence how people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes manage their condition. Five general trajectories of glycaemic control are evident based on...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction There is a dearth of research to guide acute adolescent mental health inpatient care. Self-determination Theory provides evidence that meeting needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence is likely to increase wellbeing and intrinsic motivation. These needs may be able to be met in the inpatient environment. Method This qualitative...
Chapter
Full-text available
Grounded theory is one of the common strategies used for qualitative research in primary care. Its focus is on the analysis of qualitative data. Effective use of grounded theory, as for most qualitative research strategies, requires that the raw data to be analysed (such as transcribed interviews) has considerable detail; sometimes described as ‘ri...
Data
1 Designing and managing research projects: An overview 2 Designing a new research project: Issues to think about 3 Developing research aims and objectives 4 Preparing and writing a research proposal 5 Getting funding for research 6 Research ethics and ethics reviews 7 Doing a literature review 8 Managing a research project 9 Software for re...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This review summarises research findings regarding the health impacts of coffee and provides a critical analysis of limitations in some of the research on coffee. A literature search located five meta-analyses which reported the association between coffee consumption and mortality. The findings from all five meta-analyses showed that drinking coffe...
Article
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Letter to the Editor. Comment on potential confounding of dairy fats with a 'Western' dietary pattern which included refined grains, sweet foods and red meat in the study by Chen et al 2016 titled Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. The reply to the letter by Yanping Li and colleagues is on the following page. My...
Working Paper
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The belief that low-fat or no-fat (‘trim’) dairy foods are healthier than whole-fat has been part of public health messages for many years. The purpose of the current review is to assess emerging research evidence on the relative health benefits of consuming whole-fat versus low-fat dairy foods, such as milk, cheese and yogurt. Research on the heal...
Working Paper
Full-text available
Article
In their recent report, Borgi and colleagues concluded that; 'Higher intakes of boiled, baked, or mashed potatoes, and French fries were associated with an increased risk of hypertension in adult women and men.'[1] This conclusion was based on analyses of three cohort samples; two groups of women; the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), the Nurses' Health...
Article
Objectives: There has been extensive investment in programmes to reduce injuries among health care staff caused by moving and handling patients or residents. Given conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of such programmes, the present paper conducted a critical appraisal of systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of interventions...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide information on how to identify hazards and reduce injury risks for both home care providers and disabled people for whom care is provided. The focus of the Guidelines is on moving and handling of a disabled person by support workers. The Guidelines are intended to provide resources for organisations who...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this report is to assist organisations to monitor and evaluate programmes for moving and handling people. The report is also intended to help organisations develop a business case for implementing or upgrading a moving and handling programme. For healthcare organisations considering upgrading their programmes, a key factor is whether...
Article
This study explored processes that influenced involvement in recreational exercise for individuals with neurological disability, to identify strategies to promote physical activity for health and well-being in this population. Nineteen participants (11 males and eight females), aged 20-71 years, with a range of neurological conditions and functiona...
Chapter
Full-text available
Information on the origins of the Austronesian peoples is available from diverse sources including archaeology, linguistics, human and animal DNA and other sources. The chapter discusses two of the theories about the origins of the Austronesian peoples and describes the sources of evidence regarding Taiwan and Wallacea/Indonesia as alternative orig...
Article
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To explore sociocultural factors that may promote or prevent obesity in Pacific communities in New Zealand. Specific objectives were to describe the behaviours, beliefs and values of Pacific adolescents and their parents, related to food consumption and physical activity and to examine the patterns among obese and non-obese Pacific adolescents and...
Article
Both New Zealand and Sweden have health and disability policies that promote recreational exercise within society for people with disability. Despite these policies, levels of physical activity by people with disability in these countries are low. Physiotherapists are equipped to assist people with disabling conditions into physical activity. This...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated general practitioners' (GPs') views about recognising and treating depression among patients to establish possible reasons for reported lower levels of diagnosis and treatment of depression among Maori compared to non-Maori patients. Semi-structured interviews with 23 GPs in the Auckland region, including both Maori and non-M...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book aims to provide a straight-forward, practical introduction to some of the more crucial knowledge and skills people are likely to need when setting out to do a research project in the social and health sciences. It covers issues such as how to choose a research design for a project, how to write a research proposal, how to apply for resear...
Article
Full-text available
As a sub study of another study we examined older people with complex health and disability support needs' desire for change. The aim was to compare this across different ages, residence, and gender. Semi-structured interviews were held with 129 participants and the data were analyzed using a General Inductive Approach. Six themes emerged, Health,...
Article
To investigate why older people with high support needs entered residential care and who made that decision. Longitudinal study in three New Zealand cities. Participants: older people (n = 144); (unpaid) caregivers (n = 47); service co-ordinators (n = 12); multidisciplinary team members (n = 4). Questionnaires: InterRAI Minimum Data Set Assessments...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This literature review covers research on public awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. It reviews the types of questions used in health surveys to gauge people’s awareness and knowledge about heart disease and stroke, including warning signs, what people should or would do in the event being present when someone was having a heart a...
Article
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There is a shortage of rural general practitioners in New Zealand (NZ), and many are approaching retirement. This qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the perceived advantages and disadvantages of rural general practice at various stages of family life of male NZ-trained GPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 male NZ-trai...
Article
Full-text available
School improvement initiatives are needed to better meet the needs of underprivileged students, to reduce underachievement and to break a continuing cycle of disadvantage. This article describes part of a school improvement initiative in New Zealand that provided additional funding for school nurse and social worker services in nine secondary schoo...
Article
Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand, communi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is New Zealand’s biggest killer. Effective community-based educational and preventive programmes rely on accurate assessment of the current levels of knowledge about CVD risk factors and warning signs and symptoms in a population. In addition, periodic measurement of knowledge of CVD risk factors is needed to assess the...
Article
Objective: To describe the changing role of school nurses in eight New Zealand (NZ) secondary schools from low socio-economic areas with high Pacific Island and Māori rolls. Methods: An evaluation of a pilot addressing under-achievement in low-decile schools in Auckland, NZ (2002-05). Annual semi-structured school nurse interviews and analysis of r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Given the multicultural composition of many populations, it is important to assess the extent to which health and human services are appropriate for the cultural background of clients. The present paper reports a qualitative study of client-reported experiences in encounters with primary health care providers (such as general practitioners and nurs...
Article
Full-text available
A mixed methods approach was used in the evaluation. The main data collection methods were questionnaire surveys of ward staff attending the training workshops and seven key informant interviews with managers and trainers. A total of 110 completed questionnaires were returned for the post-workshop survey, 34 from the first follow-up survey (3-4 mon...
Article
Full-text available
Although the formal history of community psychology in both Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand has clear links with its history elsewhere, particularly in the United States, the subdiscipline has developed localised foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political and historical underpinnings of these two countries. The climates within...
Article
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A general inductive approach for analysis of qualitative evaluation data is described. The purposes for using an inductive approach are to (a) condense raw textual data into a brief, summary format; (b) establish clear links between the evaluation or research objectives and the summary findings derived from the raw data; and (c) develop a framework...
Article
Full-text available
To obtain health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL) valuations (or 'utilities') from New Zealand women for four health states representative of advanced (metastatic) breast cancer, suitable for use in cost-utility analysis, and to compare four valuation methodologies. Written case descriptions of four health states representative of advanced breast c...
Article
Women with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were asked to describe what was helpful and unhelpful to them in therapy. From 191 completed postal questionnaires, a subsample of 20 participants was interviewed. This paper focuses on three specific areas of therapy raised by interviewees: (1) Establishing a therapeutic relationship; (2) talkin...
Article
Identification of child abuse by mental health services is important for formulation of the causes of presenting problems and for development of comprehensive treatment plans. A small but growing number of studies suggest, however, that the majority of child sexual abuse cases are not identified by mental health services. A similarly small literatu...
Chapter
Full-text available
We will examine the diverse influences on the field of evaluation by focusing on a few influential figures in the field to provide illustrations, then go on to note the role of early evaluation texts and journals as well as interdisciplinary training opportunities, concluding with several examples from practice. While acknowledging that much of the...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to develop and test a framework and tool for assessing and developing community participation in Primary Health Organisations (PHOs) in New Zealand. A qualitative study completed in three phases: semi-structured interviews with 42 key stakeholders in the primary care sector; development of and consultation on a draft toolkit, which...
Article
To produce an educational video for tuberculosis (TB) awareness in The Gambia using participatory methods and integrated formative evaluation. A steering group was formed of key people working in TB research, health education, the health service and the media. They developed a script and commissioned local production of the video in three local lan...
Article
Full-text available
An outline of a general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis is described and details provided about the assumptions and procedures used. The purposes for using an inductive approach are to (1) to condense extensive and varied raw text data into a brief, summary format; (2) to establish clear links between the research objectives and th...
Article
Full-text available
To explore the experiences and opinions of family physicians and patients regarding the delay of antibiotic prescriptions, to be dispensed if symptoms persist or worsen over time, in treating upper respiratory tract infections. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews conducted in family practice in Auckland, New Zealand. Thirteen physicia...
Article
Full-text available
In reports of evaluations carried out in New Zealand the assessment of the cultural appropriateness of the service being evaluated is rarely mentioned. Over the past 5-10 years evaluators have been increasingly required to demonstrate their research approach is consistent with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi and responsive to the needs of...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how women found out about the Waikato pilot breast cancer screening programme and what influenced them to participate. A sample of 1085 women who had undergone screening mammography were sent survey questionnaires in 1999 to investigate how they had found out about the programme and what had influenced them to participate. D...
Article
Objectives: To identify challenges faced by psychiatrists working in New Zealand's non-metropolitan areas and identify strategies that New Zealand psychiatrists use to overcome some of these challenges. Method: Ten psychiatrists attending the RANZCP New Zealand Branch conference in 2000 participated in a focus group. They identified positive and ne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of the present paper is to identify two processes that seem to have been under-represented in descriptions of social and cultural change among Pacific Islands groups in New Zealand and which are likely to be related to health and well-being. These processes include (1) the emergence of distinctive Pacific/New Zealand bicultural adaptati...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To investigate the patterns and criteria reported for categorisation of ethnicity in a sample of health research reports which made comparisons between Maori and non- Maori. Methods. A total of 98 research reports, which made comparisons between Maori and non-Maori samples, were selected from the New Zealand Medical Journal over five 12-month...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the types of research strategies which are used to investigate and analyse policies, particularly those related to health programmes and services. Research relating to policies is commonly referred to as policy analysis, policy description and policy evaluation. This chapter outlines four aspects of the pol...
Article
The aim of this article is to outline the need for systematic research into experiences of violence among patients of mental health services. Most of the literature on violence in mental health systems has concentrated on mentally ill people as perpetrators of violence. We examined the origins of this emphasis. We conducted a literature search usin...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. The present study examined the effectiveness of three modes of communication designed to increase high school students’ knowledge about throat infections and rheumatic fever in a high risk area. Methods. The study was part of an evaluation of a rheumatic fever prevention programme that has established 27 school-based ‘sore throat’ clinics in...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the types of research strategies which are used to investigate and analyse policies, particularly those related to health programmes and services. Research relating to policies is commonly referred to as policy analysis, policy description and policy evaluation. This chapter outlines four aspects of the pol...
Article
There is a growing recognition of the need to understand the impacts of culture and ethnicity on sport consumption, and to identify the consequent implications for sport management and marketing. Styles and patterns of sport involvement vary across cultures, sometimes requiring that associated rules, rituals, and ceremonies be modified or adapted t...
Method
Full-text available
In research proposals, some researchers make reference to the use of a “grounded theory” approach in the proposed analysis of qualitative data. Given that a "grounded theory" analysis is seen as necessarily using the constant comparison method, what term would be used to refer to an inductive approach (that starts with the data and develops categor...
Article
Full-text available
Participation in organized sport and other recreational activities offers a range ofpossibilities for planning social change interventions to enhance individual and community wellbeing. Despite these possibilities, applied psychological research on these topics has been almost entirely confined to sport psychologists whose primary focus has been th...
Article
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In order to increase understanding of processes associated with ethnic categorization, several questions need to beconsidered. First, what are the attributes or criteria typically used for making ethnic categorizations (e.g. language or accent, physical appearance. interpersonal communication style)? Second, to what extent do ethnic groups within a...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter examines the changing patterns of inter-ethnic relationships among Maori and Pakeha in New Zealand, specifically the moves from assimilation towards biculturalism. The impact of recent debate about the Treaty of Waitangi is described and examples of bicultural policies and their consequences are outlined.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Experiences related to developing an indigenous community and social psychology in the teaching of psychology at the University of Waikato in Aotearoa/New Zealand are described. The process of localization emphasizes the need to interpret "universal" concepts in terms of local cultural patterns and to elaborate psychological concepts derived from t...
Conference Paper
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Given the prominence of English as an international language of communication, the possibilities for misunderstandings increase where speakers of English have different cultural backgrounds. Misunderstanding may arise from differing expectations about appropriate interpersonal behaviours and interpretations of others behaviour. It is proposed that...
Article
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The need for cross-cultural communication skills arises whenever people from different languages and cultures come into contact. With increased tourism, international business, students studying overseas, and increasing awareness of indigenous minority cultures there is concern to foster better communication among different cultural groups. In the...
Article
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The present paper is intended to stimulate discussion on the development of bicultural psychological services in Aotearoa/New Zealand, focusing primarily on services provided by psychologists trained in tertiary educational institutions. Patterns of biculturalism emerging among human services in New Zealand are briefly described, then topics releva...
Book
Full-text available
A major purpose in writing the present book was to bring together reports of social change interventions and social change commentaries that are relevant to the work of community psychologists and other applied psychologists in Australia and New Zealand. No previous books appear to have described general aspects of psychology and social change in A...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter examines the changing patterns of inter-ethnic relationships among Maori and Pakeha in New Zealand, specifically the moves from assimilation towards biculturalism. The impact of recent debate about the Treaty of Waitangi is described and examples of bicultural policies and their consequences are outlined. Copyright 1992 Dunmore Press....
Conference Paper
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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Increasing the involvement of psychologists in policy analysis requires clarification of the specific contributions that can be made by community psychologists and other applied social scientists. The present article examines the nature of social policies and outlines a model of the policy-making process. The "cycle of social policy" model emphasiz...
Article
Full-text available
A 40-item questionnaire, which assessed knowledge of Maori language and cultural practices, was constructed and administered to 214 New Zealand school children (aged 11–26 yrs) and 47 university students. The test had satisfactory item-total correlations and internal consistency. It also differentiated among ethnic Maori and ethnic Pakeha with vary...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on authoritarianism, which has used questionnaire measures, has been plagued by the problems of response biases. Attempts have been made to develop questionnaires which reduce these problems. The present paper describes further analyses of previously reported data, which point to the advantages of assessing authoritarianism from c...
Article
Full-text available
Research studies which make comparisons between different ethnic groups frequently assume that cultural patterns coincide with ethnic categories. This assumption often leads to a reliance on cultural explanations for any differences found between ethnic groups. Such explanations may be erroneous in multi-ethnic societies, unless the extent to which...
Article
Full-text available
Examined the effects of viewing TV aggression on play behavior among 52 8-yr-old Maori and Pakeha children. Ss viewed 2 videotapes of aggressive and nonaggressive play behavior among male children, who were otherwise similar to the Ss in age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). After viewing, Ss were allowed 10 min free play. During this tim...
Article
Over the past few years, a network of regional coordinators has promoted a variety of community psychology activities in the United States and other countries, creating a base of social support for community psychologists in academic and field settings. This paper describes key organizing principles for creating viable support networks such as this...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years, a network of regional coordinators has promoted a variety of community psychology activities in the United States and other countries, creating a base of social support for community psychologists in academic and field settings. This paper describes key organizing principles for creating viable support networks such as this...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies were conducted in school settings to find out whether Maori children showed different help-seeking behaviours from Pakeha children. Given the results of previous research with Polynesian Hawaiian children, it was expected that Maori children would show less verbal help-seeking behaviours and more non-verbal help-seeking behaviours tha...
Article
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Reviews recent research which indicates differences in cooperative and competitive behavior between age, cultural, social class, and sex groups. These behaviors probably have multiple determinants and situational factors may be important. A study is described in which 12 4-member groups of children each from Samoa, Fiji, the Cook Islands, and New Z...
Article
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The present study investigated styles of mother-child interaction that may be related to social class and cultural differences using filmed observation of three teaching tasks . Methods: Fifty-nine mother-child pairs, with 3-5 year old children, were observed in a structured teaching situation. The study included four samples: High SES Pakeha (NZ...
Article
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Ray's criticisms of a previous paper by the author are examined and refuted. Reference is made to published evidence which supports the contention that Queensland has a relatively authoritarian culture compared with liberal Northen United States communities, and that racial issues are a salient factor in some aspects of Australian life. Examination...
Article
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The Madsen cooperation board was administered to four samples of children using a different procedure from those reported in previous studies. It was found that Cook Islands children and rural New Zealand Maori children were more cooperative and thus received more rewards than European and urban Maori children. Older children and boys were more coo...
Article
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Data were collected from seven cultural groups in the South Pacific in order to examine the relationship between authoritarian child-rearing practices and ethnocentrism. An analysis of the data within each cultural group showed that there were inter-cultural differences in the structure of child-rearing pratices. In particular authoritarianism scal...