David Strayer

David Strayer
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | CIES

B.S., Michigan State; Ph.D, Cornell

About

204
Publications
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19,175
Citations

Publications

Publications (204)
Article
Full-text available
• The shells of freshwater molluscs are highly plastic in response to environmental and ecological conditions, which can affect ecological interactions and ecosystem functioning. • We tested for changes in relative shell thickness in the unionid bivalve Elliptio complanata in the freshwater tidal Hudson River over 1991–2017, a period of changing wa...
Chapter
This chapter discusses controls over ecosystem structure and function, which is a complicated topic, and offers some general observations about ecosystem controls that can be used in both scientific studies and management contexts. Control is defined, and several reasons why this topic occupies a central position in ecosystem science is discussed....
Chapter
This chapter introduces the roles that consumers, both animal and microbial, play in ecosystem energy flow. After describing the basic consumer energy budget, the chapter introduces ecological efficiencies and their controls. The chapter then shifts its focus to secondary production, beginning with an overview of methods for estimating secondary pr...
Chapter
Ecosystem science is a young field that is still evolving rapidly. This chapter provides a few examples of how ecosystem science is changing and is likely to change in the future. The chapter briefly considers how ecosystem science may change in response to advances in technology, the need to understand and manage the effects of humans on ecosystem...
Chapter
This introduction briefly describes the book’s content. The book defines the ecosystem, describes the chief characteristics of ecosystems and the major tools used to analyze them, and presents major discoveries that scientists have made about ecosystems. It also lays out important questions for the future. In addition, although the book is not spec...
Chapter
This chapter briefly presents the most important microbially mediated redox reactions in ecosystems. The chapter introduces redox reactions and their terminology, electron donors and acceptors, and energy yields from redox reactions. It then describes some of the most important microbially mediated redox reactions and the environments in which each...
Chapter
a.Aim Provides an overview of selected taxonomic groups of invasive freshwater species: plants, bivalves, crayfish, fish and mammals. b.Main concepts and main methods covered For invasive species in each taxonomic group, major introduction pathways are outlined as well as main impacts and management actions. c.Conclusions Invasive freshwater specie...
Article
Full-text available
Managing the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) is a great societal challenge. A wide variety of terms have been used to describe the management of invasive alien species and the sequence in which they might be applied. This variety and lack of consistency creates uncertainty in the presentation and description of management in policy, science...
Article
Full-text available
The abundance–impact curve is helpful for understanding and managing the impacts of non‐native species. Abundance–impact curves can have a wide range of shapes (e.g., linear, threshold, sigmoid), each with its own implications for scientific understanding and management. Sometimes, the abundance–impact curve has been viewed as a property of the spe...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Since its emergence in the mid-20th century, invasion biol- ogy has matured into a productive research field addressing questions of fundamen- tal and applied importance. Not only has the number of empirical studies increased through time, but also has the number of competing, overlapping and, in some cases, contradictory hypot...
Article
Full-text available
We used a 27‐year record of Dreissena populations in the freshwater tidal Hudson River to describe interannual variation in population density, body size, and body condition; estimate long‐term variation in recruitment, survivorship, and shell growth; and assess possible controls on the populations. Dreissena populations in the Hudson have been hig...
Article
Full-text available
Propagating and releasing freshwater mussels (Unionida) into the wild can contribute substantially to conservation and perhaps ecosystem restoration, but poorly conceived projects can waste money and public good will, and harm mussel populations and ecosystems. Moving from vague, emotional reactions about mussel restoration to more rigorous discuss...
Article
Full-text available
Dreissenid mussels (including the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel D. rostriformis) are among the world's most notorious invasive species, with large and widespread ecological and economic effects. However, their long‐term population dynamics are poorly known, even though these dynamics are critical to determining impacts and...
Article
Freshwater mussels are declining globally, and effective conservation requires prioritizing research and actions to identify and mitigate threats impacting mussel species. Conservation priorities vary widely, ranging from preventing imminent extinction to maintaining abundant populations. Here, we develop a portfolio of priority research topics for...
Article
Full-text available
A long-term (28-year) study documented complicated responses of populations of native bivalves (Union-idae and Sphaeriidae) to the dreissenid invasion of the freshwater tidal Hudson River. Early in the invasion (1993– 2000), formerly large populations of all native species declined steeply, reaching 0 to 35% of preinvasion densities by the year 200...
Article
Full-text available
Non‐native species are among the most important drivers of the structure and function of modern ecosystems. The ecological impacts of a non‐native species ought to depend on the size and characteristics of its population, but the exact nature of this population‐impacts relationship is rarely defined. Both the mathematical form of this relationship...
Research
Full-text available
Results of a qualitative freshwater mussel survey in Tonawanda Creek in Western New York
Article
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Human activities create threats that have consequences for freshwater ecosystems and, in most watersheds, observed ecological responses are the result of complex interactions among multiple threats and their associated ecological alterations. Here we discuss the value of considering multiple threats in research and management, offer suggestions for...
Article
Boom-bust dynamics – the rise of a population to outbreak levels, followed by a dramatic decline – have been associated with biological invasions and offered as a reason not to manage troublesome invaders. However, boom-bust dynamics rarely have been critically defined, analyzed, or interpreted. Here, we define boom-bust dynamics and provide specif...
Article
Full-text available
Variability in the feeding ecology of young fishes over short and long time scales in estuaries is likely to affect population dynamics. We studied 14 years of early stage Striped Bass feeding ecology in the Hudson River Estuary over a 25-year time span, including years in which invasive zebra mussels markedly altered energy flow within the estuary...
Article
Full-text available
Since zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) appeared in the Hudson River in 1991, their shell thickness (mass at a given shell length) has increased substantially. This may be a result of increases in predation pressure and alkalinity in the river, and probably affects the susceptibility of mussels to crushing predators, as well as the ultimate fate...
Article
New York Harbor is a large, iconic and complex body of water that has been extensively modified to support the development of a megacity. These modifications have affected the shorelines, water flow, water quality, habitats and living resources of the harbor. Changes in topography and bathymetry have altered the landscapes and seascapes of the regi...
Article
Full-text available
Estuaries act as nursery habitat critical to survival and early development of fishes; as such, variability in the feeding success and diet composition of young fishes over short and long time scales in estuaries is likely to affect population dynamics. We studied 14 years of early stage Striped Bass feeding ecology in the Hudson River Estuary exte...
Article
Riprapped revetments are a common shore defense along lakes, rivers, estuaries, and the ocean, but little is known about the ecology of these structures. We studied the amount and composition of vascular vegetation on riprapped revetments along the freshwater tidal Hudson River, New York. Cover, species richness, and species composition of vegetati...
Article
Full-text available
Increases in river fragmentation globally threaten freshwater biodiversity. Rivers are fragmented by many agents, both natural and anthropogenic. We review the distribution and frequency of these major agents, along with their effects on connectivity and habitat quality. Most fragmentation research has focused on terrestrial habitats, but theories...
Article
Full-text available
Different species of aquatic macrophytes have strongly contrasting effects on the oxygen dynamics of the waters they inhabit. We conducted laboratory experiments to test the hypothesis that macroinvertebrates inhabiting stands of the floating-leaved water-chestnut (Trapa natans), which causes severe hypoxia, are more resistant to low oxygen concent...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient loads and nutrient cycling, especially of phosphorus and nitrogen, are among the most important controls on the character of freshwater ecosystems and have been greatly affected by human actions. Despite the widespread importance of nutrients in freshwater ecosystems, the varied linkages between nutrient cycling and freshwater mussel popul...
Article
Invasive bivalves may cause great ecological, evolutionary, and economic impacts in freshwater ecosystems. Species such as Corbicula fluminea, Dreissena bugensis, Dreissena polymorpha, Limnoperna fortunei, and Sinanodonta woodiana are widely distributed hyper-successful invaders, but several others not yet invasive (or at least not considered as su...
Conference Paper
Invasion of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Hudson River in the early 1990s sharply reduced phytoplankton biomass and markedly altered estuarine energy flow. Previous studies suggest that early-stage fishes of several species were negatively impacted by the invasion; one such species was the American Shad (Alosa sapidissima). The objecti...
Article
Full-text available
In the first decade after zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) appeared in the Hudson River, the biomass of zooplankton and deepwater macrobenthos fell by similar to 50%, while the biomass of littoral macrobenthos rose by >10%. These changes in the forage base were associated with large, differential changes in the abundance, geographic distributio...
Article
Full-text available
Like many large-river ecosystems, the Hudson River has been changing rapidly, chiefly as a result of human activities. Many of these changes take place on a decadal timescale, longer than the duration of most ecological studies. We use long-term studies of the Hudson to describe decadal-scale change in this ecosystem. Major impacts on the Hudson...
Article
Full-text available
Biofoulers accumulate on underwater surfaces and adversely affect human activities and infrastructure. Freshwater biofoulers are much less well-known than their marine counterparts but can be economically important: we estimate the potential global cost of freshwater biofouling to be ∼US$277 million per year. They include several groups of organism...
Article
Full-text available
Three aerial photography inventories were used to examine change in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater Hudson River over the interval 1997 to 2007. Overall, there was about a 30 % net decline in SAV coverage although there were also many individual areas of expansion. The invasive water chestnut (Trapa natans) did not change...
Chapter
This chapter discusses controls over ecosystem structure and function, which is a complicated topic, and offers some general observations about ecosystem controls that can be used in both scientific studies and management contexts. Control is defined, and several reasons why this topic occupies a central position in ecosystem science is discussed....
Chapter
River ecosystems drain the landscape through hierarchical series of fluvial channels, beginning with small headwater streams, and enlarging, ultimately, to estuaries meeting the sea. Several conceptual models provide unifying concepts about the connections of rivers with the landscape in terms of ecosystem properties such as processing of energy an...
Chapter
Perhaps 10,000–20,000 species of freshwater invertebrates are extinct or endangered as a result of human impacts such as damming and other habitat destruction, pollution, overharvest, introductions of nonnative species, and climate change. Endangered invertebrates are not spread evenly across the Earth, but are concentrated in “hot spots” such as a...
Article
Gastrotrichs are among the smallest of invertebrates and are common and widespread in inland waters around the world. Most species live on sediments and among plants, although a few semiplanktonic species occur in tropical waters. Many inland water support 10-50 species of gastrotrichs, and densities of gastrotrichs often reach 100000-1000000m-2, m...
Article
Full-text available
Populations of freshwater mussels (Unionoida) are declining or disappearing from many waters around the world. In many declining populations, recruitment fails before adult mortality occurs, resulting in relict populations that can persist for decades. We tested whether recruitment failure in populations of the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Submerged plants in the littoral zone of aquatic ecosystems are widely recognized as providing important functions as habitat and in biogeochemical processes. Additionally they are considered one of the best indicators of water quality as well as affecting multiple human uses. These plants are known to be highly variab...
Article
Full-text available
Several major hypotheses have been proposed to explain and predict biological invasions, but the general applicability of these hypotheses is largely unknown, as most of them have not been evaluated using a standard approach across taxonomic groups and habitats. We offer such an evaluation for six selected leading hypotheses. Our global literature...
Article
Full-text available
The shore zones of the Hudson River, like those of many developed waterways, are highly varied, containing a mix of seminatural and highly engineered shores. Our goal was to document the biodiversity supported by different kinds of shore zones in the Hudson. We chose six common types of shore zones, three of them “natural” (sand, unconsolidated roc...
Article
Full-text available
I pose eight questions central to understanding how biological invasions affect ecosystems, assess progress towards answering those questions and suggest ways in which progress might be made. The questions concern the frequency with which invasions affect ecosystems; the circumstances under which ecosystem change is most likely; the functions that...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the macroinvertebrate fauna of a rocky shore in the freshwater tidal Hudson River during 1992–1994, the early years of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. The macroinvertebrate community was numerically dominated by chironomids, nematodes, oligochaetes, gastropods, zebra mussels, and planarian flatworms. The community was a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Fresh waters-rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands-cover less than 1 percent of the earth's surface, yet their biodiversity is unrivaled. Fully 10 percent of all known animal species and a third of all vertebrate species, including about 40 percent of the world's fishes, live in fresh waters. Other well represented groups include insects, crustac...
Article
This introduction briefly describes the book’s content. The book defines the ecosystem, describes the chief characteristics of ecosystems and the major tools used to analyze them, and presents major discoveries that scientists have made about ecosystems. It also lays out important questions for the future. And although the book is not specifically...
Book
Ecosystem science has developed into a major part of contemporary ecology, and it is now applied to diagnose and solve a wide range of important environmental problems. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science provides a compact and comprehensive introduction to modern ecosystem science. Written by a group of experts, this book covers major concepts of ec...
Article
Full-text available
Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf Univ...
Article
This succinct book gives an intimate view of the day-to-day functioning of a remarkable river that has figured prominently in history and culture-the Hudson, a main artery connecting New York, America, and the world. Writing for a wide audience, David Strayer distills the large body of scientific information about the river into a non-technical ove...
Article
1. Abundant native predators, parasites and pathogens that switch to consuming a hyper-successful exotic species may be able to control the invasive population. Native predators may, however, need time to adapt to feed effectively on an exotic resource. In this case, mortality on an exotic population from native predators could increase over time e...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological systems usually are heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity has important functional consequences. Nevertheless, it is not always necessary for ecologists to explicitly include this heterogeneity in their studies and models of ecological systems. Heterogeneity may be safely ignored if its grain size is much smaller than the spatial extent...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis of the European distribution of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, shows that the species probably will spread over much of North America. Only softwater districts and the extreme northern and southern parts of the continent are unlikely to be colonized. Within this range, D. polymorpha is most likely to be found in large, hardwate...
Article
Full-text available
The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population of the Hudson River estuary grew and spread rapidly following its first detection in May 1991. The population reached 550 billion animals (4000/m2, mean over the freshwater tidal river) by the end of 1992, constituting >70% of zoobenthic biomass, and filtered a volume equivalent to the entire water...
Article
Full-text available
Invertebrates specialized for life in groundwater (stygobionts) are diverse and widely distributed in Europe but poorly known in North America. A survey of the invertebrate fauna at 14 sites in eastern North America shows that unglaciated ancient terrain in eastern North America contains a rich fauna of stygobionts. Several groups of stygobionts (t...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the effect of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion on benthic animal communities, we monitored the macrozoobenthos at eight sites in the freshwater tidal Hudson River in 1990-1995. Zebra mussels were absent or scarce in the Hudson River before September 1992, but abundant (mean 17 000/m2) on hard substrata in 1993-1995 and res...
Article
Parasitic infections can strongly affect invasion success and the impact of invasive species on native biota. A key mechanism facilitating invasion is escape from regulation by natural enemies-the enemy release hypothesis. The level and duration of release depend on the types of parasites lost and gained, with highly regulating acute infections mos...
Article
Full-text available
Although the ecological and economic effects of non-native species probably often change through time, few studies have documented such effects. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is an important invader that has had large ecological and economic effects on the ecosystems it has invaded in North America and western Europe. Our 20-year study of...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Organic matter that is washed onto shore, or “wrack”, is an important component of shoreline ecosystems and often represents accumulations of material produced in adjoining terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It provides habitat for invertebrates, which attract birds and other predators, and provides a source of soil org...
Article
Full-text available
Impacts of alien species may change with time but there are few long-term studies of invasions. Here, we present an example of a substantial change in the impact of an alien species that appeared more than a decade after initial invasion. We studied an invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) into the Hudson River (New York, USA) over a 22...