David Speed

David Speed
University of New Brunswick (Saint John) · Psychology

PhD

About

27
Publications
12,268
Reads
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193
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
192 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
University of New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2015 - June 2017
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Position
  • Research Officer

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
Full-text available
Objective The primary goal of the present research was to examine whether the relationships that social support demonstrates with both anxiety and depression varied between adults with and without ADD/ADHD in a Canadian sample. Method Data were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health ( N ≥ 16,354). Presence of social...
Article
Religion/spirituality (R/S) is positively associated with a variety of health outcomes, although how R/S relates to the likelihood or severity of impairment or disability is understudied. Given the broad salutary effects of R/S, we tested if nonreligious groups (specifically atheists) were more likely to report impairment or were more likely to rep...
Article
Full-text available
The article, “Religiously/Spiritually Involved, but in Doubt or Disbelief—Why? Healthy?” (Mrdjenovich in J Relig Health. 10.1007/s10943-018-0711-2, 2018) addressed why subsets of Nones would engage in religious activities. While the subject matter of Mrdjenovich’s work is important and understudied, several problematic conclusions about the nonreli...
Article
Full-text available
The belief-as-benefit effect (BABE) is a broad term for the positive association between religion/spirituality (R/S) and health outcomes. Functionally, religious variables and religious identities predict greater wellness, which implies that atheists should report worse health relative to religious groups. Using Cycle 29 of the cross-sectional Gene...
Article
Full-text available
An overlooked reason to study atheism and health is that it provides a reasonably strong test of the broader religion-health relationship. Using data from the 2011/2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (n > 8000) I explored the health differences between atheists and eight categories of religious identities (nonreligious, Anglican, Baptist, Christi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and probabilities of comorbidities between self-reported PTSD and smoking, alcohol binge drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) from a national Canadian sample. Data were taken from the Statistics Canada Public Use Microdata File of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health (n...
Article
Full-text available
Atheists are among the most disliked groups in America, which has been explained in a variety of ways, one of which is that atheists are hostile towards religion and that anti-atheist prejudice is therefore reactive. We tested this hypothesis by using the 2018 American General Social Survey by investigating attitudes towards atheists, Christians, B...
Article
Religious/spiritual beliefs and behaviours are frequently described as having salutary effects, but there are likely unexplored exceptions to this general finding. We combined data from the 2011/2012 Canadian Community Health Surveys (N > 7077) to investigate how religion/spirituality predicted five health outcomes (i.e., three subscales on the Men...
Article
Rationale Higher levels of religion and spirituality (R/S) are associated with better health in both Canadian and American samples. One mechanism that can account forthis relationship is social support, which is positively associated with higher R/S and is positively associated with overall wellness. Although social support has been found to mediat...
Article
Objective: Psychological disorders and substance use comorbidity is associated with greater symptomatology and a worse prognosis. Previous research has highlighted discrepancies in the level of use of health care services in individuals experiencing comorbidity compared to those with mental disorders or substance use disorders alone. The purpose of...
Preprint
Full-text available
A commentary on Mrdjenovich’s (2018) article "Religiously/spiritually involved, but in doubt or disbelief—why? Healthy?"
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionIndividuals with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) are at higher risk for experiencing high levels of psychological distress and low levels of social support. Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to examine perceived social support and psychological distress among Canadian adults with self-reporte...
Article
Full-text available
The cultural learning concept of Credibility Enhancing Displays (CREDs) concerns the extent to which behavioral models consistently live out their professed ideals. While researchers have suggested that past CRED exposure is an important variable for predicting who does and does not become a religious believer, it is unclear how CREDs relate to whe...
Article
Full-text available
Some health research suggests that religious and spiritual variables positively predict health-screening behaviours. However, much of the literature on this topic has utilized exclusively religious samples, or has sampled from populations without uniform access to health care. Either of these issues may have artificially inflated the relationship b...
Article
Full-text available
Nonreligion is often thought to be commensurate with nihilism or fatalism, resulting in the perception that the nonreligious have no source of meaning in life. While views to this effect have been advanced in various arenas, no empirical evaluation of such a view has been conducted. Using data from the 2008 American General Social Survey (N = ~1,20...
Article
Religion and spirituality, whether assessed as beliefs, or attitudes and behaviors, is broadly associated with higher levels of health. However, the current literature does not clarify whether being a None (i.e., nonreligious) or an atheist is associated with poorer health outcomes. In a related vein, the current literature has also not demonstrate...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP), developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake;...
Article
Full-text available
The existing literature addressing Religion and Spirituality supports the idea that attending church is positively associated with health outcomes. However, within this literature there has been an impoverished effort to determine whether the Religiously Unaffiliated will report these positive relationships. Using representative data from Ontario (...
Article
Problem: Giving and receiving honest and helpful feedback for leadership development is a common challenge in all types of organizations but particularly in academic medicine. Approach: At Memorial University of Newfoundland, in 2014, a consensus emerged to develop a new method for evaluating the leadership performance of the discipline chairs,...
Article
Whereas religion/religiosity (R/R) tends to have a positive relationship with psychological well-being in general, the relationship between R/R and Mastery is less clear. Research investigating R/R–mastery has reported a positive, nonsignificant, and negative relationship, and often uses informal composite measures to assess R/R without a substanti...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that Religion/Spirituality promotes a variety of positive health outcomes. However, despite reporting lower levels of Religion/Spirituality, non-believers report comparable levels of health to believers. The current study tested the hypothesis that Religion/Spirituality does not have a uniform effect on health for all persons, and...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and probabilities of comorbidities between self-reported ADD/ADHD and smoking, alcohol binge drinking, and substance use disorders (SUDs) from a national Canadian sample. Method: Data were taken from the Public Use Microdata File of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental H...
Article
Chief Student Affairs Officers (CSAOs) are senior-level student affairs personnel. In 2011, 33 CSAOs responded to a national survey and provided a professional perspective on field development, student services, as well as predicted five-year trends for student affairs. In 2013, 17 CSAOs responded to the same survey and provided further information...
Article
The relationship between atheism and health is poorly understood within the Religion/Spirituality-health literature. While the extant literature promotes the idea that Attendance, Prayer, and Religiosity are connected to positive health outcomes, these relationships have not been established when controlling for whether a person is an atheist. Data...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
We are interested in examining how a number of different social and behavioral characteristics vary over time, and how these variations predict change or stability in certain aspects of individual (non)religious identity. In this study, we will follow one group of people over a 10-year period, which will involve the use of three surveys administered 5 years apart. Eligibility is limited to the general United States population who is at least 18 years of age. The survey consists of a total of 101 questions pertaining to various preferences, beliefs, and behaviors (see below). Our main research questions are: (1.) Which IVs are (most) predictive of change from one (non)religious stability/change category to another? (2.) Which IVs statistically distinguish between atheists, agnostics, the nonreligious (i.e. nones), the institutionally religious, and the non- institutionally religious)? Which variables statistically predict changes across waves, and group membership, within waves, in (non)religious self-identification, i.e. atheists, agnostics, nonreligious (i.e. “nones”), institutional believers, and non-institutional believers? (3.) Which IVs are (most) predictive of religious measures for supernatural beliefs, religious background, belief in God, and religious practice? Independent Variables: (all selected from the research literature based upon their propensity to be related to [non]religious outcomes): 1. Schwartz Values (Openness to Change; Conservation) 2. Belief in Science 3. Intellectual Humility 4. Pluralism Orientation 5. Relationalism, Individualism, Collectivism Scale (RICS) 6. Images of God Scale (4 constructs) 7. Rational-Experiential Index 8. Index of Core Spiritual Experiences 9. Need to Belong/Social Affiliation
Project
Over the human lifespan, individual change occurs in a variety of social, cultural, and psychological characteristics. Research studies conducted by social and behavioural scientists aim to capture the nature of these changes, that is, how and why they occur, and the factors related to them as causes and consequences. This study will examine how nine different characteristics vary over time, and how these variations predict change or stability in certain aspects of identity.