David Roodman

David Roodman

About

44
Publications
12,007
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10,596
Citations
Citations since 2017
7 Research Items
5523 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (44)
Preprint
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Duflo (2001) exploits a 1970s primary schooling expansion to estimate the returns to schooling in Indonesia. Under the study's difference-in-differences (DID) design, two patterns in the data--negative selection in treatment and shallower wage-schooling gradients for younger workers--can together bias results upward. In response, I follow-up later;...
Preprint
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This paper critically reviews the research on the impact of immigration on employment and wages of natives in wealthy countries--where "natives" includes previous immigrants and their descendants. While written for a non-technical audience, the paper engages with technical issues and probes one particularly intense scholarly debate in an appendix....
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reviews the research on the impacts of alcohol taxation outcomes such as heavy drinking and mortality. Where data availability permits, reviewed studies are replicated and reanalyzed. Despite weaknesses in the majority of studies, and despite seeming disagreements among the more credible one--ones based on natural experiments--we can be...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reviews the research on the impacts of incarceration on crime. Where data availability permits, reviewed studies are replicated and reanalyzed. Among three dozen studies I reviewed, I obtained or reconstructed the data and code for eight. Replication and reanalysis revealed significant methodological concerns in seven and led to major re...
Article
Full-text available
The wild bootstrap was originally developed for regression models with heteroskedasticity of unknown form. Over the past 30 years, it has been extended to models estimated by instrumental variables and maximum likelihood and to ones where the error terms are (perhaps multiway) clustered. Like bootstrap methods in general, the wild bootstrap is espe...
Article
Extreme value theory models have found applications in myriad fields. Maximum likelihood (ML) is attractive for fitting the models because it is statistically efficient and flexible. However, in small samples, ML is biased to O(N⁻¹) and some classical hypothesis tests suffer from size distortions. This paper derives the analytical Cox-Snell bias co...
Article
The definition of Official Development Assistance (ODA), stewarded by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), just experienced its largest crisis since the early 1970s. Historically, ODA assessed the subsidy element of aid loans using a discount rate of 10 per cent. Low borrowing interest rates for donor governments enabled them to lend at rate...
Article
Full-text available
Multilevel multiprocess hazard models are routinely used by demographers to control for endogeneity and selection effects. These models consist of multilevel proportional hazards equations, and possibly probit equations, with correlated random effects. Although Stata currently lacks a specialized command for fitting systems of multilevel proportion...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In recent years, the interdisciplinary nature of global health has blurred the lines between medicine and social science. As medical journals publish non-experimental research articles on social policies or macro-level interventions, controversies have arisen when social scientists have criticized the rigor and quality of medical journal articles,...
Article
Clemens, Radelet, Bhavnani, and Bazzi (CRBB) argue that the most-cited cross-country studies of the impact of foreign aid can be reconciled if changed in certain ways. The shared finding is then, in the CRBB view, that more aid is followed on average by more growth. I exactly replicate the estimation results of CRBB and then question these results...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the interdisciplinary nature of global health has blurred the lines between medicine and social science. As medical journals publish non-experimental research articles on social policies or macro-level interventions, controversies have arisen when social scientists have criticized the rigor and quality of medical journal articles,...
Chapter
The pendulum of public perception is swinging against microfinance. That leaves the thoughtful observer, wary of extreme claims in any direction, with a puzzle. Is microfinance a bane or a boon or in between? This paper reviews the triumphs and troubles of the microfinance industry. It then sets forth a frame for assessing the impact of microfinanc...
Article
The most-noted studies on the impact of microcredit on households are based on a survey fielded in Bangladesh in the 1990s. Contradictions among them have produced lasting controversy and confusion. Pitt and Khandker (PK, 1998) apply a quasi-experimental design to 1991–92 data; they conclude that microcredit raises household consumption, especially...
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At the heart of many econometric models are a linear function and a normal error. Examples include the classical small-sample linear regression model and the probit, ordered probit, multinomial probit, tobit, interval regression, and truncated-distribution regression models. Because the normal distribution has a natural multidimensional generalizat...
Article
The difference and system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators are growing in popularity. As implemented in popular software, the estimators easily generate instruments that are numerous and, in system GMM, potentially suspect. A large instrument collection overfits endogenous variables even as it weakens the Hansen test of the instrument...
Article
The “difference” and “system” generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators for dynamic panel models are growing steadily in popularity. The estimators are designed for panels with short time dimensions (T), and by default they generate instruments sets whose number grows quadratically in T. The dangers associated with having many instruments rela...
Article
The recent literature contains many stories of how foreign aid affects economic growth. Aid raises growth in countries with good policies, or with difficult economic environments, or outside the tropics, or on average but with diminishing returns. The diversity of the results suggests that many are fragile. Seven important aid-growth papers are tes...
Article
The difference and system generalized method-of-moments estimators, developed by Holtz-Eakin, Newey, and Rosen (1988, Econometrica 56: 1371-1395); Arellano and Bond (1991, Review of Economic Studies 58: 277-297); Arellano and Bover (1995, Journal of Econometrics 68: 29-51); and Blundell and Bond (1998, Journal of Econometrics 87: 115-143), are incr...
Article
This chapter presents an overview of the sovereign-debt initiatives from the last twenty-five years. It examines the programs devised by creditors, namely the World Bank and IMF, during the 1980s and 1990s, that aimed at addressing the mounting problem of developing-country debt. The "austerity" lending of the 1980s and the structural adjustment pr...
Article
The Commitment to Development Index rates and ranks 21 rich countries on the "development-friendliness" of the full range of their policies. The project, a collaboration between the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Global Development (CGD) and Foreign Policy magazine, has released a revised index for 2005. The 2005 edition ranked Denmark on the to...
Article
The Commitment to Development Index of the Center for Global Development rates 21 rich countries on the “development-friendliness” of their policies. It is revised and updated annually. In the 2004 edition, the component on foreign assistance combines quantitative and qualitative measures of official aid, and of fiscal policies that support private...
Article
Full-text available
PIP This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected...
Article
The side effects of natural-resource-intensive industries catalog today's environmental problems.
Article
Government subsidies toward activities like logging, mining, overfishing, and driving contribute to environmental problems ranging from deforestation to air and water pollution. The money ultimately comes from consumers and taxpayers, effectively increasing taxes on work, investment, and consumption that discourage these very activities, thus placi...
Article
Most countries use taxes and subsidies that undermine the well-being of both the taxpayers and the environment. But there are some positive-and now proven alternatives. One of the most powerfull tools that a government can use to guide its economy is its tax code. What politicians often overlook is that even though taxes are inevitable distortionar...
Article
This article focuses on design changes which could - and are - incorporated into buildings to reduce energy needs. Included are climate-sensitive design; appropriate technologies for the location; better working as well as living; challenges including building codes, education, rating and labeling, financing know-how, utility involvement, governmen...
Article
Compared to most species, homo sapiens inhabits an extraordinarily large portion of the earth. From the Inuit who circle the Arctic to the Bedouin who range across the desert of the Arabian Peninsula, people have found ingenious ways to live in climates for which our biology does not predispose us. Today, almost all of us live in places where we wo...
Article
Utilities are switching to a new strategy, generating the same service with much less supply. This move was initiated in California in 1975 when the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) formally involved itself in hearings before California's Public Utilities Commission when they considered the request by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E) for a r...
Article
Rich countries arguably make their single greatest contribution to long-run development in poorer countries by creating new technologies. As both producers and consumers, people in developing countries benefit from technological advances. Thus, the advances in life expectancy that took Europe almost 150 years to achieve were reached in Latin Americ...

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