David Mark Richardson

David Mark Richardson
Stellenbosch University | SUN · Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology

PhD

About

719
Publications
401,771
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Introduction
Dave Richardson is a Distinguished Professor at Stellenbosch University. He is (co)author of over 480 papers, the books "Invasion Dynamics" and “Invading Ecological Networks” and has edited 7 books, including "Fifty years of invasion ecology" and "Biological Invasions in South Africa". Awards include the Hans Sigrist Prize (2006), the Herschel Medal from the Royal Society of South Africa (2012), and the Kwame Nkrumah Continental Award for Scientific Excellence from the African Union (2018).
Additional affiliations
January 2004 - present
Stellenbosch University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (719)
Article
Full-text available
Psidium cattleyanum (Myrtaceae) is a widespread invasive species in several countries, particularly on oceanic islands. The species was first recorded in South Africa in 1948 and has since established self-sustaining populations. We present the first comprehensive evaluation of the invasiveness of P. cattleyanum in South Africa by: 1) mapping the c...
Article
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Regulations provide the legal basis for managing biological invasions, but assessments of their effectiveness are rare. To assess the influence of national and local regulations on alien plant species richness and composition in a large protected area (Kruger National Park [KNP], South Africa) we surveyed tourist camps and staff villages for alien...
Article
Studies addressing the economic impacts of invasive alien species are biased towards ex-post assessments of the costs and benefits of control options, but ex-ante assessments are also required to deal with potentially damaging invaders. The polyphagous shot hole borer Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a recent and potentially dam...
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At least 29% of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems have been significantly modified by human activity (Ellis 2011). Total livestock biomass is 15 times greater than that of wild mammals (Bar-On et al. 2018). Crops such as maize, soybean, rice, and wheat cover 23% of available agricultural land (Ritchie and Roser 2013). Even where land is not farmed...
Article
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Alien plant invasions are increasing in extent worldwide and diverse measures are being applied to reduce impacts. Besides removing the invasive plants, follow-up measures are often needed to restore diversity and functionality of invaded ecosystems. Effective restoration requires long-term commitment and monitoring to determine the success achieve...
Article
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The ecological and evolutionary processes that allow alien species to establish and dominate native communities (i.e., become invasive) have been a rich area of research. Past areas of inquiry have included identifying the traits necessary to invade a community and/or determining how phylogenetic relatedness of the introduced species with the resid...
Article
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The total impact of an alien species was conceptualised as the product of its range size, local abundance and per-unit effect in a seminal paper by Parker et al. (Biol Invasions 1:3–19, 1999). However, a practical approach for estimating the three components has been lacking. Here, we generalise the impact formula and, through use of regression mod...
Chapter
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As human communities become increasingly interconnected through transport and trade, there has been a concomitant rise in both accidental and intentional species introductions, resulting in biological invasions. A warming global climate and the rapid movement of people and vessels across the globe have opened new air and sea routes, accelerated pro...
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Purpose of Review Within the discipline of invasion science, researchers studying different taxonomic groups have developed distinct ways of investigating the phenomenon of biological invasions. While there have been efforts to reconcile these differences, a lack of knowledge of diversity, biogeography and ecology hampers researchers seeking to und...
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Urban areas are hubs for invasive alien (non-native) species (IAS) which can cause major problems in and around urban areas. Urban conservation practitioners face complex decisions about which IAS require management, where and when these management interventions are necessary, and how to implement them effectively. While researchers increasingly ad...
Book
Until now, biological invasions have been conceptualised and studied mainly as a linear process: from introduction to establishment to spread. This volume charts a new course for the field, drawing on key developments in network ecology and complexity science. It defines an agenda for Invasion Science 2.0 by providing new framings and classificatio...
Article
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Compared to other facets of invasion science, the impacts of biological invasions have been understudied, but many studies have been published in the last decade. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence of impacts of invasions in South Africa. We classified information for individual species into ten ecological and four social categories of...
Article
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Numerous eucalypts (species in the genera Eucalyptus, Angophora and Corymbia) have been introduced to South Africa over the past two centuries. Several species have become naturalized or invasive and are the focus of control programmes. Because many eucalypts are difficult to identify in the field, the distribution patterns of many species in the c...
Chapter
Significance Statement Invasive alien plants (IAPs) in South African mountains are both threatening and supporting ecosystem services and human well-being for local communities, as well as those in nearby lowland areas. Higher elevation mountain areas have distinct IAP compositions compared to lower elevation mountains due to their unique climatic...
Article
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Restoring riparian ecosystems in human-dominated landscapes requires attention to complexity, and consideration of diverse drivers, social actors, and contexts. Addressing a Global North bias, this case study uses a mixed-method approach, integrating historical data, remote sensing techniques and stakeholder perceptions to guide restoration of a ri...
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The six major mountain ranges in South Africa support critically important ecosystem services—notably water production—and are rich in biodiversity and endemism. These mountains are threatened by detrimental land uses, unsustainable use of natural resources, climate change, and invasive alien plants. Invasive alien plants pose substantial and rapid...
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AimsUnderstanding the contributions of abiotic and biotic conditions to soil microbial diversity, structure, and function, remains a central focus in soil biology and biogeochemistry. Here we aim to determine how geography and host plant identity influence these different components of rhizosphere bacterial communities and endosymbionts associated...
Preprint
Full-text available
The total impact of an alien species was conceptualised as the product of its range size, local abundance and per-unit effect in a seminal paper by Parker and colleagues in 1999, but a practical approach for estimating the three components has been lacking. Here, we generalise the impact formula and, through use of regression models, estimate the r...
Article
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Because naturalized and invasive plant species have disproportionately smaller genome sizes compared to all angiosperms, genome size has been proposed as a general predictor of invasiveness. The family Cactaceae includes some of the most important invasive species worldwide, and it is one of the plant families with lowest number of genome size esti...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the increasing importance of Mediterranean pines as invasive non-native species outside the natural range of the genus, especially in temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphere where several species are important weeds. It first discusses human-mediated changes to the ranges of Mediterranean pines and their colonization and per...
Article
Recent studies on patterns of biological invasions in several plant families have confirmed general findings (e.g., taxa with larger native range sizes are more likely to become invasive; and taxa with longer residence time in new regions are more likely to naturalise) and highlighted some context-specific findings relevant for management (e.g., re...
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The Peruvian Peppertree ( Schinus molle L.) is an evergreen tree native to semiarid environments of Peru and Bolivia in South America. This tree has been introduced and widely planted for ornamental and forestry purposes in several semiarid regions of the world because its seedlings are easily established and have a high survival rate; it also grow...
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Pervasive human-induced environmental changes are increasingly causing species to move, with profound implications for their conservation and survival (e.g. Chen et al. 2011; Dawson et al. 2011). In a recently published piece on “Global policy for assisted colonization of species”, Brodie et al. (2021) call for assisted colonisation (also called ma...
Article
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Domestic and captive animals and cultivated plants should be recognised as integral components in contemporary ecosystems. They interact with wild organisms through such mechanisms as hybridization, predation, herbivory, competition and disease transmission and, in many cases, define ecosystem properties. Nevertheless, it is widespread practice for...
Article
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Our ability to predict the outcome of invasion declines rapidly as non-native species progress through intertwined ecological barriers to establish and spread in recipient ecosystems. This is largely due to the lack of systemic knowledge on key processes at play as species establish self-sustaining populations within the invaded range. To address t...
Article
Background and aims: Invasive species may undergo rapid evolution despite very limited standing genetic diversity. This so-called genetic paradox of biological invasions assumes that an invasive species has experienced (and survived) a genetic bottleneck and then underwent local adaptation in the new range. In this study, we test how often Austral...
Article
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Community and invasion ecology have mostly grown independently. There is substantial overlap in the processes captured by different models in the two fields, and various frameworks have been developed to reduce this redundancy and synthesize information content. Despite broad recognition that community and invasion ecology are interconnected, a pro...
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Aim: To compare genetic diversity and structure between Acacia dealbata populations sampled across the species’ native range in Australia and from its non-native ranges in Chile, Madagascar, New Zealand, Portugal, La Réunion island, South Africa and the United States, and to investigate the most likely introduction scenarios to non-native ranges. L...
Article
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The growing interest in commercial cultivation of bamboos (Poaceae subfamily Bambusoideae) has led to the introduction of new alien species into South Africa. The rate at which bamboos are being planted in South Africa is a cause for concern because of the impacts of bamboo invasions in other parts of the world. To understand the risks associated w...
Chapter
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This book contains 23 chapters divided into seven parts. Part I reviews the key hypotheses in invasion ecology that invoke biotic interactions to explain aspects of plant invasion dynamics; and reviews models, theories and hypotheses on how invasion performance and impact of introduced species in recipient ecosystems can be conjectured according to...
Article
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Unprecedented rates of introduction and spread of non-native species pose burgeoning challenges to biodiversity, natural resource management, regional economies, and human health. Current biosecurity efforts are failing to keep pace with globalization, revealing critical gaps in our understanding and response to invasions. Here, we identify four pr...
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Macroecology is the study of patterns, and the processes that determine those patterns, in the distribution and abundance of organisms at large scales, whether they be spatial (from hundreds of kilometres to global), temporal (from decades to centuries), and organismal (numbers of species or higher taxa). In the context of invasion ecology, macroec...
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Our understanding and management of biological invasions relies on our ability to classify and conceptualise the phenomenon. This need has stimulated the development of a plethora of frameworks, ranging in nature from conceptual to applied. However, most of these frameworks have not been widely tested and their general applicability is unknown. In...
Article
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The need to understand and manage biological invasions has driven the development of frameworks to circumscribe, classify, and elucidate aspects of the phenomenon. But how influential have these frameworks really been? To test this, we evaluated the impact of a pathway classification framework, a framework focussing on the introduction-naturalisati...
Article
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Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits o...
Article
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Sustainably managed non-native trees deliver economic and societal benefits with limited risk of spread to adjoining areas. However, some plantations have launched invasions that cause substantial damage to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while others pose substantial threats of causing such impacts. The challenge is to maximise the benefits o...
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UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHS) are areas of outstanding universal value and conservation importance. They are, however, threatened by a variety of global change drivers, including biological invasions. We assessed the current status of biological invasions and their management in 241 natural and mixed WHS globally by reviewing documents collated...
Article
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Invasive alien plants cause major environmental and economic impacts and preventing the establishment and spread of emerging invaders is crucial. Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa) is well established as a widespread invader in a number of countries, notably the USA and New Zealand, and was recently detected invading riparian ecosystems in South Africa'...
Article
Three species of Nassella have naturalized in South Africa. Nassella trichotoma and N. tenuissima are declared weeds under category 1b of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA) and occur mainly in the montane grasslands of the Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Nassella neesiana is not listed in NEM:BA but is naturalized...
Article
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Clearing invasive alien plants often facilitates secondary invasion and/or weedy native species dominance instead of native biodiversity recovery. Secondary invasion and/or weedy native species dominance in turn can present significant barriers to restoration by hindering the recovery of key native species. The problem of secondary invasion and wee...
Article
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In an era of profound biodiversity crisis, invasion costs, invader impacts, and human agency should not be dismissed.
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Ecological restoration is a global imperative to reverse widespread habitat loss and degradation, including by invasive alien plants. In South Africa’s Core Cape Subregion, alien tree invasions are widespread and their control continues to be a major undertaking. As funding is limited, active restoration interventions are rarely implemented and the...
Article
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Understanding the likely future impacts of biological invasions is crucial yet highly challenging given the multiple relevant environmental, socio‐economic and societal contexts and drivers. In the absence of quantitative models, methods based on expert knowledge are the best option for assessing future invasion trajectories. Here, we present an ex...
Article
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Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are ex...
Article
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Plant invasions impact on biodiversity by altering the composition of native communities by disrupting taxonomic and functional diversity. Non-native plants are often released from their natural enemies, which might result in a reduction of the attack of primary consumers. However, they can also be exposed to the attack of new herbivores that they...
Article
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Our ability to predict invasions has been hindered by the seemingly idiosyncratic context-dependency of individual invasions. However, we argue that robust and useful generalisations in invasion science can be made by considering “invasion syndromes” which we define as “a combination of pathways, alien species traits, and characteristics of the rec...
Chapter
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This chapter provides the first assessment of South African native vascular plants as naturalised and invasive species in other parts of the world. For naturalised species, Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) data were used, while for invasive species an assessment was made using the peer-reviewed literature, experience of the authors, and corr...
Chapter
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Biological invasions are having a moderately negative impact on human livelihoods and the environment in South Africa, but the situation is worsening. Predicting future trends is fraught with many assumptions, so this chapter takes an outcome-orientated approach. We start by envisaging four scenarios for how biological invasions might look like 200...
Chapter
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Thousands of plant species have been introduced, intentionally and accidentally, to South Africa from many parts of the world. Alien plants are now conspicuous features of many South African landscapes and hundreds of species have naturalised (i.e. reproduce regularly without human intervention), many of which are also invasive (i.e. have spread ov...
Chapter
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As in other parts of the world, urban ecosystems in South Africa have large numbers of alien species, many of which are invasive. Whereas invasions in South Africa’s natural systems are strongly structured by biotic and abiotic features of the region’s biomes, the imprint of these features is much less marked in urban ecosystems that exist as islan...
Chapter
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South Africa has much to offer as a location for the study of biological invasions. It is an ecologically diverse country comprised of nine distinct terrestrial biomes, four recognised marine ecoregions, and two sub-Antarctic Islands. The country has a rich and chequered socio-political history, and a similarly varied history of species introductio...
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This chapter describes the establishment of a Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology in South Africa, and reviews how its structure and functioning has evolved over time. The Centre has been guided in its activities by a set of principles that included conducting research on biological invasions that is world-class but relevant to South Africa,...
Chapter
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Ecological interactions, especially those that are beneficial (i.e. mutualism) or detrimental (i.e. parasitism), play important roles during the establishment and spread of alien species. This chapter explores the role of these interactions during biological invasions in South Africa, covering a wide range of taxonomic groups and interaction types....
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South Africa is a megadiverse country in terms of biodiversity, with continental South Africa composed of nine terrestrial biomes. This diversity is in part due to the wide range of climatic and topographic conditions that exist in the country. This chapter explores how these environmental features influence biological invasions (focusing on terres...