David H Rehkopf

David H Rehkopf
Stanford University | SU · Department of Medicine

About

234
Publications
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Publications

Publications (234)
Article
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Work schedule control has been linked to self-reported mental health, a measure that may suffer recall, social desirability, and common-method variance biases. The study proposes an alternative outcome measure to reduce survey measurement errors. It tests whether schedule control is associated with objective allostatic load biomarkers of chronic st...
Article
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Smoking-associated DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures are reproducible among studies of mostly European descent, with mixed evidence if smoking accelerates epigenetic aging and its relationship to longevity. We evaluated smoking-associated DNAm signatures in the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging (CRELES), including participants from t...
Article
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) transferred more than $67 billion to taxpayers in 2016. We estimate changes in spending that occur following EITC disbursement. We make three key advances in identifying the effect: using estimated EITC dollar benefits to differentiate the impact of low from high benefits; estimating the impact by liquid assets;...
Article
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The possibility of a massive oil spill in the Red Sea is increasingly likely. The Safer, a deteriorating oil tanker containing 1.1 million barrels of oil, has been deserted near the coast of Yemen since 2015 and threatens environmental catastrophe to a country presently in a humanitarian crisis. Here, we model the immediate public health impacts of...
Article
Policy Points • The focus of successful aging is on the social contexts that enable individuals to be productively engaged and secure, with an emphasis on equity. There is currently no index to measure progress towards this goal at the US state level. • We developed an empirical index for the evaluation of US state adaptation to societal aging acr...
Article
Background: Efforts to explain the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) often focus on genetic factors or social determinants of health. There is little evidence on the comparative predictive value of each, which could guide clinical and public health investments in measuring genetic versus social information. We compared the variance in CVD-rel...
Article
In 2019, there were nearly 50,000 opioid-related deaths in the US, with substantial variation across sociodemographic groups and geography. To systematically investigate patterns of racial/ethnic inequities in opioid-related mortality, we used joinpoint regression models to estimate the trajectory of the opioid epidemic among non-Hispanic Black ver...
Article
Rationale Having low subjective social status is associated with an array of negative health outcomes. However, the mechanisms linking subjective social status to health are not yet clear. One candidate mechanism is negative affect. Researchers have proposed that having low subjective social status may be associated with higher levels of negative a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The uptake of machine learning (ML) approaches in the social and health sciences has been rather slow, and research using ML for social and health research questions remains fragmented. This may be due to the separate development of research in the computational/data versus social and health sciences as well as a lack of accessible overviews and ad...
Article
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Background: As the global climate changes in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, weather and temperature are expected to become increasingly variable. Although heat sensitivity is a recognized clinical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, few studies have examined the i...
Article
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Background: A multitude of empirical evidence documents links between education and health, but this focuses primarily on educational attainment and not on characteristics of the school setting. Little is known about the extent to which aggregate characteristics of the school setting, such as student body demographics, are associated with adult he...
Article
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Aims: Previous research found an association between leisure time activities such as arts and cultural activities and self-reported health over the life course—a measure prone to response bias. This study tested the relationship between arts and cultural activities and allostatic load, a biomarker of chronic stress, and examined risky health behavi...
Article
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Background To estimate the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and cancer mortality in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population while controlling for education, occupation, and income. Methods Data were obtained from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 1994 (N = 7817) and 1999–2002 (N =...
Article
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Background: Mendelian Randomization (MR) studies exploiting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predictive of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) have suggested that shorter genetically determined telomere length (gTL) is associated with increased risks of degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases, while longer gTL is...
Article
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Background Studies examining risk factors for dementia have typically focused on testing a priori hypotheses within specific risk factor domains, leaving unanswered the question of what risk factors across broad and diverse research fields may be most important to predicting dementia. We examined the relative importance of 65 sociodemographic, earl...
Preprint
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Life expectancy differences across racial/ethnic and economic groups persist in the U.S., but little is known about the combined effects of racial and income segregation in explaining old age survival across neighborhoods. We operationalized neighborhoods using census tracts, with 65,655 of them nested within 3,015 counties, nested within 49 states...
Article
Background: The etiology of breast cancer is a complex system of interacting factors from multiple domains. New knowledge about breast cancer etiology continues to be produced by the research community, and the communication of this knowledge to other researchers, practitioners, decision makers, and the public is a challenge. Methods: We updated...
Article
Poverty has consistently been linked to poor mental health and risky health behaviors, yet few studies evaluate the effectiveness of programs and policies to address these outcomes by targeting poverty itself. We test the hypothesis that the earned income tax credit (EITC)—the largest U.S. poverty alleviation program—improves short-term mental heal...
Article
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Behavioral and social scientists have identified many nonbiological predictors of mortality. An important limitation of much of this research, however, is that risk factors are not studied in comparison with one another or from across different fields of research. It therefore remains unclear which factors should be prioritized for interventions an...
Preprint
We conducted a prospective analysis of incident dementia and its association with 65 sociodemographic, early-life, economic, health and behavioral, social, and genetic risk factors in a sample of 7,908 adults over the age of 50 from the nationally representative US-based Health and Retirement Study. We used traditional survival analysis methods (Fi...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to examine whether psychological distress mediates the relationship between income and increases in body mass index in adolescent girls. To answer this question, we analyzed data from 2379 participants in the longitudinal NHLBI Growth and Health Study using regularized regression and path analysis. The exposu...
Article
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The objective is to identify cofactors of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a Latin American population, specifically the association of LTL with 36 socio-demographic, early childhood, and health characteristics, as well as with DNA sample collection and storage procedures. The analysis is based on longitudinal information from a subsample of 1,26...
Article
Background Relatively few studies have examined the effects of layoffs on remaining workers, although the effects of layoffs and downsizing events may extend beyond those employees who lose their jobs. Methods We examined the effects of layoffs on mental healthcare utilisation and injury risk among workers at 30 US plants between 2003 and 2013. We...
Article
Education is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While the majority of the literature has focused on years of educational attainment or degree attainment, fewer studies examine the role of educational quality in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We tested the hypothesis that average state-level educational...
Article
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Purpose There are clearly documented inequalities in cancer incidence by socioeconomic position, but it is unclear whether this is due primarily to differences in tobacco exposure and screening practices or to other factors. Methods Our study included 741,373 incident cases of invasive cancer from 2008 to 2012 in California. We calculated age-stan...
Article
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Background: There is ongoing debate about whether education or socioeconomic status (SES) should be inputs into cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction algorithms and clinical risk adjustment models. It is also unclear whether intervening on education will affect CVD, in part because there is controversy regarding whether education is a determinan...
Article
Background: Industrial blue-collar workers face multiple work-related stressors, but evidence regarding the burden of mental illness among today's blue-collar men and women remains limited. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we examined health and employment records for 37,183 blue- and white-collar workers employed by a single US alum...
Article
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Objectives The current study examined how prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and birth weight cluster between births within women and between women who are sisters. Methods Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we utilized nested, multivariable hierarchical linear models to examine the corr...
Data
Table S1: 285 Regression and Random Forest Predictor variables, NGHS data label and variable definition Italics indicates factor is likely to be effected by prior obesity at baseline. Table S2: List of variables used as control variables for propensity score matching models, NGHS available upon request Table S3: Variables with Significant Race (B...
Article
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Objective Rank the importance of potentially modifiable psychosocial, dietary and environmental risk and protective factors for female adolescent obesity in order to target and inform public health prevention efforts. Utilizing the largest dataset available that captures the onset of the adolescent obesity surge in the United States, the study prov...
Article
Background: Recent data suggest that the United States is in the midst of an epidemiologic transition in the leading cause of death. Objective: To examine county-level sociodemographic differences in the transition from heart disease to cancer as the leading cause of death in the United States. Design: Observational study. Setting: U.S. deat...
Article
Objective There is a large literature linking current BMI to levels of cardiovascular risk biomarkers, but it is unknown whether measures of BMI earlier in the life course and maximum BMI are predictive of current levels of biomarkers. The objective of the current study was to determine how current, maximum and age-25 BMI among individuals over the...
Article
The earned income tax credit (EITC) is the largest U.S. poverty alleviation program, yet few studies examine its effects on the health of recipients' children. We employed quasi-experimental techniques to test the hypothesis that EITC refund receipt is associated with short-term improvements in child health. The data set included children surveyed...
Article
Rich literatures across multiple disciplines document the association between increased educational attainment and improved health. While quasi-experimental studies have exploited variation in educational policies to more rigorously estimate the health effects of education, there remains disagreement about whether education and health are causally...
Article
Existing research on neighborhood environment and gestational weight gain (GWG) focuses on point-in-time measures of neighborhood context. This precludes understanding how long-term exposure to adverse neighborhood environments influences GWG. We estimated associations between average exposure to and trajectories of long-term neighborhood socioecon...
Article
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Recent studies have examined the risk of poverty throughout the life course, but few have considered how transitioning in and out of poverty shape the dynamic heterogeneity and mortality disparities of a cohort at each age. Here we use state-by-age modeling to capture individual heterogeneity in crossing one of three different poverty thresholds (d...
Data
(A) HRS logistic regression for each poverty threshold: Dependent Variable = Survival at time t+1. (B) HRS logistic regression: Dependent Variable = Poverty status at time t+1. (C) NLSY79-pre-1994 logistic regression for each poverty threshold: Dependent Variable = Survival at time t+1. (D) NLSY79-pre-1994 logistic regression for each poverty thres...
Data
The distribution of non-response based on state and age. All panels are derived from HRS and NLSY79 data-sets. a, c, and e: The proportion of non response at age x + 1 based on being below an income threshold (red) or above an income threshold (blue) at age x. Income thresholds are defined as 1×, 2×, or 3× the ‘official’ poverty threshold, respecti...
Data
Pooled data from HRS and NLSY79. The dashed vertical line in each figure depicts where NLSY79 and HRS data are joined (at age 50). a, c, e: Weighted observations in each state at each age. b, d, f: Proportion of individuals in each state at each age. Each row examines the same population but differs in the threshold used to classify individuals int...
Data
Difference in months between interviews for HRS (left) and NSLY79 (right). HRS is normally distributed about 23.8 months. NLSY is binormally distrbuted about 12.4 and 24.1 months (pre and post-1994 interviews). (TIF)
Data
Age distribution at each interview wave. For HRS (a) and NSLY79 (b). (TIF)
Article
With the publication of "Repeal of Comprehensive Background Check Policies and Firearm Homicide and Suicide," the synthetic control method joins a group of useful statistical methods for the analysis of observational data imported to the field of epidemiology from economics and political science. These approaches include fixed effects (2), differen...
Article
We interrogate state-level clustering of polygenic scores at different points in the life course and variation in the association of mean polygenic scores in a respondent's state of birth with corresponding phenotypes. The polygenic scores for height and smoking show the most state-level clustering (2 to 4 percent) with relatively little clustering...
Article
The incomparability of old and new classification systems for describing the same data can be seen as a missing-data problem, and, under certain assumptions, multiple imputation may be used to "bridge" 2 classification systems. One example of such a change is the introduction of detailed Asian-American race/ethnicity classifications on the 2003 ver...
Article
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BackgroundA positive association of socioeconomic position and health is well established in high-income countries. In poorer nations, however, higher income individuals often have more cardiovascular risk factors (including obesity) than do those with less income. Our study goal was to estimate the effects of receiving a living wage (340% higher i...
Article
Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of the literature relating early life socioeconomic position (SEP) to breast cancer incidence and mortality from a critical period and life-course trajectory perspective. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to identify cohort studies that evaluated the impact of early life SEP ind...
Article
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Background Social and economic factors are important predictors of health and of recognized importance for health systems. However, machine learning, used elsewhere in the biomedical literature, has not been extensively applied to study relationships between society and health. We investigate how machine learning may add to our understanding of soc...
Article
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Objective: To determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and annual health care costs in Veterans. Patients and methods: The sample included 9942 subjects (mean age, 59±11 years) undergoing a maximal exercise test for clinical reasons between January 2005 and December 2012. Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as a percent...
Article
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We examined the contribution of social disadvantage to the black-white disparity in preterm birth. Analyses included linked vital and hospital discharge records from 127,358 black and 615,721 white singleton California births from 2007–11. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by 4 logistic regression models for 2 outcomes: early (<32 wks) and moderate (...
Article
Objectives: To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. Methods: We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of...
Article
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Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indi...
Article
Objectives: To determine the generalizability of crowdsourced, electronic health data from self-selected individuals using a national survey as a reference. Methods: Using the world's largest crowdsourcing platform in 2015, we collected data on characteristics known to influence cardiovascular disease risk and identified comparable data from the...
Article
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While there is an association of greater short-term weight gain with childbearing among women, less is known about longer-term weight gain, whether men have similar gains, and how this varies by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Our cohort consisted of a nationally representative sample of 7,356 Americans with oversampling of Black and His...
Article
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Background The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica has one of the highest old-age life expectancies in the world, but the underlying biological mechanisms of this longevity are not well understood. As DNA methylation is hypothesized to be a component of biological aging, we focused on this malleable epigenetic mark to determine its association with curr...
Article
Background: Women's experience of childhood adversity may contribute to their children's risk of obesity. Possible causal pathways include higher maternal weight and gestational weight gain, which have been associated with both maternal childhood adversity and obesity in offspring. Methods: This study included 6718 mother-child pairs from the Na...
Article
Studies on the physical and social characteristics of the workplace have begun to provide evidence for the role of specific workplace factors on health. However, the overall contribution of the workplace to health has not been considered. Estimates of the influences on health across domains of the work environment are a critical first step toward u...
Article
There is uncertainty about whether biological and anthropometric measures that are clinical risk factors for disease are universally associated with chronological age, or whether these correlations vary depending on the social and economic context. The answer to this question has implications for the malleability of biological aging. To examine thi...
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Little is known about how the health status of incoming refugees to the United States compares to that of the general population. We used logistic regression to assess whether country of origin is associated with prevalence of hypertension, obesity, type-II diabetes, and tobacco-use among Iranian, Ukrainian and Vietnamese refugees arriving in Calif...
Conference Paper
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