David Peebles

David Peebles
University of Huddersfield · School of Human and Health Sciences

Ph.D.

About

71
Publications
22,763
Reads
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951
Citations
Introduction
David Peebles is a Professor of Cognitive Science at the University of Huddersfield. David does research in Cognitive Science, Cognitive Psychology and Artificial Intelligence.

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Thirty years after the publication of Marr's seminal book Vision (Marr, 1982) the papers in this topic consider the contemporary status of his influential conception of three distinct levels of analysis for information-processing systems, and in particular the role of the algorithmic and representational level with its cognitive-level concepts. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
We consider approaches to explanation within the cognitive sciences that begin with Marr’s computational level (e.g., purely Bayesian accounts of cognitive phenomena) or Marr’s implementational level (e.g., reductionist accounts of cognitive phenomena based only on neural level evidence) and argue that each is subject to fundamental limitations whi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For a more robust robot capable of adapting to the changing environment, the goal of this work is to bridge the gap between abstract plans and robot action execution. Our platform combines planning, reasoning and learning new success values incrementally based on experience. Refinement involves reasoning over action execution failure using anomaly...
Article
Early screening for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is crucial for disease management, intervention, and healthcare resource accessibility. Medical assessments of AD diagnosis include the utilisation of biological markers (biomarkers), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These m...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The COVID-19 crisis has fundamentally transformed the healthcare training and education landscape, resulting in a desperate need for a system-wide exploration of scalable, flexible, user-friendly and resilient solutions that mitigate the long-term impact on the development of a skilled healthcare workforce that can deliver high-quality patient care...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The requirement for autonomous robots to exhibit higher-level cognitive skills by planning and adapting in an ever changing environment and situation is indeed a great challenge for the AI community. In robotics task planning, the typical use of automated planners entails using fixed action descriptions that neglect the subtle differences that appe...
Article
Early detection is the key to successfully tackling dementia, a neurocognitive condition common among the elderly. Therefore, screening using technological platforms such as mobile applications (apps) may provide an important opportunity to speed up the diagnosis process and improve accessibility. Due to the lack of research into dementia diagnosis...
Article
Column 3 of Table 1 should be removed and a bibliographic details has been added in the references found in “Medical exam reference” and “Study performance reference” columns in Table 2.
Article
Dementia is an umbrella term for multiple neurocognitive conditions that affect one’s functional independence making daily activities challenging. Early screening can be critical for successful management of the disease, thus tools implemented within mobile technology to speed up accessibility are becoming more common. This research critically anal...
Article
Machine learning (ML) is a branch of computer science that is rapidly gaining popularity within the healthcare arena due to its ability to explore large datasets to discover useful patterns that can be interepreted for decision-making and prediction. ML techniques are used for the analysis of clinical parameters and their combinations for prognosis...
Article
Full-text available
Existing early detection methods that deal with the pre-diagnosis of dementia have been criticised as not being comprehensive as they do not measure certain cognitive functioning domains besides being inaccessible. A more realistic approach is to develop a comprehensive outcome that includes cognitive functioning of dementia, as this will offer a r...
Article
Full-text available
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a neurodevelopmental condition associated with verbal and nonverbal communication, social interactions, and behavioural complications that is becoming increasingly common in many parts of the globe. Identifying individuals on the spectrum has remained a lengthy process for the past few decades due to the f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
I present two models of mental rotation created within the ACT-R theory of cognition, each of which implements one of the two main strategies identified in the literature. A holistic strategy rotates mental images as a whole unit whereas piecemeal strategy decomposes the mental image into pieces and rotates them individually. Both models provide a...
Article
Full-text available
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition associated with significant healthcare costs; early diagnosis could substantially reduce these. The economic impact of autism reveals an urgent need for the development of easily implemented and effective screening methods. Therefore, time-efficient ASD screening is imperative to he...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
I present a novel approach to modelling spatial mental imagery within the ACT-R cognitive architecture. The proposed method augments ACT-R's representation of visual objects to enable the processing of spatial extent and incorporates a set of linear and affine transformation functions to allow the manipulation of internal spatial representations. T...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that describes certain challenges associated with communication (verbal and non-verbal), social skills, and repetitive behaviors. Typically, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in a clinical environment by licensed specialists using procedures which can be lengthy and cost-ineffective. Therefor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a study that investigates how graph format and training can affect undergraduate psychology students' ability to interpret three-variable bar and line graphs. A pre and post-test design was employed to assess 76 students' conceptual understanding of three-variable graphs prior to and after a training intervention. The study revealed that...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) surgery using Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices is a multi-sensory, holistic surgical training experience. A multimedia combination including 360° videos, three-dimensional interaction, and stereoscopic videos in VR has been developed to enable trainees to experience a realistic surgery environment. The innovation allows trai...
Chapter
Full-text available
We report an experiment investigating how concurrent verbal-isation during a task can affect performance (a so-called “re-activity” effect). Participants studied three-variable line graphswhile (a) concurrently thinking aloud or (b) silently studied thegraphs and provided an interpretation once they felt they hadunderstood it. Results showed that v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The widely demonstrated ability of humans to deal with multiple representations of information has a number of important implications for a proposed standard model of the mind (SMM). In this paper we outline four and argue that a SMM must incorporate (a) multiple representational formats and (b) meta-cognitive processes that operate on them. We the...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Surgical training methods are evolving with the technological advancements, including the application of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality. However, 28 to 40% of novice residents are not confident in performing a major surgical procedure. VR surgery, an immersive VR (iVR) experience, was developed using Oculus Rift and Leap Motio...
Article
Blokpoel reminds us of the importance of consistency of function across Marr’s levels, but we argue that the approach to ensuring consistency that he advocates — a strict relation through exact implementation of the higher-level function at the lower level — is unnecessarily restrictive. We show that it forces over-complication of the computational...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are difficulties in acquiring surgical skills through implicit and indirect teaching methods. These skills include decision-making, situational awareness, teamwork and communication, and leadership. Industries exploiting Human Factors methodologies are imperative to developing training methods capable of improving skill acquisition. This proj...
Poster
Full-text available
How and why do experts implement advanced cognitions and behaviours? •How do cognitions differ from trainees? •How can differences be taught explicitly? ..'you can’t see it, it’s just feel. That is one of the reasons why the trainees feel it’s very difficult when it comes to this area.They don’t understand what I’m doing.' Aim:To create a virtual...
Technical Report
Report for Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) Defence and Security Analysis Division, Ministry of Defence.
Article
Full-text available
The distinction between informational and computational equivalence of representations, first articulated by Larkin and Simon (1987) has been a fundamental principle in the analysis of diagrammatic reasoning which has been supported empirically on numerous occasions. We present an experiment that investigates this principle in relation to the perfo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a model of object location memory developed within the ACT-R cognitive architecture and compare the model's performance to that of human participants in a modi-fied version of the toy test. The results of the experiment reveal that the accuracy of location recall is significantly affected by both the number of objects in the set and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report an experiment investigating how concurrent verbalisation during a task can affect performance (a so-called “reactivity” effect). Participants studied three-variable line graphs while (a) concurrently thinking aloud or (b) silently studied the graphs and provided an interpretation once they felt they had understood it. Results showed that...
Conference Paper
This research explores how digital media could be used to enhance engagement between an audience and a presenter, orator, or lecturer. Our aim is to think creatively about what a presentation could become and how the use of digital media technologies could form an intrinsic part of the presenter/audience experience. To help anchor this concept, we...
Article
Full-text available
We report three experiments investigating the ability of undergraduate college students to comprehend 2 x 2 "interaction" graphs from two-way factorial research designs. Factorial research designs are an invaluable research tool widely used in all branches of the natural and social sciences, and the teaching of such designs lies at the core of many...
Article
Full-text available
I present a model of expert comprehension performance for 2×2 "interaction" graphs typically used to present data from two-way factorial research designs. Developed using the ACTR cognitive architecture, the model simulates the cognitive and perceptual operations involved in interpreting interaction graphs and provides a detailed characterisation o...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how graph format (bar or line graph) can affect undergraduate psychol-ogy students' ability to interpret three-variable 'interaction' data typically found in undergraduate psychology courses. The study revealed that significant differences in interpretation are produced by graph format in four key subtasks; identifying avera...
Article
Full-text available
Empirically, the onset-rhyme structure of syllabic constituents has been revealed in several types of experiment: using word-games [1], or auditory priming stimuli or visual priming of auditory stimuli [2, 3]. These experiments are designed supposing that perception of the auditory prime and the separate perception of a visual target (text or image...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a model of dynamic decision making in the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) task, developed using the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This task is a simple simulation of a water tank in which the water level must be kept constant whilst the inflow and outflow changes at varying rates. The basic functions of the model are based aroun...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments examined people's strategies when orienting with a map in outdoor scenes within unfamiliar urban environments. We investigated how the 3D visual scene and the 2D layout geometry influenced people's choices of features when matching the scene and the map, and studied the problems they encountered when doing so. Results support previo...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss a number of recent studies that demonstrate the use of rational analysis (Anderson, 1990) and cognitive modelling methods to understand complex interactive behaviour involved in three tasks: (1) icon search, (2) graph reading, and (3) information retrieval on the World Wide Web (WWW). We describe the underlying theoretica...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments investigated effects of emergent features on perceptual judgments of comparative magnitude in three diagrammatic representations: kiviat charts, bar graphs, and line graphs. Experiment 1 required participants to compare individual values; whereas in Experiment 2 participants had to integrate several values to produce a global compar...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss a number of recent studies that demonstrate the use of rational analysis (Anderson, 1990) and cognitive modelling methods to understand complex interactive behaviour involved in three tasks: (1) icon search, (2) graph reading, and (3) information retrieval on the World Wide Web (WWW). We describe the underlying theoretica...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous work is reviewed and an experiment described to examine the spatial and strategic cognitive factors impacting on human orientation in the ‘drop-off’ static orientation scenario, where a person is matching a scene to a map to establish directional correspondence. The relative roles of salient landmarks and scene content and geometry, includ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigates preference to sort objects on the basis of either concrete or abstract features in children with and without autism. Participants were asked to sort a set of books into two groups that could be differentiated according to concrete (color, size) or abstract criteria (category membership: sports/games). The results show...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss a number of recent studies that demonstrate the use of rational analysis (Anderson, 1990) and cognitive modelling methods to understand complex interactive behaviour involved in three tasks: icon search, graph reading, and information retrieval on the World Wide Web. We describe the underlying theoretical assumptions of r...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter we discuss a number of recent studies that demonstrate the use of rational analysis (Anderson, 1990) and cognitive modelling methods to understand complex interactive behaviour involved in three tasks: (1) icon search, (2) graph reading, and (3) information re- trieval on the World Wide Web (WWW). We describe the underlying theoreti...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss a number of recent studies that demonstrate the use of rational analysis (Anderson, 1990) and cognitive modelling methods to understand complex interactive behaviour involved in three tasks: icon search, graph reading, and information retrieval on the World Wide Web. We describe the underlying theoretical assumptions of r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a computational model of human perfor- mance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a computer-based task in which people must withhold responses to infrequent and unpredictable stimuli during a period of rapid and rhythmic responding to frequent stimuli. The model, formulated within the ACT-R cog- nitive architecture, accounts for...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract An experiment is reported which investigates the dis- torting eects of various graphical features in three dif- ferent diagrammatic,representations of the same infor- mation. The experiment revealed signican t distortions in users’ perceptual judgements of distance both be- tween the dieren t diagrams and within each diagram. The results o...
Article
Full-text available
We report an investigation into the processes involved in a common graph-reading task using two types of Cartesian graph. We describe an experiment and eye movement study, the results of which show that optimal scan paths assumed in the task analysis approximate the detailed sequences of saccades made by individuals. The research demonstrates the c...
Article
Full-text available
Models of graph-based reasoning have typically accounted for the variation in problem solving performance with different graph types in terms of a task analysis of the problem relative to the particular visual properties of each graph type [e.g., Human Computer Interaction 8 (1993) 353; Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Conference of the Cogni...
Article
Full-text available
Although perceptual categorization has been studied extensively in psychology, response times in categorization tasks have only recently become an important research topic (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). In this article, we propose a connectionist model of categorization RT, called CONCAT, which aims to provide a joint account of response times and ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current models of graph understanding tyopically address the encodogn and interpretive processes involved during the course and largely focus on the visual properties of the graph. An experiemnt comparing reasoning with tow types of graph is presented. On the basis and scope of exisiting models, performance with the two graphs would niot be predict...
Article
Full-text available
We report an experiment investigating graph comprehension. Verbal protocol data were collected while participants at-tempted to understand six bar or line graphs representing re-lationships between three variables. Analysis of the verbal protocols revealed significant differences in the level of com-prehension between the two graph types. Specifica...
Article
Full-text available
Focusing on its lessons for deriving and using space syntax measures, particularly those related to isovists, this paper explores the potential for identifying spatial predictors of people's orientation performance with a map. Matching a map to a visible scene, to decide in which direction one is facing, is argued to be a fundamental cognitive subt...
Article
Full-text available
We report an experiment which seeks to determine how novice users' conceptual understanding of graphs differs depending on the nature of the interaction with them. Undergraduate psy-chology students were asked to interpret three-variable "inter-action" data in either bar or line graph form and were required to either think aloud while doing so or t...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Models of graph-based reasoning have typically account- ed for the variation in problem,solving performance,with different graph types in terms of a task analysis of the problem relative to the particular visual properties of each graph type (e.g. Lohse, 1993; Peebles, Cheng & Shadbolt 1999, submitted). This approach has been used to expla...
Article
Full-text available
Current models of graph understanding tyopically address the encodogn and interpretive processes involved during the course and largely focus on the visual properties of the graph. An experiemnt comparing reasoning with tow types of graph is presented. On the basis and scope of exisiting models, performance with the two graphs would niot be predict...

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