David Owens

David Owens
University of Leeds · Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS)

MD

About

117
Publications
13,365
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,292
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1986 - present
University of Leeds
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Non-fatal self-harm is one of the commonest reasons for adults' emergency hospital attendance. Although strongly associated with fatal and non-fatal repetition, there is weak evidence about effective interventions-and no clear NICE guidance or clinical consensus concerning aftercare. We examined the practicability of a definitive trial...
Article
Full-text available
Published research shows small-to-medium effects of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) on reducing psychotic symptoms. Given the ongoing development of CBTp interventions, the aim of this systematic review is to examine whether the effectiveness of CBTp has changed across time. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL were searched fo...
Article
Self-harm remains a serious public health concern, not least because of its strong link with suicide. Twenty-five years ago we lamented the deficits in UK services, research and policy. Since then, there has not been nearly enough effective action in any of these three domains. It is time for action.
Article
Background Term babies born smaller than expected for a given gestation are at greater risk of short- and long-term health conditions. Breastmilk is the optimum nutrition for all babies and offers specific protection from the risks that follow from being born small for gestational age. Aim To explore breastfeeding outcomes for babies born with a b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition frequent. Evidence for effective interventions to reduce self-harm is limited. Long term follow-up of existing studies is rare. Methods: Extended follow up, from 18 to at least 36-months, of the SHIFT trial: a pragmatic, multi-centre, individually-randomised, controlled trial involving y...
Article
Full-text available
Published research shows small-to-medium effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) on reducing psychotic symptoms. Given the on-going development of CBTp interventions, the aim of this systematic review is to examine whether the effectiveness of CBTp has changed across time. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL were searched fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition rates high. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family therapy (FT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU). Design A pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised...
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition occurs in a high proportion of these cases. Scarce evidence exists for effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. Methods This pragmatic, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of family therapy versus treatment as usual was done at 40 UK Child and Adolescent Mental Health Se...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition occurs in a high proportion of these cases. Scarce evidence exists for effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. Methods: This pragmatic, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of family therapy versus treatment as usual was done at 40 UK Child and Adolescent Mental Healt...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition frequent. Evidence for effective interventions to reduce self-harm is limited. Long term follow-up of existing studies is rare. Methods: Extended follow up, from 18 to at least 36-months, of the SHIFT trial: a pragmatic, multi-centre, individually-randomised, controlled trial involvin...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Some strains of C. difficile produce a binary toxin, in addition to the main C. difficile virulence factors (toxins A and B). There have been conflicting reports regarding the role of binary toxin and its relationship to the severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods: Samples, isolates and clinical data were collected as pa...
Article
This month’s Journal publishes two important studies concerned with the use of risk assessment scales after selfharm, one a systematic review and the other a multicentre cohort study. We agree with the authors: that each study adds weight to the existing evidence that points towards avoiding the use of such scales in clinical practice.
Article
Background Assessment and aftercare for people who self-harm needs to be related to an understanding of risks of adverse outcomes. We aimed to determine whether self-harm by a combination of methods and its early repetition are associated with adverse outcomes – especially non-fatal repetition and suicide. Method 10,829 consecutive general hospita...
Article
Background: Characteristics of self-harm differ across ages, but there is little work identifying age-related differences in younger people. Young people entering adolescence face emotionally and developmentally different challenges to those entering adulthood. This study investigates how Emergency Department (ED) presentations and management of s...
Article
We take issue with the presentation of the findings of the study by Armitage et al ,[1][1] on two counts. First, the title is misleading because there is no evidence that the intervention reduced suicidal behaviour, which was not measured as an outcome – not even through the obvious mechanism of
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-harm is common in the community with a lifetime prevalence of 13 %. It is associated with an elevated risk of overall mortality and suicide. People who harm themselves are high users of public services. Estimates of the 1-year risk of repetition vary between 5 and 15 % per year. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effectivenes...
Article
Self-poisoning and self-injury have widely differing incidences in hospitals and in the community, which has led to confusion about the concept of self-harm. Categorising self-harm simply by a method may be clinically misleading because many hospital-attending patients switch from one method of harm to another on subsequent episodes. The study set...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively evaluate outcomes measured for patients attending the Leeds Addiction Unit (LAU) for cannabis use disorders. Design/methodology/approach – The authors performed a retrospective evaluation of data for clients referred to LAU for cannabis use disorders. These clients are routinely allocated t...
Article
Background: Nonfatal self-harm is the strongest predictor of suicide, with some of the risk factors for subsequent suicide after nonfatal self-harm being similar to those for suicide in general. However, we do not have sufficient information regarding the medical care provided to nonfatal self-harm episodes preceding suicide. Aims: Our study sough...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Around 150,000 people each year attend hospitals in England due to self-harm, many of them more than once. Over 5,000 people die by suicide each year in the UK, a quarter of them having attended hospital in the previous year because of self-harm. Self-harm is a major identifiable risk factor for suicide. People receive variable care at...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To explore the experiences of patients with chronic physical illness in relation to suicidal behaviours and ideas. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Methods: Fourteen patients with either multiple sclerosis or stage 5 chronic kidney disease were interviewed. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Re...
Article
Full-text available
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are time-consuming and costly so funders often require evidence of feasibility before they will fund large scale trials 1. Feasibility studies can provide invaluable evidence relating to the practicalities of conducting large RCTs and can improve their likelihood of success. However, conducting feasibility studie...
Conference Paper
Background: Chronic physical illness is often associated with decreased quality of life and a number of practical, psychological and social problems. Research has identified a link between an increased risk of suicide and several medical conditions. It is plausible that the stress associated with managing a chronic illness plays a role in increasin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aims: This study evaluated the treatment offered to patients with cannabis use disorders Methods: Between 2005 and 2011 there were over three hundred referrals to the Leeds Addiction Unit (LAU) for clients requesting help with cannabis use specifically. Out of the 300 patient we did a retrospective data analysis of 158 clients. Clients referred...
Article
Suicide rates are generally elevated after episodes of non-fatal self-harm, especially among older adults. Evidence suggests that non-fatal and fatal self-harm are more closely related in older than in younger adults. Older people who have self-harmed need specialist assessment followed by good short-term and long-term evidence-based care.
Chapter
IntroductionConfounding -What is it?A Plausible Example of Possible ConfoundingSome Ways to Deal with Confounding
Chapter
The Need for Other PeopleWho is to be on the Team?
Chapter
Getting Your Sample Participants - The Qualitative Research CaseConvenience SamplesPurposive SamplingAn Example of Maximum Variation Sampling (or Sampling for Diversity)Theoretical SamplingHaving got your Sample how are You going to get the Data from it?
Chapter
Quantitative Data and the ComputerRefusals to Participate, Drop-Outs and Other Missing PersonsMissing a Lot of DataQualitative Research and Missing Data
Chapter
The IntroductionThe Method The ResultsThe DiscussionAuthorship -which Authors will have their Names on your Paper?
Chapter
IntroductionAfter the Table of Basic Characteristics - What next?Re-Visiting the Confounding Problem - Stratification and Modelling
Chapter
What do we Need to Know?Recording Information in Qualitative ResearchRecording Information in Quantitative Research
Chapter
By the time you've read this book, you'll be ready to design your own research project. Not everyone in clinical research is a scientific investigator. In fact, a large proportion of health professionals undertaking a research project are working in clinical care, as junior doctors, nurses or allied health professionals. For them a book that begins...
Chapter
Sample SizeGetting the Appropriate Sample Size if Your Research is QuantitativeGetting the Appropriate Sample Size if Your Research is QualitativeWhat You Need to do now - A Check List
Chapter
What are the Research Design Options?Qualitative Methods Deciding on how the Question Points towards the Design
Chapter
dealing with journals, submitted for publication - the so-called impact factor;the best bet, browsing likely journals - ones, publishing similar articles;getting constructive criticism - two drafts from colleagues;check formatting, page numbering, typeface;useful on-line resource - links to authors, major health-related journals;letters to editors,...
Chapter
writing one's discussion;discussion section of paper, rarely having subheadings - conventional format;summary statement of key findings;avoiding two common errors - repeating a chunk of results section;dynamic spread of happiness - in large social network, Framington Heart Study social network;start of a discussion - summarising the main findings;a...
Chapter
Having a Much Closer LookThe Systematic Review ProtocolQualitative Systematic ReviewsConclusion
Chapter
A Thesis or DissertationWriting a Research Report
Chapter
Will My Research Need Ethical Review?Research GovernanceAppendix
Chapter
Deciding what Funding is RequiredWhere to Apply
Chapter
Working with the Healthcare SystemDocumentationWalking though the Recruitment ProcedureNon-Participation
Chapter
Which Subjects? - The SampleThe Study and Target PopulationsGetting your Sample Subjects when your Research is QuantitativeProbability SamplingNon-Probabilistic SamplingConsecutive SamplingConvenience SamplingSelecting Controls for a Case-Control StudyInclusion and Exclusion CriteriaHaving got your Study Participants how are you going to get the Da...
Article
Similarly to Thakkar et al ,[1][1] we carried out a survey enquiring about the smoking habits of in-patients on the general adult wards of a psychiatric hospital (in York) before the hospital closed each ward’s smoking room.[2][2] We too were concerned to discover that the majority of patients (56
Article
Patients admitted to hospital because of self-harm should receive psychosocial assessment before discharge. In practice many of these assessments in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are undertaken by trainee rather than specialist psychiatrists. To compare psychosocial assessments, aftercare, and the pattern of non-fatal repetition for patients adm...
Article
Suicide has been repeatedly shown to have greatly increased incidence after non-fatal self-harm but far less is known about early death from other causes. The present study's aim was to describe mortality and risk factors concerning all causes of death after non-fatal self-poisoning. A prospective cohort study of 976 patients who attended the Emerg...
Article
Effective intervention following self-harm is vital because of the strong link between self-harm and suicide. Unfortunately, services for people who self-harm have been poor in the UK and elsewhere. In 2004, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence issued a guideline setting out clear standards for care following self-harm, many of...
Article
Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with C...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative research about self-harm largely deals with self-poisoning, despite the high incidence of self-injury. We compared patterns of hospital care and repetition associated with self-poisoning and self-injury. Demographic and clinical data were collected in a multicentre, prospective cohort study, involving 10,498 consecutive episodes of sel...
Article
Psychosocial assessment is central to the management of self-harm, but not all individuals receive an assessment following presentation to hospital. Research exploring the factors associated with assessment and non-assessment is sparse. It is unclear how assessment relates to subsequent outcome. We identified episodes of self-harm presenting to six...
Article
Full-text available
Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking hab...
Article
Full-text available
Processing personal data for research purposes and the requirement of anonymity has been the subject of recent debate. We aimed to determine the proportion of individuals who present to emergency departments with non-fatal suicidal behavior where an NHS number has been successfully traced and to investigate the characteristics of patients associate...
Article
Self-harm is a major healthcare problem in the United Kingdom, but monitoring of hospital presentations has largely been done separately in single centres. Multicentre monitoring of self-harm has been established as a result of the National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. Data on self-harm presentations to general hospitals in Oxford (one...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives: This systematic research review investigated the association between medical illness and suicidal behaviour. Specifically, the review examined four medical disorders (stroke, HIV/ AIDS, end-stage renal disease, and multiple sclerosis) focusing on the risk of suicidal behaviour. Mediating factors, possible mechanisms and variation across...
Article
There are uneven standards of care for people who attend hospital because of self-harm (self-poisoning and self-injury), in the UK and elsewhere. In the hope of improving the situation the UK Department of Health commissioned a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guideline on self-harm, which sets out the standards of care...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide reduction is government strategy in many countries. We need to quantify the connection between non-fatal self-poisoning and eventual suicide. To determine mortality after an episode of self-poisoning and to identify predictors of death by any cause or by suicide. A retrospective single-group cohort study was undertaken with 976 consecutive...
Article
Full-text available
Article
This paper explores the views and experiences of a group of 74 young people aged 16-22 who were interviewed following presentation in accident and emergency (A&E) departments after intentionally harming themselves. It focuses on a sub-group of 38 young people with a history of self-harm behaviour that extended from when they were under the age of 1...
Article
Full-text available
Self-harm is a major risk factor for suicide ([Gunnell & Frankel, 1994][1]) with around a quarter of suicides preceded by non-fatal self-harm in the previous year ([Owens & House, 1994][2]). Strategies for suicide prevention should include accurate monitoring of health service contacts due to self-harm. Unfortunately, the published literature point...
Article
Full-text available
The National Confidential Inquiry into suicides in England and Wales found that a quarter of suicides are preceded by mental health service contact in the year before death. However, visits to accident and emergency departments due to self-harm may not lead to a record of mental health service contact. Aims To determine the proportion of suicides p...
Article
Full-text available
Self-injury is a neglected area of self-harm research and we know little about its epidemiology, hospital care and outcome. Aims To provide epidemiological data on self-injury and compare hospital management of self-injury with that for self-poisoning. Data were collected on all self-harm attendances to the general hospitals in Leeds over an 18-mon...
Article
Older people who undertake self-harm are at higher suicide risk than are younger patients. This study examines whether this greater risk is reflected in the assessment and after-care that older patients receive when they attend accident and emergency. This cross-sectional study, set in the two accident and emergency departments in a large industria...
Article
Objectives: To update the 20 year-old maxim that the majority of patients who undertake self-poisoning have recently seen their general practitioner, and to determine the patients' expressed reasons for consulting the doctor. Methods: Two-stage cross-sectional survey: first, to find out from all self-poisoning patients whether they had recently at...
Article
Research suggests that problem-solving therapy may be an effective intervention following self-harm. This study determines the relation between self-harm patients' perceptions of their problems and their expressions of hopelessness and suicidal intent. One hundred fifty patients admitted to a district hospital following self-harm were asked questio...
Article
Full-text available
Non-fatal self-harm frequently leads to non-fatal repetition and sometimes to suicide. We need to quantify these two outcomes of self-harm to help us to develop and test effective interventions. To estimate rates of fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm. A systematic review of published follow-up data, from observational and experimental stud...
Article
Objective: Research suggests that problem-solving therapy may be an effective intervention following self-harm. This study determines the relation between self-harm patients' perceptions of their problems and their expressions of hopelessness and suicidal intent. Method: One hundred fifty patients admitted to a district hospital following self-harm...
Article
To measure expressed emotion (EE) in parents of young children with diabetes and to examine the relation between EE and glycaemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes in a longitudinal study over 24 months. We hypothesised that good glycaemic control, as measured by low glycated haemoglobin levels, would be predicted by high parental emotional...
Article
Development of effective treatments for patients following deliberate self-harm (self-poisoning or self-injury) is a very important element in suicide prevention. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the mainstay of evaluation of treatments. In a systematic review of the literature, the effectiveness of treatments based on RCTs was examined and...
Article
Full-text available
Aims and Method To describe the information and help available on the internet for people who self-harm. We searched the internet using a meta-search engine. We visited sites and followed up links with e-mails and letters. We also searched bibliographic databases, seeking published material about the internet and self-harm. Results The support tha...