David Neil Bird

David Neil Bird
Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH · LIFE – Institute for Climate, Energy and Society

MSc

About

104
Publications
20,205
Reads
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2,624
Citations
Citations since 2017
36 Research Items
1120 Citations
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Introduction
David Neil Bird (Neil) currently works on: the influence of changes in surface albedo on environmental benefits of landuse, landuse change and forestry (LULUCF) projects; evaluation of greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reductions as a result of improved land management and the use of biomass; development of methods to estimate GHG reductions from mitigation measures; the estimation impacts of climate change and adaptation strategies on agricultural production and urban environments, consumption-based estimation of greenhouse gas emissions, and evaluation of emissions from different lifestyles.
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - January 2016
Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH
Position
  • Researcher
January 2005 - present
Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH
Position
  • Researcher
Education
September 1979 - June 1981
September 1976 - May 1979
McGill University
Field of study
  • Soild Earth Geophysics

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Full-text available
Urban Green Infrastructure (GI) provides multiple benefits to city inhabitants and can be an important component in nature-based solutions (NBS), but the ecosystem services that underpin those benefits are inconsistently quantified in the literature. There remain substantial knowledge gaps about the level of service supported by less studied GI typ...
Article
Full-text available
Remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) is often used as a proxy for air temperature in urban heat island studies, particularly to illustrate relative temperature differences between locations. Two sensors are used predominantly in the literature, Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). However, each has shortcomin...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book discusses the contribution of sociology and survey research to climate research. The authors address the questions of which behaviors are of climate relevance, who is engaging in these behaviors, in which contexts do these behaviors occur, and which individual perceptions and values are related to them. Utilizing survey resear...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter enhances the previous understanding of Energy Lifestyles by identifying groups with distinct patterns of energy behavior across six areas of life. In contrast to most previous studies, the identification of groups is exclusively conducted on the basis of behavior-related data, whereas the characterization of the groups follows in a sec...
Chapter
Full-text available
To enjoy a fulfilling life, a person needs six fundamental life requirements to be met. These six requirements or “life-areas” are housing, mobility, consumption of goods (e.g., clothing), diet, other activities (entertainment), and information. In the beginning of this chapter, a top-down estimate of Austrian consumption-based emissions in each li...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an overview of the theoretical approaches to environmental attitudes and behaviors. It includes a discussion of different scales and surveys used in other programs with a focus on this topic. Scales measuring general environmental behavior, just like items in surveys, tend to focus on behavioral intentions and are correlated w...
Chapter
Full-text available
The final chapter of this book summarizes the main insights from previous chapters and tests whether our approach is also applicable at an international level. Our international outlook shows that the five survey items, which capture more than three quarters of Austrian greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, also work well in other European countries. Sim...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents the development of the survey in the underlying study in this book, a description of our sample, and the results of the validation efforts. Our survey includes variations of existing scales which have been used to measure climate-relevant behaviors within the areas of housing, mobility, diet, and consumption. We go beyond thes...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter starts with an overview of the current national emission figures for Austria. Subsequently, the emissions of our respondents are presented in detail and contrasted with the number of national emissions. Since one goal of the study was to improve survey research in measuring environmentally significant behavior, questions are selected w...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on the question of why environmentally conscious individuals find it difficult to behave in a correspondingly eco-friendly way. This phenomenon is referred to in the literature as the “value-action gap.” In this study, the definition of this gap is further expanded by considering individual intention. The discrepancies between...
Article
Full-text available
The goal to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is spurring interest in renewable energy systems from time-varying sources (e.g., photovoltaics, wind) and these can require batteries to help load balancing. However, the batteries themselves add additional GHG emissions to the electricity system in all its life cycle phases. This article begins...
Article
Full-text available
In the course of the transformation to a greenhouse gas neutral society in the second half of the 21st century, the use of synthetic energy carriers based on renewable electricity or biomass is discussed. This project evaluates the environmental impacts of technical and logistical options for the provision of such energy carriers based on environme...
Article
Most studies that focus on heating-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions do so with either a focus on technical aspects or a focus on heating-related attitudes and behavior. Either way, they assign little attention to the influence of sociodemographic factors. However, if an integrated understanding of the sociological factors behind heating-relat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This synthesis report is part of the deliverables of the EC funded REGREEN project and elaborates a profound baseline for further integrated research in Work Package 3, “Mapping and Modelling Ecosystem Services” in their multiple expressions for human well‐being provided by nature‐based solutions (NBS). It covers the first nine months of the projec...
Article
Full-text available
Im Zuge der Transformation zu einer treibhausgasneutralen Gesellschaft in der zweiten Hälfte des 21. Jahrhunderts wird der Einsatz von synthetischen Energieträgern diskutiert, die auf erneuerbarem Strom oder Biomasse basieren. Dieses Vorhaben bewertet die Umweltwirkungen technischer und logistischer Optionen für die Bereitstellung solcher Energietr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Synthetische Energieträger sollen in naher Zukunft Flugzeuge und Schiffe antreiben und Rohstoff für die chemische Industrie sein. Das ifeu hat mit DLR und JR in einem UBA-Vorhaben untersucht, ob ihre Herstellung der Umwelt schadet. Das Ergebnis: Richtig gemacht können sie zwar dem Klimaschutz nutzen, es besteht aber die Gefahr, dass Luft, Gewässer...
Conference Paper
The European project STORY demonstrates and evaluates innovative approaches for energy storage systems in the residential and industrial sectors. To assess the environmental impact of storage systems within the project, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for different storage implementation scenarios. In more detail, network development sce...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides the technical backstop to the ECHOES 5.1-Comparative Assessment Report on European Energy Lifestyles. The document presents in detailed the methodology, assumption and data sources used for the calculation of cumulative energy demand per survey respondent. The calculation of cumulative energy demand by respondents is based on a...
Research
Full-text available
An estimation of the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by reducing household food waste
Chapter
Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert einerseits vorliegende Erkenntnisse über die Wirksamkeit von Feedback durch „Smart Meters“ und behandelt andererseits am Beispiel von Lebensmitteleinkäufen die Frage, welche Rolle „smarte“ Technologien für die Transformation etablierten Konsumverhaltens in Richtung einer Auswahl von Produkten mit besserer Klimaver...
Article
Full-text available
The analytical framework presented herein is based on the identification of social groups with distinct patterns in their energy-relevant behaviour. This was achieved by clustering individuals according to their primary energy demands in six main areas of life. Due to the close relationship between energy-relevant behaviour and associated impacts,...
Article
Globalization has been one main driver affecting our whole economy. Thus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) associated with imports and exports should get addressed in addition to the national emission inventory according to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which is focused on territorial emissions only. To enable a...
Data
International survey of the ECHOES project is a large survey dataset than contains responses from 31 countries: EU-28 (2018) + 3 countries. The dataset contains raw data in four different formats: dta, rdata, sav and xlsx. Codebook and survey questionnaire are included.
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the ECHOES project, we conducted a multinational quantitative assessment of energy related lifestyles and behavioural patterns, using survey data from 31 European countries and an additional in-depth qualitative assessment in six countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, Norway, Spain, Turkey). Since widely-used methodological approaches for lifestyl...
Article
Climate change is expected to increase temperatures worldwide and exacerbate urban heat load due to the urban heat island effect. Urban populations will be more exposed to climate change impacts on human health and mortality as compared to citizens living in rural areas. To adapt, urban populations will increase the use of air conditioning and an i...
Chapter
World society and decision makers are running out of time to implement measures on climate change mitigation and adaptation. Incomplete knowledge and vast challenges in communicating climate change are crucial factors in this problem. In order to increase people’s awareness of their role in climate change, highly specific communication strategies a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation held in the Symposium "Energy Choices from an interdisciplinary perspective", convened by Christian A. Klöckner
Article
In recent years, accounting for greenhouse gas emissions due to national consumption has been of increasing interest, as transformative strategies towards a “low-carbon” economy are inevitable to restrict climate change below 2 °C temperature increase. Thus, every country has to implement effective measures to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions at...
Presentation
Full-text available
The "Paris Lifestyle" - Bridging the gap between science and communication by analysing and quantifying the role of target groups for climate change mitigation and adaptation. An interdisciplinary approach.
Article
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The study examines the potential of urban roofs to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect by changing their reflectivity and implementing vegetation (green roofs) using the example of the City of Vienna. The urban modelling simulations are performed based on high-resolution orography and land use data, climatological observations, surface albedo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The observed warming trend in regional climate is expected to continue in the future, aggravating urban heat load as extreme temperatures are amplified in cities due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Beside causing negative health effects and reducing human comfort, this development results in an increase in urban air conditioning (AC) usage,...
Article
Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative pe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In life-cycle assessment (LCA) of bioenergy systems one often compares the system to its fossil energy counterpart and usually assumes that the same amount of energy in both systems is produced for comparison purposes. With this assumption, the environmental benefits of the bioenergy system as compared to the fossil energy system are estimated. How...
Research
Full-text available
A working paper prepared for BirdLife Europe, EEB and Transport & Environment as part of the project “Forest biomass for energy in the EU: current trends, carbon balance and sustainable potential”
Article
Water scarcity and water security are linked, not only through the direct effects of water shortages on each water users' access to water, but also because of water conflicts generated. Climate change is predicted to raise temperatures in the Mediterranean region and reduce rainfall, leading to a reduction in water yield and possibly worsening the...
Article
We extend the concept of ‘Weather Value at Risk’ - initially introduced to measure the economic risks resulting from current weather fluctuations - to describe and compare sectoral income risks from climate change. This is illustrated using the examples of wheat cultivation and summer tourism in (parts of) Sardinia. Based on climate scenario data f...
Research
Full-text available
In this paper, the author has presented various targets that may be used for the stabilization of climatic change. The choice and time-horizon of the target heavily affects the emissions and emission reductions required to achieve the target. The timing of emissions and emissions reductions has a significant impact that is largely ignored. The auth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables t...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue has presented some of the specific findings of the RE-Impact Project which was commissioned and funded by the EuropeAid Cooperation Office from 2007 until its conclusion in 2010. The project aimed to provide impact assessment frameworks and influence relevant policies through direct involvement in bioenergy projects and policy an...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the timing of emissions from the use of woody bioenergy in an Austrian context using state of the art forest and wood product supply-chain models. It assesses the greenhouse gas implications of a variety of options for Austria to meet its renewable targets under the national Biomass Action Plan. Of the options assessed, incr...
Article
Full-text available
In life-cycle assessment (LCA) of bioenergy systems one often compares the system to its fossil fuel counterpart and usually makes the assumption that the same amount of energy in both systems is produced for comparison purposes. The results are then used to make imply the environmental benefits of the bioenergy system. However, the assumption may...
Article
Full-text available
A method for calculating the realistic half-life of paper products in Austria is presented. The method suggests that in Austria, paper products have a half-life of 4.63 years, more than twice the default half-life (2 years) used in the post-2012 accounting under the Kyoto Protocol. The higher half-life means that the pool of paper, produced from Au...
Article
Interest and research in the use of algae for energy is growing but an analysis of the different methods for the accounting for the carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions that result, is lacking. In this article, four accounting systems are evaluated for their completeness, simplicity, sectoral accuracy, and scale-independence. Two options under the Kyoto...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape scale quantification enables farmers to pool resources and expertise. However, the problem remains of how to quantify these gains. This article considers current greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods that can be used in a landscape scale analysis in terms of relevance to areas dominated by smallholders in developing countries. In la...
Article
A model has been created that compares the demand and supply of food energy globally or at a country level. The model can be used to identify the amount and type of land use change required to satisfy increased food energy demand and so can be used to estimate indirect land use change if agricultural crops are used to the production of biomass for...
Book
Full-text available
The GHG (greenhouse gas) mitigation potential from the agricultural sector is set to increase in coming decades. Much of the agricultural mitigation potential lies in developing countries where systems are dominated by smallholder farmers. There is therefore an opportunity for smallholders not only to gain environmental benefits from carbon friendl...
Article
Under the current accounting systems, emissions produced when biomass is burnt for energy are accounted as zero, resulting in what is referred to as the ‘carbon neutrality’ assumption. However, if current harvest levels are increased to produce more bioenergy, carbon that would have been stored in the biosphere might be instead released in the atmo...
Article
Accounting for bioenergy's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as done under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) and European Union (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme, fails to capture the full extent of these emissions. As a consequence, other approaches have been suggested. Both the EU and United States already use value-chain approaches to determine emissions due to...
Article
This article focuses on differences between incentives of current and post-2012 Kyoto Protocol land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) accounting rules. Three changes to the LULUCF accounting rules were agreed to in Durban. These changes alter national-level incentives for retaining wood in forests, using wood for products or using it for e...
Article
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 methodologies commonly underpin project-scale carbon accounting for changes in land use and management and are used in frameworks for Life Cycle Assessment and carbon footprinting of food and energy crops. These methodologies were intended for use at large spatial scales. This can introduce er...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Baselines are needed to establish emissions due to use of biomass where accounting systems include measurements of changes in carbon stocks. The baseline against which changes are measured can consist of historical measurements or forecasts of carbon stock levels or emissions from the land use sector. Changes can be measured by comparing carbon sto...
Chapter
For most countries in sub-Saharan Africa the impact of climate change on food security is a major livelihood and security concern. Considering the low level of emissions, countries are much more concerned to respond to more rapid climate change and to increase climate resilience than reducing or removing dangerous emissions caused by industrialized...
Article
Full-text available
Initiatives for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation require transparent and robust methodologies for the estimation of emissions reduction or removal. Although carbon (C) stock change in degradation and devegetation by remote sensing are becoming increasingly powerful, the drivers of degradation, wood...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Baselines are needed to establish emissions due to use of biomass where accounting systems include measurements of changes in carbon stocks. The baseline against which changes are measured can consist of historical measurements or forecasts of carbon stock levels or emissions from the land use sector. Changes can be measured by comparing carbon sto...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is part of the Europe Aid Project ‘Bioenergy, sustainability and trade-offs: Can we avoid deforestation while promoting bioenergy?’ The purpose of the research was to create an improved analysis of the potential of sustainable forest-based bioenergy for climate change mitigation. To do so, the authors have improved on an existing estima...