David Murphy

David Murphy
University of Nottingham | Notts · School of Education

PhD

About

75
Publications
33,585
Reads
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999
Citations
Citations since 2016
47 Research Items
820 Citations
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Introduction
Professor of Psychology and Education at the University of Nottingham. Current research interests are in the area of therapeutic pedagogy, experiential learning, well-being, human growth and development, and psychotherapy in society. Also interested in researching the development and use of new technologies to support experiential learning, reflection and developing interpersonal relationship skills.
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - present
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
There have been substantial research efforts demonstrating the effectiveness of person‐centred therapy. However, little research has investigated whether person‐centred therapy is effective in facilitating psychological growth amongst clients experiencing suicidal ideation and serious mental health difficulties. This study aimed to determine whethe...
Article
Background: Homeless people are at increased risk for developing mental health conditions and mental ill-health can be precipitating factor to episodes of homelessness. The unique profile and risk factors associated with this group means they are best served by dedicated care pathways and partnership working between agencies. Unfortunately, gaps in...
Article
People with “severe and multiple disadvantages” (SMD) experience a combination of homelessness, mental health difficulties, alcohol or substance misuse and offending. Despite frequent and cyclical traumatic experiences being commonplace, people who experience SMD are often excluded from appropriate psychotherapeutic support. Two pilot projects whic...
Article
This article reports on research that surveyed treatment provision for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in English mental health and psychological therapy services. Survey methods and freedom of information requests were used to obtain data from NHS mental health trusts, clinical commissioning groups, and voluntary and private prov...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic brought a new challenge to medical education—health-care students had fewer opportunities to interact with and treat real patients in clinical settings. Interpersonal communication skills are often developed through human interaction and communication in person, and few studies have proposed feasible digital solutio...
Article
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This qualitative study presents an analysis of the experiences of a teacher who had recently left working in an England state funded primary school. Using reflective lifeworld methodology, this study explored the teacher’s struggle to be authentic in the context of state funded education. Three prominent themes were identified as: 1) enhancement of...
Article
Full-text available
The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (B-L RI; Barrett-Lennard, (2015). The Relationship Inventory A Complete Resource and Guide. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201602103917) is the most widely used measure of the facilitative conditions described by Carl Rogers as important for constructive personality development in his person-cent...
Article
The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory was designed to assess the extent to which a person experiences unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding, and genuineness in a relationship. This study (N = 1,286) investigated measurement invariance between English, Chinese, and Spanish language versions of the inventory and partial scalar in...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Interest in the concept of well-being within clinical and applied psychology settings has increased, highlighting a need to develop appropriate measures. The aim was to adapt and test the validity of the 14-item Scale of General Well-Being (14-SGWB) originally developed by Longo et al. (2018), as a clinical outcome measure. Method Study...
Article
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Teachers’ authenticity is a topic of emerging interest in the field of education. This paper systematically reviews existing qualitative research on the subject of teachers’ authenticity from the perspective of teachers and students. The findings from 12 studies are subject to a metasynthesis. Results show that the authentic teacher is conceptualis...
Article
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It has been proposed that boarding schools in England can be used to provide a stable education and care environment for vulnerable children in need and the government is expanding their use. However, for vulnerable children to be placed in boarding schools social workers will need to be willing to contemplate the boarding as a viable care option....
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to investigate the association between experiencing a therapeutic relationship and subsequent authenticity. Forty-six clients completed the Barrett–Lennard Relationship Inventory (B-LRI), Relational Depth Inventory (RDI), a measure of the therapeutic alliance (ARM-5) and the Authenticity Scale (AS) at intervals over 10 therapy sessions....
Article
Recent years have seen much interest in positive education. In this article, we will show how person-centred education, like positive education, is concerned with the promotion of human flourishing. Both offer ways in which education goes beyond traditional skills and knowledge to a concern for the well-being of people. However, we argue that an aw...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to critically examine the axiom of Cooper and McLeod that the person-centered approach should incorporate pluralistic practices based on clients’ goals and wants. First, we examine Cooper and McLeod’s argument that the uniqueness of clients means that therapeutic work should orientate around helping clients to identify what...
Article
Training counselling and psychotherapy skills using new technology is a relatively unresearched area of study. The findings from a pilot evaluation of the effectiveness and acceptability of a new technology, mPath, using a mixed method design are reported. The study found that progressive integration of the new mPath technology into learning helpin...
Article
Full-text available
There is a crisis in higher education internationally whereby the value of a degree is being called into question. One of the contributing factors to this problem is the growth of the sector internationally. Questions have arisen concerning the quality of provision, especially in the case of courses offered in different contexts as part of transnat...
Chapter
Empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. The chapter begins by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. It then reviews measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual problem of separating empathy from other relationship variables. Clinical examples illustrati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A 3-day workshop in Taiwan, developed in accordance with Carl Rogers’ person-centred theory, used an experiential-learning pedagogy and a helping learning technology mPath. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term course for mental health professional students assessing to the acquisition of therapeutic relationshi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A 3-day workshop in Taiwan, developed in accordance with Carl Rogers’ person-centred theory, used an experiential-learning pedagogy and a helping learning technology mPath. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term course for mental health professional students assessing to the acquisition of therapeutic relationshi...
Conference Paper
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-day training on the person-centred therapeutic relationship competence in psychiatric staff and explore the Taiwanese mental health professionals’ learning using the person-centred-theory-designed technology mPath. Design: A mixed-method study consisted of a quasi-experiment and interview....
Conference Paper
Aim/Purpose: The aim of this research was to test the effectiveness and acceptability of a counselling skills course that integrated a new online technology system to support students development of competences. Design/Methodology: We used a mixed methods design. The sample for analysis is N=72 (13=male, 59=female) of Master’s level counselling st...
Article
Full-text available
Background The aim of this research was to identify facilitative therapeutic principles in person‐centred and emotion‐focused therapy for working with traumatised clients in the early stages of therapy. Methods Four cases were selected from the Strathclyde Experiential Therapy for Social Anxiety archive: one good and one poor outcome case from eac...
Article
Both mindfulness and authenticity have been found to positively affect psychological well-being. The current study investigated the relationships between an interesting mix of eastern and western phenomena including mindfulness, authenticity and psychological well-being and considered the cultural diversities in measures of these variables. Partici...
Article
Full-text available
Many Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) in the United Kingdom (UK) now offer undergraduate and postgraduate courses in counselling. However, counselling is a relatively new and developing profession only beginning to nurture a future generation of research‐active scholars. As such, its development is vulnerable to pressures arising from HEIs prepar...
Article
The aim of this article is to show how the theory and philosophy of the person-centred experiential approach, originally developed by the psychologist Carl Rogers, can usefully inform the development of professional practice, educational methods and critical social theory of social pedagogy. Social pedagogy is introduced, followed by a description...
Article
This manuscript presents a systematic review of mutuality in psychotherapy, including meta-analysis of quantitative and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. A search with specified keyword combinations yielded 21 studies, including 10 quantitative studies with 1,071 participants and 11 qualitative studies with 81 participants. Researchers calcula...
Article
Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual...
Article
Aim: Counselling for Depression (CfD) is a person-centred experiential therapy developed for implementation in the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme. Training in this model has been available across England since 2011. This study aims to investigate counselling practitioners' experiences of learning the CfD model and impl...
Article
Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report an analysis of arrangements in English mental health trusts to meet the needs of adult service users who are homeless. Homelessness is associated with various forms of mental ill-health, yet homeless people are not always well-served by statutory mental health services. In recent years, practice guida...
Article
Background This study addresses the thorny issue of mandatory personal psychotherapy within counselling and psychotherapy training. It is expensive, emotionally demanding and time‐consuming. Nevertheless, proponents argue that it is essential in protecting the public and keeping clients safe; to ensure psychotherapists develop high levels of self‐a...
Article
•••Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1080/21507686.2017.1419269••• The aim of this study was to translate and provide an initial validation for a full Mandarin-Chinese version of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (B-L RI:MC) to include forms Other toward Self-64 (OS-64) and Other toward Self-40 (OS-40) for use in the Mandarin-Chinese research...
Article
Research on the association between self-reports of post-traumatic growth and well-being show mixed findings. To resolve discrepancies, we suggest that selfreports of post-traumatic growth should not be taken at face value as indicating actual growth as in some cases such reports may be indicative of an illusory selfprotective mechanism. As such we...
Article
The integration of new technologies into counsellor education has progressed slowly. We present mPath; an online system designed to support iterative, multi-levelled and deep reflection on practice in skills training sessions. We propose the integration of new technologies to counsellor education as an area with scope for future research and develo...
Article
Aim Counselling for Depression (CfD) is a person‐centred experiential therapy developed for implementation in the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme. Training in this model has been available across England since 2011. This study aims to investigate counselling practitioners’ experiences of learning the CfD model and imple...
Article
It has been suggested that self-reported posttraumatic growth could sometimes be considered as a way for people to protect themselves from the distress of trauma. In this case, reports of posttraumatic growth could be illusory. We suggest a theory on self-reported constructive (real) posttraumatic growth and illusory posttraumatic growth by using R...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aim/Purpose The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (B-L RI), formulated on Carl Rogers’ person-centred theory, has been widely used for evaluating interpersonal relationships. The scale is translated into 19 languages enabling research into the utility of the relationship conditions across cultures and languages. This research aimed to address...
Article
Two studies (n = 73, n = 132) explored the association between sense of humour and trauma related well-being outcomes. It was found that sense of humour was not associated with reports of posttraumatic growth as measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Self-enhancing humour was positively associated with positive changes as measured b...
Article
Unconditional positive self-regard (UPSR) is regarded by humanistic psychologists as an important determinant of well-being. However, until recently it has received little empirical attention. The current study aims to examine the association between unconditional positive self-regard and several key constructs consistent with the ideas of well-bei...
Article
Whether conditions of worth theory can explain complex forms of human psychological distress, such as those emanating from early experiences of abuse, neglect and trauma, alongside experiences of physiological events later in life is open to debate. It has been suggested that Rogers’s personality theory should be reconsidered and replaced with an a...
Article
Person-centered psychotherapy is based on the growth paradigm of psychological distress. Person-centered therapy is, therefore, ideally placed to facilitate posttraumatic growth. There were two aims of this study. The first was to explore the association between unconditional positive self-regard and the construct of posttraumatic growth. The secon...
Article
Accessible summary: Homeless persons are known to be highly vulnerable to psychological trauma, in events triggering periods of homelessness and the considerable social isolation and adversity suffered when homeless. This study provides an account of how mental health support work is experienced by homeless service users when it is informed by a p...
Article
Full-text available
This aim of this case study was to build theory on the development of client–therapist mutuality in person-centered psychotherapy. A case study focusing on a 42-year-old female client who had presented for therapy following trauma within interpersonal relationships has been used. A reflective, theory-building, case study method was adopted that use...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Research on the effects of Rogers's therapeutic relationship conditions has typically focused on the unilateral provision of empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence from therapist to client. Method: This study looked at both client and therapist mutuality of the Rogerian therapeutic conditions and the association betwee...
Article
The aim is to show how traumatic stress provides a unifying concept for social work. In the last ten years, there have been significant changes in the nature of organisations that provide social care for people in the UK, with social work practice no longer confined to traditional local authority services. Increasingly, social workers are taking up...
Chapter
Person-centered psychology and psychotherapy is situated at the interface of other arenas of psychological research and clinical activity that often go unnoticed by the person-centered community. Many of the core ideas associated with the person-centered psychology—such as its focus on therapeutic relationships, intrinsic motivation, and human pote...
Article
Specialist care following psychological trauma in the UK has, since 2005, been governed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guideline 26, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. NICE guidance states that the preferred first-line treatment is trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy that incorporates...
Article
It is more than 20 years since the death of one of the most influential American clinical psychologists of the 20th century, Carl Rogers, who founded the client-centered school more than 50 years ago. Client-centered psychology remains a distinctive and alternative approach because of its assertion that the organismic valuing process is the engine...
Book
Research shows that the therapeutic relationship can offer a catalyst for healing, helping traumatized clients to make sense of and rebuild their lives. This book provides practitioners with expert insight into supporting client's recovery from trauma by placing the therapeutic relationship at the heart of the therapeutic process.
Article
A topic that has begun to attract interest from clinical psychologists and psychotherapists is post-traumatic growth. First, we provide a general overview of the field, setting out the historical development, main concepts, measurement issues and research findings. Second, we review evidence showing that the relationship between post-traumatic stre...
Article
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in social work towards relationship-based practice. In this article, we discuss the conceptualisation of relationship-based practice from a person-centred point of view and its applicability to contemporary social work. It will be shown that the person-centred point of view has a meta-theoret...
Article
Full-text available
Rogers (195739. Rogers , C. R. 1957. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21: 95–103. [CrossRef], [PubMed]View all references) hypothesized that, if two people are in psychological contact, and when the client is incongruent and minimally perceives the therapist's empathy, unc...
Article
This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between the...
Article
A number of factors contribute to social workers' states of mind including exposure to intense emotionality and disturbance, job satisfaction, burnout, secondary stress, and the perceived value attached to social work. Together these can lead to placing social workers at risk of vicarious traumatisation. While vicarious traumatisation can lead to p...
Article
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University. Rogers (1957; 1959) claim that the client's minimal perception of therapist empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence as necessary and sufficient for constructive personality change has been supported...
Article
Aims: This case study demonstrates the experience of client change in non-directive client-centred therapy for a client (‘Mac’) who had experienced severe and repeated childhood abuse within an institutional care setting and shows how complex post-traumatic stress involving difficulties in identity, problems forming and maintaining non-abusive inte...
Article
A small scale qualitative study was carried out to investigate the experiences of attendees of a Masters Degree in counselling. The study used an in depth semi-structured group interview and analysed the data using a form of grounded theory. The key findings suggest that personal therapy for trainees can be a positive experience and can enhance the...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
The aim of this project was to improve the acquisition of the Taiwanese mental health professionals' person-centred therapeutic relationship competence by integrating the theory-designed online technology mPath in learning. Study 1: translating and validating the Mandarin-Chinese version of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (B-L RI:MC) Study 2 and 3: Therapeutic Relationship Enabling Programme (TREP), which is a 3-day worship on learning the person-centred therapeutic relationship skills with the use of new technology, was designed as a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment which aims to investigate if mental health professional students (MHPS) in Taiwan gained the compentence and to understand how they learned it.
Archived project
Regard of the incompleteness of previous Mandarin version of Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory, this study is looking at the validation of the full translation of B-L RI, Mandarin-Chinese version. (Form OS-64, Form OS-40)