David W Marshak

David W Marshak
University of Texas Medical School | UTMB · Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy

About

100
Publications
7,278
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3,244
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
960 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
We are studying neural circuits in the macaque retina using connectomics.

Publications

Publications (100)
Preprint
Full-text available
Microglial cells are the primary resident immune cells in the retina. In healthy adults, they are ramified; that is, they have extensive processes that move continually. In adult retinas, microglia maintain the normal structure and function of neurons and other glial cells, but the mechanism underlying this process is not well-understood. In the mo...
Article
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Ganglion cells are the projection neurons of the retina. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and also receive input from rods and cones via bipolar cells and amacrine cells. In primates, multiple types of ipRGCs have been identified. The ipRGCs with somas in the ganglion cell layer have b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ganglion cells are the projection neurons of the retina. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and also receive input from rods and cones via bipolar cells and amacrine cells. In primates, multiple types of ipRGCs have been identified. The ipRGCs with somas in the ganglion cell layer have b...
Article
In primates, broad thorny retinal ganglion cells are highly sensitive to small, moving stimuli. They have tortuous, fine dendrites with many short, spine‐like branches that occupy three contiguous strata in the middle of the inner plexiform layer. The neural circuits that generate their responses to moving stimuli are not well‐understood, and that...
Article
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Mouse photoreceptors are electrically coupled via gap junctions, but the relative importance of rod/rod, cone/cone, or rod/cone coupling is unknown. Furthermore, while connexin36 (Cx36) is expressed by cones, the identity of the rod connexin has been controversial. We report that FACS-sorted rods and cones both express Cx36 but no other connexins....
Article
Full-text available
The cover image is based on the Original Article Wide‐field amacrine cell inputs to ON parasol ganglion cells in macaque retina by DAVID W. MARSHAK, Sara Patterson, Jay Neitz et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.24840.
Article
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Parasol cells are one of the major types of primate retinal ganglion cells. The goal of this study was to describe the synaptic inputs that shape the light responses of the ON type of parasol cells, which are excited by increments in light intensity. A connectome from central macaque retina was generated by serial blockface scanning electron micros...
Article
Full-text available
Midget retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the most common RGC type in the primate retina. Their responses have been proposed to mediate both color and spatial vision, yet the specific links between midget RGC responses and visual perception are unclear. Previous research on the dual roles of midget RGCs has focused on those comparing long (L) vs. mi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Midget retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the most common RGC type in the primate retina. Their responses mediate both color and spatial vision, yet the specific links between midget RGC responses and visual perception are unclear. Previous research on the dual roles of midget RGCs has focused on those comparing long (L) vs. middle (M) wavelength se...
Article
Full-text available
There are more than 30 distinct types of mammalian retinal ganglion cells, each sensitive to different features of the visual environment. In rabbit retina, they can be grouped into four classes according to their morphology and stratification of their dendrites in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The goal of this study was to describe the synaptic...
Article
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer:...
Article
The goals of this study were to localize the neuropeptide Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) in primate retinas and to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of the neurons that contain it. Using in situ hybridization, light and electron microscopic immunolabeling, CART was localized to GABAergi...
Article
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The long-term goal of this research is to understand how retinal ganglion cells that express the photopigment melanopsin, also known as OPN4, contribute to vision in humans and other primates. Here we report the results of anatomical studies using our polyclonal antibody specifically against human melanopsin that confirm and extend previous descrip...
Article
Amacrine cells are a diverse set of local circuit neurons of the inner retina, and they all release either GABA or glycine, amino acid neurotransmitters that are generally inhibitory. But some types of amacrine cells have another function besides inhibiting other neurons. One glycinergic amacrine cell, the Aii type, excites a subset of bipolar cell...
Article
Full-text available
The goals of these experiments were to describe the morphology and synaptic connections of amacrine cells in the baboon retina that contain immunoreactive vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (vGluT3). These amacrine cells had the morphology characteristic of knotty bistratified type 1 cells, and their dendrites formed two plexuses on either side of t...
Article
At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to atte...
Article
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In all of the mammalian species studied to date, the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones and the S-cone bipolar cells that receive their input are very similar, but the retinal ganglion cells that receive synapses from the S-cone bipolar cells appear to be quite different. Here, we review the literature on mammalian retinal ganglion cells that res...
Article
In primates the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus that are active during the day. In order to understand how this input contributes to information processing in Old World monkey retinas, we have been localizing histamine receptors (HR) and studying the effects of histamine on the neurons that express the...
Article
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Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the n...
Article
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Previously, retinopetal axons containing histamine and dopaminergic neurons expressing histamine H(1)-receptor had been localized in mouse retinas using anatomic techniques. The goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that these receptors are functional. Dopaminergic cells were acutely isolated from retinas of transgenic mice expressing red fl...
Article
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Using immunofluorescence, we showed that histamine receptor 1 is expressed by horizontal cell axons and a subset of amacrine cells in the tiger salamander retina. The effects of histamine on light responses of amacrine cells were studied in slice preparations. Histamine modulated the light responses of many salamander amacrine cells, depending upon...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE. In Old World primates, the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus. They are a subset of the neurons that project throughout the central nervous system and fire maximally during the day. The contribution of these neurons to vision, was examined by applying histamine to a dark-adapted, superfused baboo...
Article
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This chapter proposes a neural circuit providing input to a central midget ganglion cell. The narrow field of amacrine cells are unselective in their contacts with bipolar cells, but because their dendritic arbors are small, their responses tend to be biased toward L or M cones, the same type that provides input to most of the nearby midget bipolar...
Article
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This article provides a brief review of the morphology, synaptic inputs, distribution, and central projections of retinal ganglion cells, with the emphasis on studies on primates. Midget cells project to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and mediate both red-green color vision and high-acuity form vision. Parasol cell...
Article
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Small bistratified cells (SBCs) in the primate retina carry a major blue-yellow opponent signal to the brain. We found that SBCs also carry signals from rod photoreceptors, with the same sign as S cone input. SBCs exhibited robust responses under low scotopic conditions. Physiological and anatomical experiments indicated that this rod input arose f...
Article
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A number of authors have observed amacrine cells containing high levels of immunoreactive parvalbumin in primate retinas. The experiments described here were designed to identify these cells morphologically, to determine their neurotransmitter, to record their light responses, and to describe the other cells that they contact. Macaque retinas were...
Article
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The goal was to understand the functions of retinopetal axons containing histamine. In prior work, type 3 histamine receptors (HR3) have been localized to the tips of ON bipolar cell dendrites in macaque retinas. Voltage-gated potassium channels have also been localized to bipolar cell dendrites, and the hypothesis tested in the present study was t...
Article
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Early visual defects in degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) may arise from phased remodeling of the neural retina. The authors sought to explore the functional expression of ionotropic (iGluR) and group 3, type 6 metabotropic (mGluR6) glutamate receptors in late-stage photoreceptor degeneration. Excitation mapping with organic c...
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To investigate the contributions of amacrine cells to red-green opponency, a linear computational model of the central macaque retina was developed based on a published cone mosaic. In the model, amacrine cells of ON and OFF types received input from all neighboring midget bipolar cells of the same polarity, but OFF amacrine cells had a bias toward...
Article
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Many retinal ganglion cells are coupled via gap junctions with neighboring amacrine cells and ganglion cells. We investigated the extent and dynamics of coupling in one such network, the OFF alpha ganglion cell of rabbit retina and its associated amacrine cells. We also observed the relative spread of Neurobiotin injected into a ganglion cell in th...
Article
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Brisk Y-type ganglion cells in the cat retina exhibit a high frequency resonance (HFR) in their responses to large, rapidly modulated stimuli. We used a computer model to test whether negative feedback mediated by axon-bearing amacrine cells onto ganglion cells could account for the experimentally observed properties of HFRs. Temporal modulation tr...
Article
A Neurobiotin-injected OFF parasol cell from midperipheral macaque retina was studied by reconstruction of serial ultrathin sections and compared with ON parasol cells studied previously. In most respects, the synaptic inputs to the two subtypes were similar. Only a few of the amacrine cell processes that provided input to the labeled OFF parasol g...
Article
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Since 1892, anatomical studies have demonstrated that the retinas of mammals, including humans, receive input from the brain via axons emerging from the optic nerve. There are only a small number of these retinopetal axons, but their branches in the inner retina are very extensive. More recently, the neurons in the brain stem that give rise to thes...
Article
Mammalian retinas are innervated by histaminergic axons that originate from perikarya in the posterior hypothalamus. To identify the targets of these retinopetal axons, we localized histamine receptors (HR) in monkey and rat retinas by light and electron microscopy. In monkeys, puncta containing HR3 were found at the tips of ON-bipolar cell dendrit...
Article
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To describe serotonergic retinopetal axons in monkeys. Whole macaque and baboon retinas, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, were labeled with antisera raised against serotonin (5-HT). Several large-diameter 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR) axons emerged from the optic disk. Most axons ran to the peripheral retina, where they branched extensively. Most terminate...
Article
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To describe the wide-field ganglion cells, they were injected intracellularly with Neurobiotin using an in vitro preparation of macaque retina and labeled with streptavidin-Cy3. The retinas were then labeled with antibodies to choline acetyltransferase and other markers to indicate the depth of the dendrites within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) a...
Article
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Synchronous firing limits the amount of information that can be extracted by averaging the firing rates of similarly tuned neurons. Here, we show that the loss of such rate-coded information due to synchronous oscillations between retinal ganglion cells can be overcome by exploiting the information encoded by the correlations themselves. Two very d...
Article
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Isolated dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells in mouse retina fire rhythmic, spontaneous action potentials and respond to depolarizing current with trains of low-frequency action potentials. To investigate the roles of voltage-gated ion channels in these processes, the transient A-type K+ current (I(K,A)) and Ca2+ current (I(Ca)) in isolated mouse DA c...
Article
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Mammalian retinas receive input from the posterior hypothalamus, and the neurotransmitter in this pathway is histamine. To determine whether histamine influences ganglion cells, we analyzed the effects of histamine on their maintained and light-evoked activity in vitro. In monkeys, histamine increased the maintained firing rate in 42% of ganglion c...
Article
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High-frequency oscillatory potentials (HFOPs) in the vertebrate retina are stimulus specific. The phases of HFOPs recorded at any given retinal location drift randomly over time, but regions activated by the same stimulus tend to remain phase locked with approximately zero lag, whereas regions activated by spatially separate stimuli are typically u...
Article
A model color-opponent neuron was used to investigate the subjective colors evoked by the Benham Top (BT). Color-opponent inputs from cone-selective parvocellular (P) pathway neurons with center-surround receptive fields were subtracted with a short relative delay, yielding a small transient input in response to a white spot. This transient input w...
Article
The light response of starburst amacrine cells is initiated by glutamate released from bipolar cells. To identify the receptors that mediate this response, we used a combination of anatomical and physiological techniques. An in vivo, rabbit eyecup was preloaded with [(3)H]-choline, and the [(3)H]-acetylcholine (ACh) released into the superfusate wa...
Article
Dopaminergic local circuit neurons in the retina (DA cells) show robust, spontaneous, tetrodotoxin-sensitive pacemaking. To investigate the mechanism underlying this behavior, we characterized the sodium current and a subset of the potassium currents in the cells in voltage-clamp experiments. We found that there is a persistent component of the sod...
Article
Full-text available
High-frequency oscillatory potentials (HFOPs) have been recorded from ganglion cells in cat, rabbit, frog, and mudpuppy retina and in electroretinograms (ERGs) from humans and other primates. However, the origin of HFOPs is unknown. Based on patterns of tracer coupling, we hypothesized that HFOPs could be generated, in part, by negative feedback fr...
Conference Paper
Moving stimuli elicit oscillatory responses from retinal ganglion cells at frequencies between 60-100 Hz. We used a computer model of the inner retina to investigate whether the additional firing synchrony resulting from stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations could contribute to the detection of moving bars. The responses of the model ganglion...
Article
Starburst amacrine cells in the macaque retina were studied by electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. We found that these amacrine cells make a type of synapse not described previously; they are presynaptic to axon terminals of bipolar cells. We also confirmed that starburst amacrine cells are presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites and amacrine...
Article
A model of the outer primate retina was used to investigate how cone light responses could be shaped by both synaptic feedback from horizontal cells and intrinsic voltage-gated conductances. Published data was used to estimate the photoconductance, convergence/divergence ratios, synaptic transfer functions, passive membrane properties and voltage-g...
Article
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Midget ganglion cells in the foveal slope, parafovea, near periphery and far periphery of human and monkey retinas have been studied by electron microscopy (EM). Five human foveal ganglion cells were reconstructed and found to share input from seven midget bipolar cells. The OFF center ganglion cells were in a one to one relationship with their mid...
Article
Full-text available
Moving stimuli elicit oscillatory responses from retinal ganglion cells at frequencies between 60-100 Hz. We used a computer model of the inner retina to investigate whether the additional firing synchrony resulting from stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations could contribute to the detection of moving bars. The responses of the model ganglion...
Article
Full-text available
The neuropeptide galanin has not been localized previously in the primate uvea, and the neuropeptide somatostatin has not been localized in the uvea of any mammal. Here, the distribution of galanin-like and somatostatin-like immunoreactive axons in the iris, ciliary body and choroid of macaques and baboons using double and triple immunofluorescence...
Article
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High levels of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) are present in the rat retina (Eskay & Beinfeld, 1982), but the cellular localization and physiological actions of CCK in the rat retina are uncertain. The goals of this study were to characterize the cells containing CCK, identify cell types that interact with CCK cells, and investigate the effects o...