David M Lewis

David M Lewis
University of Leeds · Colour science

BSc (Hons), PhD

About

202
Publications
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Introduction
Improving reactive dyes. Easy care finishes for cotton and wool. 3D printing using home computers. New fluorescent colours of high lightfastness. Safer hair dyeing.

Publications

Publications (202)
Article
Full-text available
Ink‐jet printing of cellulosic fabrics with reactive dyes typically requires that the fabric is pretreated with alkali, prior to printing, to facilitate efficient fixation of the dye. In this paper we evaluate the use of sodium formate and other carboxylate salts as a neutral (pH 6.5) pretreatment process. The thickened, prepared‐for‐print pad liqu...
Article
Full-text available
A simple procedure to ink‐jet print raised images using two water‐soluble inorganic inks is reported and it has the potential to be utilised in domestic and commercial environments. The advantages of such a procedure lies in the ability to print moulded objects, Braille type and to engineer special gonio‐specific effects that may have value in the...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates reacting potassium salts of phosphorous‐containing acids in the presence of urea with cotton cellulose under thermosol conditions (pH 5, 185 °C) to esterify the cellulose and produce a flame‐retardant effect. Attenuated total reflectance‐Fourier‐transform infrared (ATR‐FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed chemical modification of...
Article
Full-text available
Hetero-bifunctional reactive dyes based on disulphide-bis - ethylsulphones were synthesised and found to give improved fixation efficiency on cotton.
Research
Full-text available
vat dyes are used on cotton and are renowned for giving dyeing of high light stability. This research has shown that the reduced forms in acidic dispersion are substantive to polyester fibres.
Research
Full-text available
Improving reactive dye fixation on cotton
Article
Full-text available
Reactive dyes based on p‐sulphophenoxy‐s‐triazines were synthesised, characterised and applied to wool fabric by ink‐jet printing. The extent of dye‐fibre covalent bonding (% fixation) was measured on prints produced using different development methods. The most promising method to obtain high dye‐fibre fixation values was to interleave the printed...
Article
In earlier papers we have described sulphite-based and secondary amine-based resist printing of cotton using ink-jet procedures. This paper describes the chemical resist printing of polyester fabrics padded with disperse dyes to create a white image on a coloured background. Polyester grounds have been prepared by the pad-dry ‘dyeing’ of polyester...
Patent
A method of treating a material, the method comprising applying to the material a composition comprising at least 10 wt % of ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbamate or a mixture thereof; and a source of hydrogen peroxide.
Article
In an earlier paper we have described sulphite-based resist printing using ink-jet procedures. This paper describes an alternative approach to sulphite inactivation of vinylsulphone dyes by using secondary amines to inactivate fluoro-s-triazine dyes while maintaining the reactivity of the vinylsulphone dyes. Monofluoro-s-triazine reactive dyes are...
Article
Full-text available
This review describes the immense impact of reactive dyes on the textile industry. Their use on cellulosic fibres is especially important, but their growing popularity on polyamide substrates is notable. Detailed information is given about developments both in the chemistry of reactive systems and in the chemical technology involved in their applic...
Article
Full-text available
The use of formamidine sulfinic acid in the textile industry goes back many years, particularly as an agent for the reduction or “vatting” of vat dyes, to form the water-soluble leuco species, when dyeing or printing cellulosic fibers. Many workers have labeled this agent as thiourea dioxide and theorized that its reducing power developed through t...
Article
This paper describes the reaction of the simplest isocyanate, isocyanic acid, conveniently generated in situ from sodium cyanate, with nucleophilic carboxylate and amino residues in polyamide fibres. Changing the pH conditions greatly affects the outcome of these reactions: under acidic conditions the carboxylate residues are selectively carbamoyla...
Conference Paper
Ink-jet printing has generated a true technological revolution in such diverse fields as paper printing, electronic device printing, textile printing, micro-fabrication and even printing living tissue. Not all of these areas are fully mature and some such as the tissue engineering area can only be described as fledgling. This paper will firstly de...
Chapter
The use of wool in admixture with other natural fibres dates from early times. With the introduction of synthetic fibres over the past 70 years, blends of wool with polyester, nylon and acrylic fibres have assumed major importance. The combination of two or more different fibres into a blend makes it possible to produce textile articles with proper...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the chemical processes that may be carried out before, during or after the dyeing process, and emphasises their influence on dye selection, dye application and the subsequent performance of the dyed material. Such processes include scouring, bleaching, photostabilisation, moth-proofing, carbonising, flame-proofing, water- and...
Article
Full-text available
This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hai...
Article
This paper describes a novel method for covalently binding a water-soluble phosphorus compound to cotton cellulose by a simple pad-bake procedure. An after-treatment with a selected cross-linkable poly-cationic polymer is essential to achieve wash-durability of the finish. The new phosphorylation process is carried out at pH 6.5, involves minimal f...
Article
Discharge printing provides a method of producing either a white or coloured image on a solid ground fabric; unfortunately, the shade range from this process is limited. An alternative approach to discharge printing is resist printing, which provides prints that are almost indistinguishable from those achieved by the discharge printing process and...
Article
The market for coating additives with flame-retardant properties, especially in the US and Asia, is still dominated by halogen based chemistry. Nevertheless recent market related changes as well as new product safety related data urge the textile processing industries to reconsider their strategies. Therefore new non-halogenated alternatives have t...
Article
We have studied a variety of methods to determine reactive beta-cyclodextrin fixed on wool and cotton fabrics: these include Kjeldahl analysis, weight-gain measurements, UV-Vis spectroscopy, hydrolysis of the ester linkage, hydrolysis of β-CD, fluorescence detection, titration of volatile amines, visual detection, and FT-IR.
Article
Sodium benzoyl thiosulphate was applied to wool fabric from aqueous solutions in order to covalently bind benzoyl groups to the fibre and thus impart disperse dye substantivity to the modified wool. The modified wool fabric was dyed with a selected model disperse dye, CI Disperse Blue 56, and the wash fastness properties of the dyeings assessed.
Article
The introduction of bulky aryl residues into wool fibres not only enhances their disperse dyeability but also improves their settability, shrink resistance and imparts easy-care properties. It would be highly desirable for colourists to achieve such effects when dyeing or printing wool from an aqueous solution as wool/polyester blend fabrics could...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to synthesise a novel crosslinker (crosslinker triethylthiosulphate (TETS)) which contains three Bunte groups in its molecule. The crosslinker is able to react with the hydroxyl groups in cellulosic fibres and the amino group in protein fibres so that it may find applications in many fields. Design/methodology/approach – C...
Article
This paper describes the modification of three commercially available 2,4-difluoro-5-chloropyrimidine dyes (Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL, Drimarene Brilliant Blue K-BL and Drimarene Golden Yellow K-2R) by the reaction of the parent dye with 4-hydroxybenzensulphonic acid sodium salt. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor both the course of...
Article
Full-text available
David M. Lewis of the University of Leeds and AATCC 2008 Olney Award Winner shares his views on the developments in the field of textile chemistry and color with respect to reactive dyes, dyeing process, reactive arylating agents and new textile cross linking agents for easy finishing of cotton. Reactive dyes possess good wash fastness properties p...
Article
Wool coloration has to respond to real and perceived environmental threats and this aspect tends to drive the selection of dyes and dyeing processes. Reactive dyes bring benefits such as excellent wet-fastness and some classes of reactive groups give excellent fibre protection, especially when dyeing medium to deep shades. The fundamental chemical...
Article
Hercosett 57 can be readily converted to a Bunte salt terminated polymer which exhibits different ionic character both in solution and at the fibre surface; in alkaline solution it behaves as an anionic polymer, but in weakly acidic solution it possesses amphoteric properties. Because of this overall change in ionic character the polymer can be app...
Article
Full-text available
Article
This review article deals with the chemical reactions leading to wool damage during dyeing, and the effect of pH, the measurement of wool damage, the use of fibre protective agents, mechanical parameters, such as flow rate, and the optimization of dyeing processes to reduce the damage, in particular low-temperature dyeing. There are 77 references.
Article
This literature review discusses insect pests of wool textiles, insect resistance agents for application to wool, insect resistance finishing, and tests and specifications for insect resistance, with the citation of 79 references.
Article
Chrome dyeings are normally produced by first applying an acid dye containing ligand groups and then afterchroming with hexavalent chromium derivatives such as dichromate salts. The latter can damage wool fibres and also are toxic components in dyehouse effluents, so afterchroming with mixtures of Cr(III) salts and organic acids has been studied. I...
Article
Several stilbenes have been shown to sensitise the formation of singlet oxygen, which is capable of oxidising indole residues, e.g. tryptophan. Some stilbenes were found to quench singlet oxygen, e.g. disodium 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulphonate. Such materials have been shown to be capable of sensitising the photoyellowing of wool and proved to...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive dyes have now been available for 25 years and have proved to impart important technological advantages to the wool dyer. This explanatory paper outlines the initial development of these dyes, emphasizing the special problems encountered in applying them to wool, summarizes present developments and future trends, critically appraises the pe...
Article
The effects of different chromium species and chroming processes on wool keratin have been studied. Infra-red studies revealed that in dichromate-treated wool the disulphides oxidise mainly to Bunte salt residues (S-thiosulphate). As expected, trivalent chromium treatments produce little or no oxidative degradation of wool keratin. These results we...
Article
This review discusses the important improvements in wet fastness achievable on aftertreatment of wool dyeings with a variety of systems. Many of these aftertreatments are routinely used by the industry but some are still essentially of research interest only.
Article
The purest and most thoughtful minds are those which love colour the most — John Ruskin (1891–1900)
Article
Full-text available
The effect of sunlight on untreated, sulphamic acid-treated and FBA-treated wool has been investigated using infra-red spectroscopy coupled with second-derivative spectral analysis. The effect of heat on untreated and treated wool fabrics has also been studied. Changes in the oxidised cystine species were observed as a result of both thermal oxidat...
Article
Wool was treated with sodium sulphite and amphiphilic cationic protein hydrolysate mixtures for different times and temperatures. The surface chemical modifications were followed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy coupled with the attenuated total internal reflectance sampling technique. The resolution of the infra-red bands in the wool...
Article
Different chemically treated wools have been exposed to radiation in the presence of different aqueous reductive bleaching agent solutions. It was observed that thiourea dioxide gave the best performance and, in the case of wool serge, led to a fabric having a better light fastness. An interesting beneficial synergistic effect was uncovered when th...
Article
Reactive dyes of the vinylsulphone and α-bromoacrylamido types inhibit wool fibre degradation during dyeing. The effect is proportional to the amount of dye applied, which may be explained in terms of set inhibition and modification of the cell membrane complex. Reactive dyes are capable of interfering with the fibre thiol-disulphide interchange re...
Article
Potential fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) containing halogen atoms which intramolecularly quench fluorescence have been synthesised and applied to wool in a number of ways. Application by cold pad-batch methods revealed that the complete displacement of all halogen atoms by nucleophilic groups in wool did not take place. Treatment of these mate...
Article
Two methods for making the fibre reactive and then applying nucleophilic dyes are investigated. It is shown that N-methylolacrylamide will etherify cotton in a pad-bake procedure. This activated cotton can be dyed with nucleophilic dyes to a very high fixation efficiency. A specially-prepared compound (DCPEAT) can be fixed to cellulose by a pad-bat...
Article
A process for the production of fast, bright dyeings on wool cloth is described. Reactive dyes applied by a pad-batch (cold) method yield level dyeings with very high colour yields. Virtually 100% fixation has been obtained with Procion M (ICI) dyes applied to wool from mildly acidic solutions, after batching for up to 24 h at room temperature. Yel...
Article
Full-text available
Although the development of reactive dyes has been accompanied by the introduction of auxiliary products to give satisfactory dyeing quality, there are still areas where problems are encountered. A novel system, based on the use of trichloroacetic acid, is proposed, which gives improved levelness, especially when dyeing wool with mixtures of reacti...
Article
Cellulose fibres may be dyed with reactive dyes in the absence of added electrolyte under neutral to slightly acidic conditions provided the fibre is modified to include cationic sites. The effect of amine substitution has been examined in detail using the activated substrate prepared by the reaction of cotton with N-methylolacrylamide. Dyes contai...
Article
The dyeing properties of wool have been modified by treating it with a series of reactive hydrophobic, anionic and cationic compounds. The extent of fixation of these reactive compounds to the wool was determined as dry basis weight gains which reached 70–13% wt/wt for many of the compounds examined. The dyeing properties of the modified wools were...
Article
Pretreatment of cotton with the polyamide-epichlorohydrin resin Hercosett 125 produces a fibre that may be dyed with selected reactive dyes under neutral pH conditions in the absence of salt and with high fixation efficiency. The physical and mechanical properties of the modified cotton, the colour fastness of the reactive dyeings and mechanistic i...
Article
The effect of pretreating cotton with a polyamide–epichlorohydrin resin and ethylenediamine is described. The treated substrate has enhanced substantivity for reactive dyes, which may be applied without electrolyte simply by setting the dyebath to pH 5 and raising the temperature to the boil. Dyed samples exhibit good brightness and very high wash...
Article
The present aqueous batch processes for the production of Superwash wool are briefly described. These pretreatment/ resin processes suffer from defects such as a harmful effect on fabric properties, a noticeable colour change on treatment and unacceptable cross–staining of multi–coloured materials. The development of aqueous processes in which the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper demonstrates that reactive dyes exert a significant fibre–protective effect when dyeing wool fabric; this effect may be measured, in a reproducible manner, using the wet–burst strength test. The effect of dyebath pH, dye concentration, dyebath temperature and dyeing time on wool can thus be evaluated. The magnitude of the above protectiv...
Article
A number of different tertiary amines have been employed to prepare the corresponding quaternised triazines from a selected monochloro-s-triazine reactive dye. Preparation conditions have been established along with suitable analytical methods. The reactivity of the quaternised dyes with cellulose has been determined, special attention being paid t...
Article
This paper describes an industrial procedure developed for the application of dyes of good fastness properties, especially reactive dyes, to wool fabric by a pad-batch technique, following the initial observations (7) that by dyeing from concentrated solutions of urea the rates of diffusion and of reaction of reactive dyes with wool are greatly inc...
Article
A cold printing process has been developed from the IWS pad-batch(cold) method for the dyeing of wool cloth. The chemical aspects of the technique are discussed with particular reference to the role of sodium bisulphite in promoting dye fixation and increasing the colour yield. The system used for the selection of reactive dyes for application to w...
Article
Aminoethylaminotriazinyl dyes prepared from available chlorotriazinyl dyes have been applied to wool in the form of non-reactive levelling acid dyes. The nucleophilic pendant amino residue readily underwent crosslinking reactions with wool, using suitable crosslinking reagents to give level dyeings of high wet fastness.
Article
A specially prepared alkylamino dye and a crosslinking agent precursor, hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA), have been applied together to wool fabric to achieve level fast dyeings. This new method is compared with the conventional reactive dyeing method and the optimum application conditions of the new method are discussed.
Article
A number of polymer shrink-resist treatments for wool in various forms have been proposed; one of the most popular of these being the chlorine-Hercosett 57 process, applicable to both wool tops and garments. In order to increase the versatility of such processes, polymers have been developed which can be applied together with dyes at the dyeing sta...
Article
The different stages of wool oxidation during the Dylan XCP permonosulphuric acid based shrinkproofing process have been followed using second-order derivative Fourier transform infrared analysis. After oxidising wool with Caro's salt, some of the cystine residues present were oxidised to cysteic acid, but cystine-S-monoxide and cystine-S-dioxide c...
Article
Work is described which shows that, by treating wool with certain amides, polyhydric alcohols or carboxylic acids, the affinity of the fibre for disperse dyes can be greatly enhanced. The most suitable compounds, with regard to effectiveness, price and commercial availability, are thiodiglycol and glycerol. Particular reference is made to the subli...
Article
Covalently binding dyes through reactions between commercially available bi-functional crosslinking agents, wool and aminoethylaminotriazinyl dyes is discussed. In particular, dye fixation, levelness and fastness properties have been assessed and shown to be very promising. The proposed system offers the dyer the opportunity to achieve covalent bon...
Article
Wool was treated with benzoic anhydride in a variety of solvents under different treatment conditions. Samples produced in the swelling solvent, N, N–dimethyl formamide, gave a machine–washable finish and outstanding dyeability, when using disperse dyes. The non–applicability of benzoic anhydride from aqueous solutions is a major problem in transfe...
Article
Aqueous dispersions of seven reactive hydrophobic dichlorotriazine compounds, synthesized for the investigation, were prepared by milling and applied to wool fabric by pad/dry/steam and exhaustion procedures. The extent of fixation was assessed from the weight gain of the treated fabrics, which were then transfer printed with disperse dye papers. T...
Article
Dyes have been applied to different wool fabrics and measurements by photoacoustic spectroscopy showed well-defined absorption bands. Differences were found in the spectral properties of dyes, which appeared visually to be very similar, indicating that photoacoustic spectroscopy may be useful for the identification of dyes on wool fabrics. Photoaco...
Article
The importance of control in the application of the water-soluble polymer, Hercosett 57, to prechlorin-ated wool tops and garments, is stressed with special reference to its effect on washability and subsequent dyeing operations. Reactive dyes play a vital role in achieving adequate colour fastness to meet machine-washable specifications and this p...
Article
The dyeing properties of wool treated with Hercosett 57 resin to render it machine-washable have been studied. It has been shown that this reactive highly basic resin can greatly improve the dyeability of wool. Reactive dyes have excellent properties on this wool. Differential-dyeing and fully continuous dyeing processes, using the special properti...
Article
Pretreatment of cotton with a polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin/thiourea mixture markedly improves the reactive dyeability of this fibre, when compared with the results achieved on PAE- modified cotton reported in part I (see abstract 1989/7744). The effect of dyebath pH on the colour yield, fixation and build-up of Procion HE, H and MX (ICI) d...
Article
An initial study has been undertaken to determine the viability of using S-thiosulphato (Bunte salt) terminated polyethers as pigment binders. Three such polymers (two synthesised and a commercial product) of different molecular mass and functionality were investigated. Two substrates were employed: wool fabric as prepared for dyeing and cotton fab...
Article
A new approach to the dyeing of silk with sulphatoethylsulphone dyes, based on ß-elimination before dyeing, has been investigated. Some factors affecting both (β-elimination and dyeing have been studied. The improved dyeing process shows a high degree of dyebath exhaustion and excellent fixation in the absence of salt, thus reducing the risk of env...
Article
The stabilities, both on wool and in solution, of several commercial fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) were examined. Stability in solution was found to vary considerably. However, the photoye/lowing rates of wool whitened with these compounds were found to be similar, suggesting that the photodegradation pathway in solution is probably different...
Article
Various separation methods for cuticle isolation from whole wool have been studied. A method involving agitation of wool fibres in formic acid proved to be successful, producing a high yield of cuticle cells relatively free from contaminating cortical cells. The cuticle cells so isolated were characterised by amino acid analysis and scanning electr...
Article
A polyfunctional reactive dye containing two dichloro-s-triazine residues linked through aliphatic amino groups via a third triazine system to the chromophoric residue has been prepared. The dye was synthesised stepwise from a specially synthesised 2,4-dichloro-s-triazine dyes. The first step is the reaction of both carbon–chlorine sites in the ‘pa...
Article
Wool has been examined by microspectrofluorimetry. Single merino fibres show a decrease in fluorescence intensity along the length of the fibre from tip to root with similar fluorescing species present throughout the fibre. With fabric oxidative bleaching caused an increase in fluorescence intensity whereas laser-blue-light irradiation caused a dec...
Article
Full-text available
This paper charts progress in three key areas of a project supported by both UK government and UK industry to manufacture novel sensor devices using rotary 3D printing technology and innovative ink chemistries; (1) the development of an STL file slicing algorithm that returns constant Z height 2D contour data at a resolution that matches the given...
Article
Full-text available
The current reactive dyeing process for cotton involves alkali addition as a separate step in the dyeing process. The fundamentals of cellulose hydroxyl dissociation were studied according to temperature and buffer system. Those reactive dyes tested could be fixed on cotton under neutral conditions in the presence of a buffer. Advantages of the new...
Article
Decolorization and degradation of C. I. Disperse Blue 56 (DB 56) in aqueous dispersion by the methods of UV, NaClO, and UVTNaClO, respectively, has been investigated in the present study. It was found that the combination of UV/NaClO is most efficient, and the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate related to different methods decrease...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a new method to dye cotton with selected reactive dyes by long-liquor – or so-called ‘exhaustion’– processes under neutral conditions. Particularly promising results were obtained with reactive dyes containing free vinyl sulphone residues. Although there are dyes on the market that contain free vinyl sulphone groups, for exampl...
Article
A bifunctional reactive bis-phosphonoalkylaminotriazine dye was synthesised by condensing 2 mol of aminoethylphosphonic acid with the commercially available bis-monochloro-s-triazinyl dye, CI Reactive Red 120. A similar but much lower molecular weight dye was prepared by condensing the commercially available dichloro-s-triazine dye, Procion Red MX...
Article
Full-text available
Nanosized metallic particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix have been used conventionally as a paste or ink to print electrically active patterns on different substrates. The potential of ink-jet printing in this field is clearly important but the challenge to date has been how to achieve prints of low volume resistivity from the very low viscosit...
Article
The synthesis of a new trifunctional reactive dye is described in this paper by reaction of a di-chloro-s-triazine dye with the specially synthesised amine, N,N’-bis{2[(2-chloroethyl)sulphonyl]ethyl}amine. When applied to wool from boiling dyebaths at pH 5, fixation efficiency values of 96% were recorded even at heavy depths (3% owf). In the case o...
Article
A series of water-soluble fibre-reactive arylating agents were synthesised and evaluated from the stand-point of improving fibre coloration with disperse dyes. In particular, the compound, sodio-2,4-dianilino-6-[4′-β-sulphatoethylsulphonylanilino]-s-triazine (FAA 200) was found to be promising; this compound could be applied in the same bath as a d...
Article
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been successfully employed to follow the formation of phthalic anhydride and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride on heating their corresponding acids. The effects of three heterocumulenes, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and sodium cyanate, on the temperature of formation of the anhydrides were also investigated u...
Article
Reactive dyes containing the bis-(N-carboxymethylamino)monoquaternary-triazine-bis-ethylsulphone [bis-(N-CMA)-MQT-bis-ES] group and related derivatives have been synthesised. When boiled under mildly acidic conditions, such dyes are able to form two small vinylsulphone dye molecules through a process of 1,2-trans elimination. The bis-(N-CMA)-MQT-bi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the synthesis of a reactive dye containing a thioether-ethylsulphone group. The dye was prepared by reaction of a specially synthesised vinylsulphone dye with β-thiolethyltrimethylammonium chloride. The latter was synthesised by the reaction of choline dichloride with sodium thiosulphate; the Bunte salt thus formed was hydrolys...
Article
The dyeing behaviour during the dyeing cycle of a Sumifix Supra dye and some other commercial reactive dyes under various dyebath pH conditions was investigated. Studies of the dyeing of wool serge fabric indicated that the diffusion properties of hetero-bifunctional Sumifix Supra dyes generally lie between those of b-sulphatoethylsulphone (Remazol...
Article
Wool is subject to permanent setting reactions during dyeing at the boil. Sodium maleate additions to the dyebath exert an anti-setting effect, and in the case of wool piece-goods dyeing, the magnitude of anti-setting was evaluated using the crease angle method. To achieve anti-setting, the key reactions are the nucleophilic addition of the activat...
Article
A reverse micellar system in supercritical carbon dioxide has been developed as a dyeing medium. Water-soluble dyes such as reactive dyes and acid dyes could be sufficiently solubilised in the interior of a specially constituted reverse micelle. Protein fabrics, silk and wool, were satisfactorily dyed even in deep shades with conventional acid dyes...
Article
Extensive setting of wool fabrics occurs during piece dyeing at the boil and gives rise to adverse changes in dimensional stability such as variable hygral expansion, loss in tensile strength and the appearance of unsightly marks such as ‘crow's-feet’ on the fabric surface. Anti-setting agents such as stabilised hydrogen peroxide systems have thus...
Article
A heterobifunctional [dichlorotriazine and vinylsulphone (DCT-VS)] reactive crosslinker, 2,4-dichloro-6-{ρ-[(2′-sulphatoethyl)sulphonyl]phenylamino}-1,3,5-triazine (DC-SES) was synthesised and coapplied with nicotinic acid to covalently fix hydrolysed Cl Reactive Black 5 (HBB) (hydroxyethylsulphonyl dye) to cotton in a long-liquor process. It is su...
Article
Full-text available
Triethanolamine trisulphate (TES) was synthesised in good yield. The synthesis was monitored by capillary electrophoresis and this technique was also used to follow its hydrolysis and to analyse the residual products formed during its application to cellulose. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, TES was found to react covalently with cotton. Fabri...
Article
The wool dyeing properties, such as exhaustion and fixation parameters, of selected hetero-bifunctional Sumifix Supra dyes and some other commercial reactive dyes were quantified under various dyebath pH conditions. Studies of the dyeing of wool serge fabric indicated that Sumifix Supra dyes could produce reasonably high fixation values. However, r...
Article
A new fibre-reactive quaternary compound containing an acrylamide residue was synthesised and used as a cotton modification reagent. The agent was applied to cotton fabrics using a pad-bake process. It was found that the treated fibre could be dyed with reactive dyes without the addition of salt or alkali. The reactive dyes were almost completely e...

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