David Levinson

David Levinson
The University of Sydney · TransportLab, School of Civil Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

479
Publications
79,343
Reads
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11,348
Citations
Citations since 2017
93 Research Items
5924 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (479)
Article
Social science disciplines are increasingly using narratives to develop theory and uncover experiences that give an insightful understanding to people’s beliefs and behaviours. This paper offers an analysis of the academic literature to show how narratives have been used in transport research between 1990 and 2021 and to discuss how narratives are...
Article
This study models a lane-changing event as two behaviourally interconnected phases: ‘stay’ and ‘execution’. The model considers the ‘stay’ phase duration stochastically depending on external traffic conditions. The ‘execution’ phase is modelled as the longitudinal speed profile deployed to perform the lane change. The model comprises a Bayesian sur...
Article
Speed plays a key role in road safety research. Recent studies have indicated an association between speed limits and driving behaviour. However, less attention has been paid to the role of context in the perception of speed limits, and the way cycle lanes influence this perception. This study examines how respondents in different countries of resi...
Article
Full-text available
To better understand how public transport use varied during the first year of COVID-19, we define and measure travel behavior resilience. With trip records between November 2019 and September 2020 in Kunming, China, we identify people who relied on traveling by subway both before and after the first pandemic wave. We investigate whether and how tra...
Article
This study adopts an Access-Oriented Design (AOD) framework for optimizing transit network design. We present and demonstrate a method to evaluate the best combination of local and express alternative transit system designs through the novel concept of ‘iso-access lines’. Two bus network system designs were explored for a greenfield development in...
Article
Full-text available
Ensemble forecasting is class of modeling approaches that combines different data sources, models of different types, with different assumptions, and/or pattern recognition methods. By comprehensively pooling information from multiple sources, analyzed with different techniques, ensemble models can be more accurate, and can better account for diffe...
Article
Full-text available
Passengers generate travel behaviours on public transit, whose variations deserve an exploration with an aim to guide daily-updated managements. In this study, we investigate temporal variability in travel patterns for over 3.3 million passengers across 120 days who use public transit in Beijing. Temporal variability is characterized by a series of...
Article
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Has Sydney lost access by removing its extensive tram network? We compare the 1925 tram network with today’s bus network, and conclude that the access provided today exceeds what would have been provided by just trams. The Sydney CBD would have had better access if 1925’s central tram lines were still in operation.
Article
In urban planning and design, a holistic perspective is needed to examine multiple potential scenarios in future developing plans. Access (or accessibility) is a concept that measures the performance of a city in terms of how easily residents can reach their desired activities. The land use pattern and the transport network configuration are the tw...
Article
Research on accessibility, a measure of ease of reaching potential opportunities, has advanced significantly, but the adoption of these measures by public transport agencies has lagged. One explanation may be that research has been conducted at different spatial scales from the stop level typically used by agencies. To address this gap, this study...
Article
Full-text available
Ensemble forecasting is a modeling approach that combines data sources, models of different types, with alternative assumptions, using distinct pattern recognition methods. The aim is to use all available information in predictions, without the limiting and arbitrary choices and dependencies resulting from a single statistical or machine learning a...
Preprint
Public transit is immensely important among recent immigrants for enabling daily travel and activity participation. The objectives of this study are to examine whether immigrants settle in areas of high or low transit accessibility and how this affects transit mode share. This is analyzed via a novel comparison of two gateway cities: Sydney, Austra...
Article
Public transit is immensely important among recent immigrants for enabling daily travel and activity participation. The objectives of this study are to examine whether immigrants settle in areas of high or low transit accessibility and how this affects transit mode share. This is analyzed via a novel comparison of two gateway cities: Sydney, Austra...
Article
This paper proposes a general framework to explore the interaction between land use and transport systems. Hypotheses about those relationships are generated. A series of statistical tests are conducted to explain the co-development of land use and transit networks for metropolitan areas at a micro-geographic scale and to disentangle causes and eff...
Article
This research tests the usefulness of new datasets to inform the forward planning of social and community infrastructure in rapidly growing areas of Australian cities. It focusses on greenfield areas of Sydney, Brisbane, and Perth to demonstrate data sources and methods that can be replicated in other locations.
Article
Full-text available
Access (the ease of reaching valued destinations) is underpinned by land use and transport infrastructure. The importance of access in transport, sustainability, and urban economics is increasingly recognized. In particular, access provides a universal unit of measurement to examine cities for the efficiency of transport and land-use systems. This...
Article
Full-text available
The cumulative opportunities measure accessibility is defined as the number of opportunities reachable under a given time threshold. The spacing between transit stations is fundamental for accessibility by transit, yet the stations cannot be easily relocated in built-up areas. This paper examines the relation between transit stop spacing and person...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a survey of 197 Sydneysiders. This study shows residents overestimated the attractiveness of the city centre compared to the entire metropolitan area, as well as the number of jobs they can reach from home. They also overestimated travel times compared to Google Maps, especially for travel times by car.
Article
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This paper considers the monetary and time costs of producing Findings (formerly Transport Findings ). After enumerating the journal’s expenses, we find the marginal monetary cost of an article is, on average, about $65, and that the journal incurs $1966 in fixed costs per year. Also, using data from a survey of Findings ’ reviewers and estimate of...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a survey of 197 Sydneysiders undertaken during the COVID-19 Lockdown, this study shows time spent in transport was missed the most by public transport users, followed by push bike users, e-bike users, pedestrians, and finally drivers. Men missed time spent in transport more than women. It also finds that for public transport users, the mor...
Chapter
Building on our discussion of livability ethics, equity and justice, the main purpose of this chapter is to provide a dialogue and guidance around principles and key dimensions of performance, such as our human rights in and around the streets, the issues of safety, speed, access, place-making, and how these forces of the street ecology shape our u...
Article
Full-text available
How crashes translate into physical injuries remains controversial. Previous studies recommended a predictor, Delta-V, to describe the crash consequences in terms of mass and impact speed of vehicles in crashes. This study adopts a new factor, energy loss-based vehicular injury severity (ELVIS), to explain the effects of the energy absorption of tw...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the potential of moving array `probes' to collect traffic data. This application simulates the prospect of mining environmental data on traffic conditions to present an inexpensive and potentially widespread source of traffic conditions. Based on three different simulations, we measure the magnitude and trends of probe error (co...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning algorithms aim to improve the power of predictors over conventional regression models. This study aims to tap the predictive potential of crash mechanism-related variables using ensemble machine learning models. The results demonstrate selected models can predict severity at a high level of accuracy. The stacking model with a linea...
Article
Full-text available
On-road emissions, a dominant source of urban air pollution, damage human health. Emissions increase air pollution intake (and damage health) of travelers (internal costs), and of non-travelers (external costs). This research constructs a framework modeling the microscopic production of emission cost from the vehicle and link level and applies it t...
Article
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It is commonly seen that accessibility is measured considering only one opportunity or activity type or purpose of interest, e.g., jobs. The value of a location, and thus the overall access, however, depends on the ability to reach many different types of opportunities. This paper clarifies the concept of multi-activity accessibility, which combine...
Article
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This article explores the use of logistic-shaped diffusion curves (S-Curves) to predict the accumulation of atmospheric CO2. The research question here is whether forecasts using logistic curves are stable, that is, do they predict consistently over time with different amounts of data? Using data from the Keeling Curve, we find that the best-fit ma...
Article
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This paper integrates and extends many of the concepts of accessibility deriving from Hansen’s (1959) seminal paper, and develops a theory of access that generalizes from the particular measures of access that have become increasingly common. Access is now measured for a particular place by a particular mode for a particular purpose at a particular...
Article
Full-text available
Since Hansen’s seminal 1959 paper, measures of access have evolved with technology and through practical applications. The myriad of distinct but familially related access measures created many more options to measure places, but has sown needless confusion. This paper systematically reviews measures of access across disciplines. We categorize meas...
Article
Full-text available
Driver lane-changing behaviours have a significant impact on the safety and the capacity of the vehicle-based traffic system. Therefore, modeling lane-changing maneuvers has become an essential component of driving behaviour analysis. Among microscopic LC models, game theory-based lane-changing models highlight the interaction of drivers, which rev...
Article
Full-text available
Changing lanes is a commonly-used technique for drivers to either overtake slow-moving cars or enter/exit highway ramps. Optional lane changes may save drivers travel time but increase the risk of collision with others. Drivers make such decisions based on experience and emotion rather than analysis, and thus may fail to select the best solution wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study explores temporal variation in daily activity networks for workers and non-workers using public transport, based on a large-scale smartcard dataset generated by almost 4 billion passenger trips over 122 days. Geometric, e.g., areas, perimeters, vertical and horizontal distances, and non-geometric features, e.g., visiting frequency, are c...
Article
Full-text available
The success of passenger railway systems depends on their ridership and thus the population they serve. A mechanism to increase ridership is to expose the existing system to more people by reconfiguring the station itself, for instance by adding extra entrance and exit gates to shorten the walking distance from a trip's origin or its final destinat...
Conference Paper
Driver lane-changing behaviours have a significant impact on the safety and the capacity of the vehicle-based traffic system. Therefore, modeling lane-changing maneuvers has become an essential component of driving behaviour analysis. Among microscopic LC models, game theory-based lane-changing models highlight the interaction of drivers, which rev...
Conference Paper
This paper explores the potential of moving array `probes' to collect traffic data. This application simulates the prospect of mining environmental data on traffic conditions to present an inexpensive and potentially widespread source of traffic conditions. Based on three different simulations, we measure the magnitude and trends of probe error (co...
Article
Full-text available
Carrion and Levinson (2012) studied the bridge choice behavior of commuters before and after a new bridge opened to the public. This bridge replaced the previously collapsed I-35W bridge in the metro area of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The original I-35W bridge collapsed on August 1st 2007, and the replacement bridge opened to the public on September 18t...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on path flow for road network, as the sum of individual route choices from individual travelers, associated with specific path type for each cost factor of auto travel that finds the optimal route with the minimum cumulative cost from the perspective of the corresponding cost analyst interest. The considered cost factors include...
Article
Full-text available
Transit accessibility to jobs (the ease of reaching a place of work by public transport) affects both residential location and commute mode choice, resulting in gradations of residential land-use intensity and transit (public transport) patronage. We propose a scaling model explaining much of the variation in transit use—the number of transit commu...
Article
The study relates the association between travel time to the lower secondary and secondary public schools of Nepal and the dropout grade before leaving secondary school. Using an ordered logit model we find that as the travel time to the school increases, students are more likely to dropout from the school system in earlier grades. The results from...
Article
How much of the variation in transit mode share is attributable to accessibility is not well understood, despite its significant policy implications. It is hypothesized that better transit accessibility leads to higher transit mode share. This paper explains block group level transit mode share using transit accessibility in a logistic model for 48...
Article
To capture network dependence between traffic links, we introduce two distinct network weight matrices ([Formula: see text]), which replace spatial weight matrices used in traffic forecasting methods. The first stands on the notion of betweenness centrality and link vulnerability in traffic networks. To derive this matrix, we use an unweighted betw...
Article
Accessibility, measuring the ease of reaching potential destinations, is increasingly being considered as an effective indicator to evaluate the performance of transport and land use interactions. Primal accessibility, a generalization of the first accessibility formulation proposed by Hansen, has been widely used in many studies and demonstrated t...
Article
Full-text available
Accessibility, measuring the ease of reaching potential destinations, is increasingly being considered as an effective indicator to evaluate the performance of transport and land use interactions. Primal accessibility, a generalization of the first accessibility formulation proposed by Hansen (1959), has been widely used in many studies and demonst...
Article
Full-text available
The underlying structure of road networks (e.g., circuity, relative discontinuity) contributes to the travel time perception of travelers. This study considers additional factors (e.g., arrival flexibility, access to traffic information) and tests nonlinearities linking perception of travel time. These factors are linked to four categories accordin...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the spatiotemporal dependency between traffic links. We model the traffic flow of 140 traffic links in a sub-network of the Minneapolis-St. Paul highway system for both rush hour and non-rush hour time intervals, and validate the extracted network weight matrix. The results of the modeling indicate: (1) the spatial weight matrix...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally accessibility has been analyzed from the perspective of the mean or expected travel time, which fails to capture the full cost, especially the external cost, of travel. The full cost accessibility (FCA) framework, proposed by Cui and Levinson (2018), provides a theoretical basis to fill the gap, that combines temporal, monetary, and n...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the estimated crashes per bicyclist and per vehicle as a function of bicyclist and vehicle traffic and tests whether greater traffic reduces the per-vehicle crash rate, a phenomenon referred to as “safety in numbers” (SIN). We present a framework for comprehensive bicyclist risk assessment modeling, using estimated bicyclist flo...
Article
Full-text available
The dominant method for measuring values of travel time savings (VOT), and values of travel time reliability (VOR) is discrete choice modeling. Generally, the data sources for these models are: stated choice experiments, and revealed preference observations. There are few studies using revealed preference data. These studies have only used travel t...
Article
Full-text available
Polycentricity, or the number of central urban places, is commonly measured by location-based metrics (e.g. employment density/total number of workers, above a threshold). While these metrics are good indicators of location ‘centricity’, results are sensitive to threshold choice. We consider the alternative idea that a centre’s status depends on it...
Article
Full-text available
Improving accessibility is a goal pursued by many metropolitan regions to address a variety of objectives. Accessibility, or the ease of reaching destinations, is traditionally measured using observed travel time and has of yet not accounted for user satisfaction with these travel times. As trip satisfaction is a major component of the underlying p...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Lacking information about actual driving speed on most roads in the Minneapolis–St. Paul region, we determine car speeds using observations from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based travel survey. Speed of travel determines the likelihood and consequences of collisions. We identify the road segments where speeding occurs. This article...
Article
Full-text available
Inequality in transport provision is an area of growing concern among transport professionals, as it results in low-income individuals travelling at lower speeds while covering smaller distances. Accessibility, the ease of reaching destinations, may hold the key in correcting these inequalities through providing a means to evaluate land use and tra...
Article
Full-text available
This paper combines GIS data on crashes with a separate GIS database on pavement quality to test the relationship between pavement quality and crashes over 12 years. Poor road quality is associated with more property damage and injury crashes. The interaction of road quality and curves was surprising, indicating that good pavement quality on curves...
Article
Full-text available
Residential locations, the jobs–housing relationship, and commuting patterns are key elements to understand urban spatial structure and how city dwellers live. Their successive interaction is important for various fields including urban planning, transport, intraurban migration studies, and social science. However, understanding of the long-term tr...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional accessibility evaluation fails to fully capture the travel costs, especially the external costs, of travel. This study develops a full cost accessibility (FCA) framework by combining the internal and external cost components of travel time, safety, emissions, and money. The example illustrated compares FCA by automobile and bicycle on a...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates routes followed by residents of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, as measured by the Global Positioning System (GPS) component of the 2010/11 Twin Cities Travel Behavior Inventory (TBI). It finds that most commuters used paths longer than the shortest path. This is in part a function of trip distance (+, longer distan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper develops a link-based full cost model, which identifies the key cost components of travel, including both internal and external versions of cost, and gives a link-based cost estimate. The key cost components for travelers are categorized as time cost, emission cost, crash cost, user monetary cost, and infrastructure cost. Selecting the M...
Article
Full-text available
High occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes typically vary tolls charged to single occupant vehicles, with the toll increasing during congested periods. The toll is usually tied to time of day or to the density of vehicles in the HOT lane. The purpose of raising the toll with congestion is to discourage demand sufficiently to maintain travel speeds in the HOT...
Article
Full-text available
This study measures severity of network disruptions in the Minneapolis–St. Paul region by comparing the cumulative opportunity accessibility before-and-after removing freeway segments. Accessibility to jobs and accessibility to resident workers are measured respectively in the morning and evening peak hours. It is shown that the links with more sev...
Article
Local authorities worldwide have been pursuing transit-oriented development (TOD) strategies in order to increase transit ridership, curb traffic congestion, and rejuvenate urban neighborhoods. In many cities, however, development of planned sites around transit stations has been close to non-existent, due to, among other reasons, a lack of coordin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper systematically reviews studies that forecast short-term traffic conditions using spatial dependence between links. We extract and synthesise 130 research papers, considering two perspectives: (1) methodological framework and (2) methods for capturing spatial information. Spatial information boosts the accuracy of prediction, particularly...
Book
As cities around the globe respond to rapid technological changes and political pressures, coordinated transport and land use planning is an often targeted aim. Metropolitan Transport and Land Use, the second edition of Planning for Place and Plexus, provides unique and updated perspectives on metropolitan transport networks and land use planning,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On-road emissions, a dominant source of urban air pollution, damage human health. The healthiest path and the greenest path are proposed as alternative patterns of traffic route assignment to minimize the costs of pollution exposure and emission, respectively. As a proof-of-concept, the framework of a link-based emission cost analysis is built for...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report develops a framework of extending accessibility analysis combining the alternate cost components into accessibility evaluations. Accessibility metrics in general describe a relationship between costs and benefits of travel. Most commonly, the cost component of accessibility metrics is based on travel time, which may not fully capture th...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper discusses the development of a national public transit job accessibility evaluation framework, focusing on lessons learned, data source evaluation and selection, calculation methodology, and examples of accessibility evaluation results. The accessibility evaluation framework described here builds on methods developed in earlier projects,...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report develops the techniques for applying accessibility evaluations in transportation planning projects, and demonstrates the practicability. Accessibility measures the ease of reaching valuable destinations, which describes the costs and benefits of travel into a single measure of interaction potential. Accessibility-based planning methods...