David J Lee

David J Lee
Birmingham City University | BCU · Department of Life Sciences

Bachelor of Science

About

48
Publications
7,013
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1,204
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2000 - May 2016
University of Birmingham
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Full-text available
The Escherichia coli NarX/NarL two-component response regulator system regulates gene expression in response to nitrate ions and the NarL protein is a global transcription factor, which activates transcript initiation at many target promoters. One such target, the E. coliogt promoter, which controls the expression of an O6‑alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltra...
Article
The activity of any bacterial promoter is generally supposed to be set by its base sequence and the different transcription factors that bind in the local vicinity. Here, we review recent data indicating that the activity of the Escherichia coli lac operon promoter also depends upon its chromosomal location. Factors that affect promoter activity in...
Article
Full-text available
Background In bacteria, many transcription activator and repressor proteins regulate multiple transcription units that are often distally distributed on the bacterial genome. To investigate the subcellular location of DNA bound proteins in the folded bacterial nucleoid, fluorescent reporters have been developed which can be targeted to specific DNA...
Chapter
Homologous recombination methods enable modifications to be made to the bacterial chromosome. Commonly, the λ phage RED proteins are employed as a site-specific recombinase system, to facilitate recombination of linear DNA fragments with targeted regions of the chromosome. Here we describe methods for the efficient delivery of linear DNA segments c...
Article
Full-text available
Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli. By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribin...
Article
Full-text available
In silico analyses identified a Crp/Fnr family transcription factor (HcpR) in sulfate-reducing bacteria that controls expression of the hcp gene, which encodes the hybrid cluster protein and contributes to nitrosative stress responses. There is only one hcpR gene in the model sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, but two...
Article
Full-text available
Nature Communications 6: Article number: 8884 (2015); Published: 2 December 2015; Updated: 21 January 2016. The original HTML version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author R. Elizabeth Sockett, which was incorrectly given as Elizabeth R. Sockett. This has now been corrected in the HTML.
Article
Full-text available
Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are natural antimicrobial organisms, killing other bacteria by whole-cell invasion. Self-protection against prey-metabolizing enzymes is important for the evolution of predation. Initial prey entry involves the predator's peptidoglycan DD-endopeptidases, which decrosslink cell walls and prevent wasteful entry by...
Article
Full-text available
In eukaryotes, the location of a gene on the chromosome is known to affect its expression, but such position effects are poorly understood in bacteria. Here, using Escherichia coli K-12, we demonstrate that expression of a reporter gene cassette, comprised of the model E. coli lac promoter driving expression of gfp, varies by ∼300-fold depending on...
Article
Full-text available
The type III protein secretion system is an important pathogenicity factor of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli pathotypes. The genes encoding this apparatus are located on a pathogenicity island (the locus of enterocyte effacement) and are transcriptionally activated by the master regulator Ler. In each pathotype Ler is also...
Article
Full-text available
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are facultatively predatory bacteria that grow within gram-negative prey, using pili to invade their periplasmic niche. They also grow prey-independently on organic nutrients after undergoing a reversible switch. The nature of the growth switching mechanism has been elusive, but several independent reports suggested mutat...
Data
Materials and Methods. Download Text S1, DOCX file, 0.1 MB.
Data
Oligonucleotide primers used in this work.
Data
Base sequence of promoters used in this work. Download Figure S1, DOCX file, 0.1 MB.
Data
Expression from the CC(−61.5) promoter and the CC(−n)CC(−61.5) promoter derivatives.
Article
Full-text available
IMPORTANCE Many bacterial promoters carry multiple DNA sites for transcription factors. While most factors that downregulate promoter activity bind to targets that overlap or are downstream of the transcription start and −10 element, very few cases of repression from upstream locations have been reported. Since more Escherichia coli promoters are r...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms to direct RNA polymerase to specific promoters in order to activate transcription in response to growth signals or environmental cues. Activation can be due to factors that interact at specific promoters, thereby increasing transcription directed by these promoters. We examine the range of architectures found at...
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper, we report that transcription affects the location of a DNA target in Escherichia coli K-12. A strain whose chromosome had been engineered to encode a lac repressor-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion was used as a host for a low copy number plasmid that carries an array of five lac operator sites. Individual cells of this s...
Article
Full-text available
FNR-dependent activation of the Escherichia coli K-12 nrf promoter is downregulated by the nitric oxide-sensitive NsrR protein together with the nucleoid-associated protein IHF, which bind to overlapping targets adjacent to the DNA site for FNR. The NsrR target is inactivated by mutation at the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nrf promoter.
Data
Annotated sequence of the pDOC plasmids. The file contains the DNA sequence of each pDOC plasmid with annotation of open reading frames, multi-cloning sites and primer binding sites.
Article
Full-text available
Homologous recombination mediated by the lambda-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragmen...
Article
Full-text available
The Escherichia coli aer regulatory region contains a single promoter that is recognized by RNA polymerase containing the flagellar sigma factor, sigma(28). Expression from this promoter is dependent on direct activation by the cyclic AMP receptor protein, which binds to a target centred 49.5 base pairs upstream from the transcript start. Activator...
Article
Transcription factors and sigma factors play a major role in bacterial gene regulation by guiding the distribution of RNA polymerase between the promoters of different transcription units in response to changes in the environment. For 40 years Escherichia coli K-12 has been the paradigm for investigating this regulation and most studies have focuse...
Article
Full-text available
The Escherichia coli Rsd protein forms 1 : 1 complexes with sigma(70) protein, which is the major factor in determining promoter recognition by RNA polymerase. Here we describe measurements of the levels of Rsd, RNA polymerase, sigma(70) and the alternative sigma(38) factor. Rsd levels are sufficient to sequester a significant proportion of sigma(7...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a protocol, DNA sampling, for the rapid isolation of specific segments of DNA, together with bound proteins, from Escherichia coli K-12. The DNA to be sampled is generated as a discrete fragment within cells by the yeast I-SceI meganuclease, and is purified using FLAG-tagged LacI repressor and beads carrying anti-FLAG antibody. We illus...
Article
Dps is a nucleoid-associated protein that plays a major role in condensation of the Escherichia coli chromosome in stationary phase. Here we show that two other nucleoid-associated proteins, Fis and H-NS, can bind at the dps gene promoter and downregulate its activity. Both Fis and H-NS selectively repress the dps promoter, preventing transcription...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteria contain a single multisubunit RNA polymerase that is responsible for the synthesis of all RNA. Previous studies of the Escherichia coli K-12 laboratory strain identified a group of effector proteins that interact directly with RNA polymerase to modulate the efficiency of transcription initiation, elongation, or termination. Here we used a...
Article
Full-text available
The Escherichia coli Rsd protein forms complexes with the RNA polymerase σ70 factor, but its biological role is not understood. Transcriptome analysis shows that overexpression of Rsd causes increased expression from some promoters whose expression depends on the alternative σ38 factor, and this was confirmed by experiments with lac fusions at sele...
Article
Full-text available
The bacteriophage λ pM promoter is required for maintenance of the λ prophage in Escherichia coli, as it facilitates transcription of the cI gene, encoding the λ repressor (CI). CI levels are maintained through a transcriptional feedback mechanism whereby CI can serve as an activator or a repressor of pM. CI activates pM through cooperative binding...
Article
Full-text available
The Escherichia coli K-12 nrf operon promoter can be activated fully by the FNR protein (regulator of fumarate and nitrate reduction) binding to a site centered at position −41.5. FNR-dependent transcription is suppressed by integration host factor (IHF) binding at position −54, and this suppression is counteracted by binding of the NarL or NarP re...
Article
We have investigated the role of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit during MelR-dependent activation of transcription at the Escherichia coli melAB promoter. To do this, we used a simplified melAB promoter derivative that is dependent on MelR binding at two 18 bp sites, located from position -34 to -51 and from position -54 to -71, upstream of the tr...
Article
The Escherichia coli FNR protein is a global transcription regulator that activates gene expression via interactions with the RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain. Using preparations of E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme, specifically labelled with a DNA cleavage reagent, we have determined the location and orientation of the C-terminal do...
Article
Full-text available
The bacteriophage λ CII protein stimulates the activity of three phage promoters, pE, pI and paQ, upon binding to a site overlapping the –35 element at each promoter. Here we used preparations of RNA polymerase carrying a DNA cleavage reagent attached to specific residues in the C‐terminal domain of the RNA polymerase α subunit (αCTD) to demonstrat...
Article
Full-text available
The C-terminal domain of the α subunit (αCTD) of bacterial RNA polymerase plays an important role in promoter recognition. It is known that αCTD binds to the DNA minor groove at different locations at different promoters via a surface-exposed determinant, the 265 determinant. Here we describe experiments that permit us to determine the location and...
Article
The Escherichia coli MelR protein is a melibiose-triggered transcription factor, belonging to the AraC family, that activates transcription initiation at the melAB promoter. Activation is dependent on the binding of MelR to four 18 bp sites, centred at position -42.5 (site 2'), position -62.5 (site 2), position -100.5 (site 1) and position -120.5 (...
Article
Activating Region 1 of Escherichia coli FNR protein is proposed to interact directly with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (alphaCTD) during transcription activation at FNR-regulated promoters. Using an alphaCTD alanine scan mutant library, we have identified the residues of alphaCTD that are important for FNR-dependent tra...
Article
Full-text available
During transcription activation at FNR-dependent promoters where the DNA site for FNR overlaps the −35 element, a surface-exposed activating region in the upstream subunit of the FNR dimer interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase α subunit. Starting with a cloned fnr gene encoding a defective FNR derivative carrying substitutions...

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