David Mark Lane

David Mark Lane
Rice University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

103
Publications
24,070
Reads
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3,629
Citations
Citations since 2016
6 Research Items
1052 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Full-text available
Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children wit...
Article
Full-text available
The educational literature, the popular press, and educated laypeople have all echoed a conclusion from the book Academically Adrift by Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa (which has now become received wisdom), namely, that 45% of college students showed no significant gains in critical thinking skills. Similar results were reported by Pascarella, Blaic...
Article
Full-text available
the recognition–action theory of chess skill holds that expertise in chess is due primarily to the ability to recognize familiar patterns of pieces. despite its widespread acclaim, empirical evidence for this theory is indirect. one source of indirect evidence is that there is a high correlation between speed chess and standard chess. Assuming that...
Conference Paper
Background: Clinicians, educators, and researchers have many alternative psychometric measures available to them tapping symptoms of ADHD. With the advent of DSM-5, a diagnosis of ADHD is no longer precluded in a child with ASD—and thus the need for assessment of ADHD in this population will likely rise. Although many commercially available instr...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method: The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and S...
Article
Full-text available
The more statistical analyses performed in the analysis of research data, the more likely it is that one or more of the conclusions will be in error. Multiple statistical analyses can occur when the sample contains several subgroups and the researchers perform separate analyses for each subgroup. For example, separate analyses may be done for diffe...
Article
Parent and teacher ratings of core attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as behavioral and emotional problems commonly comorbid with ADHD, were compared in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 86 children (66 boys; mean: age=9.3 years, intelligence quotient [IQ]=84) who met American Psychiatri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Although many children with ASD are treated with psychostimulant medication (Aman et al., 2005), few controlled studies have explored the cognitive effects of stimulants in these children. While early small studies yielded inconsistent indications for MPH treatment in this group, the larger scale RUPP study of MPH treatment in childre...
Conference Paper
Background: Although psychostimulant treatment of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD has been shown to reduce symptoms of hyperactivity, and to some extent improve cognition, it has also been associated with undesirable increases in irritability and social withdrawal. To date, little is known regarding the behavioral effects of extended release sti...
Article
Can web-based technology be used to effectively introduce or reinforce aspects of microbiology to middle school students? This central hypothesis examines whether brief exposure to a web adventure format containing virtual lab experiments and computer games within an engaging story line can impact student learning. An episodic adventure series, Med...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical graphs are commonly used in scientific publications. Unfortunately, graphs in psychology journals rarely portray distributional information beyond central tendency, and few graphs portray inferential statistics. Moreover, those that do portray inferential information generally do not portray it in a way that is useful for interpreting t...
Article
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Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to study the organization of executive functions in older adults. The four primary goals were to examine (a) whether executive functions were supported by one versus multiple underlying factors, (b) which underlying skill(s) predicted performance on complex executiv...
Article
We used neuropsychological tasks to investigate integrity of brain circuits linking orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala (orbitofrontal-amygdala), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (dorsolateral prefrontal-hippocampus), in 138 individuals aged 7-18 years, with and without autism. We predicted that performance on orbitofrontal-amygdala...
Article
The classification agreement of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) was examined in 129 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) who were evaluated for autism. Participants received a diagnosis of autism or non-autism based on the ADI-R. Linear discriminant analysis revealed adequa...
Article
Companies dealing in colors (e.g., paint companies, the cosmetic industry) spend enormous amounts of time and money selecting names to accompany their various product lines in an attempt to maximally appeal to and lure in consumers. In two experiments, the current research examines the extent to which such naming strategies have an impact on consum...
Article
Behavioral symptomatology was compared in 26 children and adolescents with Autistic Disorder ("autism") and 25 children and adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified ("PDD-NOS"). Relative to individuals with PDD-NOS, those with autism had more symptoms of depression, social withdrawal, atypical behavior, and immatur...
Article
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Research on discovery learning and simulation training are reviewed with the focus on principles relevant to the teaching of statistics. Research indicates that even a well-designed simulation is unlikely to be an effective teaching tool unless students' interaction with it is carefully structured. Asking students to anticipate the results of a sim...
Article
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This article presents a system for predicting the icon a user will select from an icon toolbar, based on command use frequency and mouse trajectory. The system differs from previous systems in two important ways: First, the prediction system does not initiate any action. Instead, it predicts where the mouse is moving and subtly "sug- gests" a comma...
Article
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Graphical interfaces allow users to issue commands using pull-down menus, icon toolbars, and keyboard shortcuts. Menus and icon toolbars are easier to learn, whereas keyboard shortcuts are more efficient. It would seem natural for users to migrate from the use of easy-to-learn menu and icon methods to the more efficient method of key- board shortcu...
Article
Cognitive effects of stimulant medication were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Performance on tasks tapping sustained attention, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and immediate memory was assessed for 24 children (mean age 10.9 years) during a placebo-cont...
Article
Individual variation in cognitive and behavioral response to methylphenidate (MPH) was investigated in children with mental retardation and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Twenty-four children (mean age 10.9 years, SD = 2.4) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial with 0.15-, 0.30-, and 0.60-mg/kg b.i.d. doses...
Article
Full-text available
Can web-based technology be used to effectively introduce or reinforce aspects of microbiology to middle school students? This central hypothesis examines whether brief exposure to a web adventure format containing virtual lab experiments and computer games within an engaging story line can impact student learning. An episodic adventure series, Med...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of abnormal Virchow-Robin (VR) spaces in children and adolescents with an autistic disorder (AD). An increased incidence of enlarged VR spaces in children has been reported in several developmental disorders. Sixteen children and adolescents (13 male, 3 female; mean age = 143.5 months; mean IQ =...
Article
Full-text available
The advance of web-based technology has stimulated innovation in education. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an online multimedia resource for undergraduate-level behavioral neuroscience education. This resource surveys four major subject areas: language, attention and perception, thinking, and autism. It employs audio and vid...
Article
Full-text available
Although auditory displays are effective for the representation of patterns in data, they are generally thought to be less effective for the communication of absolute values [1, 2]. Nonetheless, there are times when it is desirable to represent absolute values with sound. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the limits of representing abso...
Article
It has traditionally been assumed that processing within the visual system proceeds in a bottom-up, feedforward manner from retina to higher cortical areas. In addition to feedforward processing, it is now clear that there are also important contributions to sensory encoding that rely upon top-down, feedback (reentrant) projections from higher visu...
Article
The effects of stimulant medication treatment were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent and teacher behavioral ratings and reports of side effects were obtained for children (N = 24, mean age = 10.9 years, SD = 2.4) during a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trea...
Article
Full-text available
People often have knowledge about the chances of events but are unable to express their knowledge in the form of coherent probabilities. This study proposed to correct incoherent judgment via an optimization procedure that seeks the (coherent) probability distribution nearest to a judge's estimates of chance. This method was applied to the chances...
Article
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We determined preferred data-to-display mappings by asking experiment participants directly and then examined the psychophysical scaling functions relating perceived data values to underlying acoustic parameters. Presently, we are extending and validating the scaled mappings in practical data interpretation tasks. The resulting scaling functions, i...
Article
The Rice Virtual Laboratory in Statistics is an integrated combination of simulations/demonstrations, case studies, statistical analysis capabilities, and an electronic textbook. The simulations and demonstrations help make abstract concepts concrete and allow students to investigate various aspects of statistical tests and distributions. Case stud...
Article
The effectiveness of simulations for teaching statistical concepts was compared to the effectiveness of a textbook. The variable Medium (simulation versus textbook) and Question specificity (Specific versus Non-specific), were manipulated factorially. Question specificity was defined as follows: Subjects were presented with a scenario in which gumb...
Article
The Rice Virtual Laboratory in Statistics is an integrated combination of an electronic textbook, simulations/demonstrations, and case studies. The electronic textbook covers basic concepts in statistics and data analysis and contains links to data analysis tools, instructional demonstrations/simulations, and other on-line texts. The simulations an...
Article
Full-text available
The Rice Virtual Laboratory in Statistics is an integrated combination of an electronic textbook, simulations/demonstrations, and case studies. The electronic textbook covers basic concepts in statistics and data analysis and contains links to data analysis tools, instructional demonstrations/simulations, and other on-line texts. The simulations an...
Conference Paper
An instrument to measure the various ways people use computers was developed and evaluated. Computers can be used as word processors, game machines, communication tools, accounting tools, and for a myriad of other applications. The Computer Use Scale (CUS) measures how people use computers across four dimensions: Enthusiasm, Entertainment, Efficien...
Article
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Agrees with A. H. Eagly's (see record 1995-21141-001) contention that the use of easily understood metrics (binomial effects size display and the common language effect) are not entirely sufficient at showing a significant sex effect. The authors recommend the use of computer simulations as a tool for assessing the impact of sex differences. Resul...
Article
Current theories of chess expertise assume that experts can recall meaningful chess positions so well because their encoding and retrieval relies on prior learning of thousands of specific "chunks" of information. However, these theories neglect the role of high-level knowledge that is more abstract than the perceptual chunk. We investigated the ro...
Article
This study explored whether knowledge of the Einstellung phenomenon facilitates problem solving. Eight subjects in each of three experimental conditions were given set-inducing problems followed by an otherwise easy 'critical' problem that could not be solved by the strategy used on the set-inducing problems. Subjects in one conditions worked on th...
Article
This article addresses a key question in the application of Card, Moran, and Newell's (1983) keystroke-level model to software in which users specify a command by working through a system of hierarchical menus. For example, to insert a row in Lotus 1-2-3®, the user makes three menu choices: W for worksheet, I for insert, and R for row. In the keyst...
Article
Full-text available
Modern C3I systems are best described as semi-automated data management and decision systems over which human operators exercise supervisory control. The effectiveness of such systems is heavily dependent on the design for human-computer interaction (HCI), an important aspect of which is the visual display interface. Current Department of Defense p...
Article
Knowledge of how software is actually used by people can assist software developers and internal MIS application development personnel to improve the user-interface of existing software, in creating new user interface styles for existing software packages, and to improve the training for personnel using software packages. This article reports resul...
Article
The ability to rapidly reorient attention in the auditory modality was studied in hyperactive children. Hyperactive and nonhyperactive subjects matched on age, sex, and IQ listened to dichotically presented lists for prespecified targets. Reorientation was studied by comparing performance on trials requiring subjects to reorient their attention dur...
Article
The developmental course of the ability to rapidly allocate attention was studied using a dichotic listening task with 8-year old, 11-year old and college age subjects. In this task, subjects were instructed to listen to one ear for predescribed targets and then were later signaled (on some trials) to switch their attention to the other ear. Reorie...
Article
The pattern of attention movements underlying reorientation of visual selective attention independent of eye movements was studied developmentally in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 8-year-old, 11-year-old, and college-age subjects first oriented their attention to a central location and were then cued to direct their attention either to the left o...
Chapter
Reorientation is a selective attention skill in which attention is first oriented to one stimulus and then reoriented to a second stimulus. In this chapter, the reorientation of auditory and visual attention is first explored developmentally and then in hyperactive and non-hyperactive children. The developmental literature on selective attention is...
Article
D. J. Ozer (see PA, Vol 74:33989) found that spatial visualization correlated with personality and verbal ability for girls but not for boys. To account for this finding, he hypothesized that "the causes of individual differences in spatial visualization [may be] different for the two sexes" (Ozer, 1987, p. 134). Although Ozer's conclusion is an in...
Article
The ability to predict users' commands in Lotus 1-2-3 was investigated. Keystroke data was collected from four subjects in their normal work environment, with over 2700 commands being analysed. The data was used to construct transitional probability matrices that were then used to predict commands based on their immediate predecessors. Approximatel...
Article
People process natural language in real time and with very limited short-term memories. This article describes a computational architecture for syntactic performance that also requires fixed finite resources.
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recognized that the growing demands of modern warfare strain and in some cases exceed human cognitive capabilities. Although modern command, control, communication, and intelligence (C3I) systems incorporate a number of advanced design concepts to reduce the burden on operators, it is essential that they retain certain key controlling...
Article
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The hardware and system software of the Apple Macintosh computer are described, and their implications for conducting psychological research is discussed. A library of machine language routines for presenting auditory and visual stimuli and recording response latencies is described.
Article
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The effect of the widespread availability of microcomputers on research is discussed. Student projects in a course in computer applications in psychology improved markedly, and faculty who had previously not believed that there was great value in using computers discovered innovative ways of facilitating their research.
Article
Although there is considerable evidence that stimuli such as digits and letters are extensively processed in parallel and without capacity limitations, recent data suggest that only the features of stimuli are processed in parallel. In an attempt to reconcile this discrepancy, we used the simultaneous/successive detection paradigm with stimuli from...
Article
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Surber's (1986)arguments about testing covariation detection models and about assessment of variable importance are essentially correct but inappropriately applied to analyses of functional relations. Our main points were as follows: (a) Past theorizing in several domains assumed that all rs that are equivalent in Pearson's terms are perceived as e...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews the main points made by the authors (1985) in their article on covariation judgment and argues that, while C. F. Surber's (see record 1986-16237-001) arguments about covariation detection models and about assessment of variable importance are essentially correct, they are inappropriately applied to the authors' analyses of functional relati...
Article
In two experiments, subjects performed a luminance detection task under conditions of quiet and noise. In the quiet condition, subjects heard 70 dB(A) broadband noise, and in the noise condition they heard 100 dB(A) noise. Stimuli were presented on a cathode ray tube, and appeared at the center or along the perimeter of an imaginary circle. Two exp...
Article
Full-text available
Conducted 3 experiments to demonstrate that because Pearson's correlation is composed of 3 distinct components (slope, error variance, and variance of X), it is better to look at judgments as a function of these components rather than as a function of Pearson's correlation. These 3 components of Pearson's correlation and presentation format (graph...
Article
Although substitution tests have been included in tests of intelligence for years, the underlying abilities they measure have still not been clearly determined. This study used componential analysis to investigate the information-processing components underlying substitution test performance. The bases of sex and age differences were also of intere...
Article
Full-text available
Contends that although experimenters are careful to make sure their results generalize to the population of Ss, the problem of generalizing to the population of stimuli has been neglected. This can be accomplished by treating stimuli as random effects rather than the traditional procedure of treating stimuli as fixed effects. If stimulus effects ar...
Article
Two studies with 12 casual and 12 tournament chess players (undergraduates) examined the relationship between part-set cuing and the organization of memory. After studying partly played chess games, Ss tried to reconstruct the board positions from memory, starting sometimes with a clear board and sometimes with half of the pieces already in place....
Article
Previous research has shown that precueing a stimulus's location in an otherwise empty field leads to more efficient detection of that stimulus. The experiments reported here sought to determine whether or not such cueing affects the early stages(s) of perception. If cueing affects early perceptual processing, then the effect of cueing should be la...
Article
Shiffrin and Schneider (1977) concluded that after consistent practice with a detection task in which target and distractor stimuli are never interchanged over trials, subjects are able to search for any of four targets in displays containing four stimuli almost as well as they can search for a single target in displays containing only one stimulus...
Article
Answers commentaries made on a review paper of attention development by the present authors (see record 1983-00792-001) made by J. W. Hagen and K. P. Wilson (see record 1983-07657-001), by W. E. Jeffrey (see record 1983-07664-001), and by R. D. Odom (see record 1983-00806-001). Jeffrey claims that attention development can be explained in terms...
Article
In 2 experiments, 7- and 8-year-old children and college students performed a letter-detection task in which reaction time was the dependent variable. Expectancy was manipulated by varying the probability the stimulus would appear at the center of an imaginary circle rather than along the perimeter. Although both age groups responded consistently f...
Article
Regression analysis has often been used to “capture” the decision policies of raters or judges. The usefulness of policy capturing generally has been thought to be limited to the case in which the evaluative cues are uncorrelated; otherwise, the various indices of cue importance often do not agree. We argue that the raw-score regression weight is t...
Article
Developmental differences in the ability to ignore irrelevant information have been assessed in terms of same/different judgments, speeded classification, selective listening, and incidental learning. Recent research suggests the presence of both quantitative and qualitative age differences in the operation of selective attention. Each of these par...
Article
The relationship between preferred handedness and spatial visualization was examined for 124 female and 229 male undergraduate students. Handedness and spatial ability were used in the design as continuous variables. Other variables examined were sex of subject and family history of sinistrality. Spatial ability was found to be systematically relat...
Article
Problems in testing main effects when there is interaction are discussed. A method by which main effects can be tested independently of the interaction is developed and compared with the hierarchical method. The hierarchical method is shown to be inadequate, as it does not provide sufficient control of the type I error rate. The alternative method...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments were conducted to investigate context effects on the lexical decision process. In both experiments, observers classified letter strings as words or nonwords following the presentation of context in the form of an incomplete sentence. In Experiment 1, the predictability of congruous word stimuli and their frequency of occurrence in p...
Article
The hypothesis that spatial ability can be improved through experience afforded but relevant college courses