David J. La Rooy

David J. La Rooy
Royal Holloway, University of London | RHUL · School of Law

Ph.D http://larooy.net/

About

50
Publications
22,285
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1,106
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
711 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing recognition of the occurrence and frequency of male childhood sexual abuse (MCSA). Quantitative and qualitative research has demonstrated a number of adverse outcomes associated with MCSA in terms of mental health, physical health and difficulties in behavioural, social or interrelationship functioning. The present study gives v...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the accuracy and narrative coherence of children’s accounts of a staged event across two interviews in comparison to a control condition to discern between the effects of repeated recall and delay between interviews. Seventy-six 8–11-year-olds took part in a first aid training session. Half of the children were randomly assi...
Article
Full-text available
There is limited research regarding the use of repeated questions and the subsequent response from children in real-world forensic contexts. We analysed 71 transcripts of diagnostic assessments in which 3- to 6-year-olds were assessed for suspected abuse experiences. On average, 6% of interviewer questions were repeated, and 47% of the repeated que...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the narrative coherence of children’s accounts elicited in multiple forensic interviews. Transcriptions of 56 police interviews with 28 children aged 3‐14 years alleging physical and sexual abuse were coded for markers of completeness, consistency and connectedness. We found that multiple interviews increased the completenes...
Article
Objectives: Child witnesses often describe their experiences across multiple interviews. It is unknown whether talking with a familiar interviewer increases disclosures, however, or whether any benefits of a familiar interviewer could be achieved by ensuring that interviewers (regardless of familiarity) behave in socially supportive ways. This stu...
Article
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Most of the foregoing research on child investigative interviewing has focused on interview practices in Western countries, thus potentially limiting the generalizability and application of the findings to improve interview practices in non-Western countries. The current studies are the first to examine police interviewing practices involving alleg...
Article
Full-text available
The state of forensic interviewing of children in Scotland has changed little since this publication in 2010. A dedicated team led by Janet Blair, Lorrette Nicol and Jennifer Morrison are about to change this for the better.
Article
Full-text available
Using evidence-based guidelines to interview children is an important means to obtain complete and accurate accounts. In the current study, we examined the quality of child investigative interviewing in the Netherlands. To examine this, we compared the Dutch Scenario Model with the NICHD Protocol and interviews from countries that did not follow a...
Article
Full-text available
The present study introduces an adaptation of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM; Griffiths and Milne 2006) which extends the chronological, visual map of question types used in an investigative interview to include child interviewee’s responses (through the addition of the Interview Answer Grid, IAG). Furthermore, it provides a rare evaluation of rep...
Chapter
Forensic interviews are conducted with children when there is suspicion that they may have been abused or maltreated. This chapter focuses on the most appropriate way to question children and to structure interviews. In order to understand how to best question children about suspected abuse, the development and dynamics of all aspects of how childr...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2007, alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Portugal provide evidence in a mandatory “Declarações para Memória Futura” (DMF; English trans. ‘Statement for future use’) proceeding. In order to protect children from having to testify in court, interviews conducted at the DMF can later be used as trial evidence because the hearings are conduc...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns regarding repeat interviews with child witnesses include greater use of suggestive questions in later interviews due to bias, and that children may appear inconsistent and, therefore, be judged as less reliable in court. UK transcripts of first and second interviews with 21 child victims/witnesses (conducted by qualified interviewers) were...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss key aspects of assessing the quality of forensic interviews conducted with childwitnesses. We begin by discussing the quality of the case material, before reviewing the key components of investigative interviews and methods of assessing the quality of each of these components. The overall structure of the interview is di...
Chapter
The consensus between psychological and linguistic perspectives on child interviewing provides a basis for best practice that is effective and useful to researchers and practitioners. This chapter brings multidisciplinary findings together in a practice-based discussion of the common features of child interviewing. Points of consensus are identifie...
Poster
Full-text available
A poster describing a novel way of visualising interviews to analyse question order and response. This method was used to analyse police interviews of child victims who were interviewed multiple times.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an evidence-based tool for training child forensic interviewers called the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol (NICHD Protocol), with a specific focus on how the Protocol is being adapted in various countries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors include internation...
Article
In this chapter, we review the developmental science of “Children and the Law” and our understanding of the diverse and broad array of cognitive, social, and emotional factors that developmental scientists have studied. To allow children to participate as fully as their abilities allow in legal decisions affecting their lives, it is important to un...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an evidence-based tool for training child forensic interviewers called the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol (NICHD Protocol), with a specific focus on how the Protocol is being adapted in various countries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors include internation...
Article
Most experimental studies examining the use of pre-interview instructions (ground rules) show that children say “I don't know” more often when they have been encouraged to do so when appropriate. However, children's “don't know” responses have not been studied in more applied contexts, such as in investigative interviews. In the present study, 76 t...
Article
A number of studies have indicated that police officers trained in the use of the Scottish Executive guidelines for the interviewing of child witnesses do not always adhere to the evidence-based recommendations contained within them. This study explored possible reasons for non-adherence through the qualitative examination of interviewers’ free-tex...
Article
In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender...
Article
Full-text available
Eyewitnesses to a filmed event were interviewed twice using a Cognitive Interview to examine the effects of variations in delay between the repeated interviews (immediately & 2 days; immediately & 7 days; 7 & 9 days) and the identity of the interviewers (same or different across the two repeated interviews). Hypermnesia (an increase in total amount...
Book
A comprehensive survey of the theory, research and forensic implications related to suggestibility in legal contexts that includes the latest research. Provides a useful digest for academics and a trusted text for students of forensic and applied psychology. A vital resource for legal practitioners who need to familiarize themselves with the subjec...
Article
Full-text available
The study evaluated the usefulness of repeat-interviewing of witnesses to crimes who were intoxicated by alcohol at the time of the incident and their first interview, and then re-interviewed when not intoxicated the following day. Sixty young, social drinkers were divided into three groups. One group was given a “placebo” (alcohol-like) beverage,...
Article
Full-text available
The question for this study was to further understand how children and youths with intellectual disabilities (IDs) provide central and peripheral details when interviewed about their abuse experiences. Through a quantitative method we examined police officers' first formal investigative interviews with 32 children and youths with IDs. We analyzed t...
Article
Full-text available
Access to audio recordings of five interviews (Interviews 2–6), and to the interviewer's contemporaneous notes during an initial unrecorded interview, made it possible to assess consistency across repeated attempts by a 9-year-old to describe her older sister's abduction from their shared bedroom. Information provided in each of the interviews was...
Article
Full-text available
Children are asked to participate in joint investigative interviews (JIIs) when they have been suspected of being victims or witnesses of crimes and investigators need to learn from the children’s own words what happened. Information thus obtained from children in JIIs can play a significant role in civil and criminal decision making. It is, theref...
Chapter
What we Set out to do in this Updated HandbookWhat to ExpectChapter OverviewReferences
Chapter
The Development of MemoryMemory Changes over TimeThe Reconstructive Nature of Memory and SuggestibilityTwo Important Ways we Remember: Free Recall Versus RecognitionContext Reinstatement and the Theory of ‘Encoding Specificity’Stress, Trauma and MemoryConclusions References
Chapter
Development of Language and CommunicationSuggestibility of Child WitnessesIndividual CharacteristicsFantasyConclusions References
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to explore 1) the ways in which interviewers refocus alleged victims of abuse on their previous responses and 2) how children responded when they were refocused on their previous responses. Transcripts of 37 forensic interviews conducted by British police officers trained using the best practices spelled out in the Memorandu...
Article
Full-text available
The present study surveyed 91 police interviewers in Scottish police forces about their perceptions of how well they adhered to the Scottish Executive (2003) guidelines. Almost all respondents (97%) received the appropriate national training and overwhelmingly indicated (again 97%) that their training equipped them either quite, very, or extremely...
Article
Full-text available
Within the legal system, children are frequently interviewed about their experiences more than once, with different information elicited in different interviews. The presumed positive and negative effects of multiple interviewing have generated debate and controversy within the legal system and among researchers. Some commentators emphasise that re...
Article
Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are presented one to each eye: the images are visible only alternately. Monocular rivalry occurs when different images are presented both to the same eye: the clarity of the images fluctuates alternately. Could both sorts of rivalry reflect the operation of a general visual mechanism for dealing with p...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the effects of repeating questions in interviews investigating the possible sexual abuse of children and youths who had a variety of intellectual disabilities. We predicted that the repetition of option-posing and suggestive questions would lead the suspected victims to change their responses, making it difficult to under...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the universal preference for single forensic interviews, children are rarely questioned about abuse only once. Although repeated interviewing has been the subject of previous reviews, this chapter includes many studies that have been undertaken in the past decade. The studies in this review involved children ranging in age from 2 to 13 year...
Article
Background We predicted that repeated interviewing would improve the informativeness of children with intellectual disabilities who were questioned in criminal investigations. Materials The chronological ages of the 19 children, involved in 20 cases, ranged between 4.7 and 18 years (M = 10.3 years) at the time of the first alleged abuse. Method The...
Article
Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of higher education have led to some students entering the sex industry in order to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of undergraduates (N = 130) in the south of England, who completed a cross‐sectional survey of their financial circumstances, health, psychological well‐bein...
Article
Available evidence, largely arecdotal suggests that students are turning to quick ways of making money such as work in the sex industry in order to balance their finances, a trend seen in other countries with similar student support and tuition fee policies. Further research is urgently needed to understand the scale of student involvement in sex w...
Article
SUMMARY The effects of context reinstatement as means of enhancing 5- and 6-year-old children's event memory in repeated interviews after a 6-month delay were examined. Children were interviewed immediately after the event (baseline interview) and twice at a 6-month delay, with 24 hours between interviews. The first 6-month interview was conducted...
Article
Three experiments examined reminiscence and hypermnesia in 5- and 6-year-olds' memory for an event across repeated interviews that occurred either immediately afterward (Experiment 1) or after a 6-month delay (Experiments 2 and 3). Reminiscence (recall of new information) was reliably obtained in all of the experiments, although the numbers of new...
Article
The present study examined the effects of the timing of an initial interview on children's recall of an event over delays of 1 and 2 years. Fifty-five children who had originally participated in a novel event when they were between 5- and 6-years old and had been interviewed about it following either short (1 week or less) or long (1 or 6 month) de...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Research (Lamb et al., 2008) has demonstrated that obtaining chldren’s testimony about experienced events have some limitations concerning their developmental characteristics. In a other hand, high profile cases (McMartin in the USA; Dutroux in France) have demonstrated that children’s statements could be contaminated by bad interview practices, and therefore showed that was necessary to implement developmental adapted interview techniques. So, in the last 30 years, research as been engaged to create and implement forensic interview protocols that could enhance children’s capability to inform and limit interviewer’s contamination in their statement. In Portugal, in spite of the existing a particular approach to children’s testimony, there’s no guidelines or interview protocols about the correct way to interview children in the judicial proceedings. To overcome this flaw, our purposes is to adapt and implement an investigative interview protocol. An investigative interview protocol is a structured interview guideline (the proper actual questions to be used in the different phases of the interview), adapted to children’s developmental needs, and has the objective to facilitate children's capability to give more quality and quantity of information about experienced events. This protocol should be used as proof in the judicial decision making process. Therefore, we chose as our research goal the adaptation of the investigative interview protocol of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), described as the “state of the art” interview protocol (Kuehnle & Connell, 2009). This protocol has been developed in the last 20 years by Professor Michael Lamb and his colleagues. The protocol has been implemented in several countries (USA, UK, Israel, Canada, Japan, and others) and showed his usefulness and effectiveness in improving children’s testimony capability, increasing the amount of information relevant to the criminal investigation, and increasing the amount of accurate information. More, the protocol, because of his empirical based data, has proven to be a strong proof in criminal proceedings, and, when used, increasing the guilty pleas in sexual abuse cases (Pipe et al., 2008).