David Kipping

David Kipping
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics · Division of Solar, Stellar, and Planetary Sciences

PhD

About

53
Publications
7,536
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,278
Citations

Publications

Publications (53)
Preprint
The exomoon candidate Kepler-1708 b-i was recently reported using two transits of Kepler data. Supported by a 1% false-positive probability, the candidate is promising but requires follow-up observations to confirm/reject its validity. In this short paper, we calculate the detectability of the exomoon candidate's transit in the next window (March 2...
Article
Full-text available
Exomoons represent a crucial missing puzzle piece in our efforts to understand extrasolar planetary systems. To address this deficiency, we here describe an exomoon survey of 70 cool, giant transiting exoplanet candidates found by Kepler. We identify only one exhibiting a moon-like signal that passes a battery of vetting tests: Kepler-1708 b. We sh...
Preprint
Exomoons represent a crucial missing puzzle piece in our efforts to understand extrasolar planetary systems. To address this deficiency, we here describe an exomoon survey of 70 cool, giant transiting exoplanet candidates found by Kepler. We identify only one which exhibits a moon-like signal that passes a battery of vetting tests: Kepler-1708 b. W...
Article
Full-text available
Exomoons are the natural satellites of planets orbiting stars outside our solar system, of which there are currently no confirmed examples. We present new observations of a candidate exomoon associated with Kepler-1625b using the Hubble Space Telescope to validate or refute the moon’s presence. We find evidence in favor of the moon hypothesis, base...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of Proxima Centauri's radial velocities recently led Anglada-Escudé et al. to claim the presence of a low-mass planet orbiting the Sun's nearest star once every 11.2 days. Although the a priori probability that Proxima b transits its parent star is just 1.5%, the potential impact of such a discovery would be considerable. Independent o...
Article
Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incogni...
Article
Determining which small exoplanets have stony-iron compositions is necessary for quantifying the occurrence of such planets and for understanding the physics of planet formation. Kepler-10 hosts the stony-iron world Kepler-10b (K10b), and also contains what has been reported to be the largest solid silicate-ice planet, Kepler-10c (K10c). Using 220...
Article
Full-text available
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kep...
Article
Full-text available
We present a survey of 41 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) for exomoons using Bayesian photodynamics, more than tripling the number of KOIs surveyed with this technique. We find no compelling evidence for exomoons although thirteen KOIs yield spurious detections driven by instrumental artifacts, stellar activity and/or perturbations from unseen bo...
Article
Full-text available
We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Few of these objects are known. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonst...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of an exomoon would provide deep insights into planet formation and the habitability of planetary systems, with transiting examples being particularly sought after. Of the hundreds of Kepler planets now discovered, the seven-planet system Kepler-90 is unusual for exhibiting an unidentified transit-like signal in close proximity to one...
Article
Full-text available
In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-42...
Article
Full-text available
KOI-227, KOI-319 and KOI-884 are identified here as (at least) two planet systems. For KOI-319 and KOI-884, the observed Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) of the inner transiting planet are used to detect an outer non-transiting planet. The outer planet in KOI-884 is 2.6 Jupiter masses and has the orbital period just narrow of the 3:1 resonance with...
Article
Full-text available
With their smaller radii and high cosmic abundance, transiting planets around cool stars hold a unique appeal. As part of our ongoing project to measure the occurrence rate of extrasolar moons, in this work we present results from a survey focusing on eight Kepler planetary candidates associated with M dwarfs. Using photodynamical modeling and Baye...
Article
Full-text available
The Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) can be used as a diagnostic of gravitational interactions between planets in a multi-planet system. Many Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) exhibit significant TTVs, but KOI-142.01 stands out among them with an unrivaled, 12-hour TTV amplitude. Here we report a thorough analysis of KOI-142.01's transits. We disco...
Article
Full-text available
Kepler-22b is the first transiting planet to have been detected in the habitable-zone of its host star. At 2.4 Earth radii, Kepler-22b is too large to be considered an Earth-analog, but should the planet host a moon large enough to maintain an atmosphere, then the Kepler-22 system may yet possess a telluric world. Aside from being within the habita...
Article
Full-text available
Stellar limb darkening impacts a wide range of astronomical measurements. The accuracy to which it is modelled limits the accuracy in any covariant parameters of interest, such as the radius of a transiting planet. With the ever growing availability of precise observations and the importance of robust estimates of astrophysical parameters, an emerg...
Article
Full-text available
It is suggested that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for extrasolar planets is well described by the Beta distribution. Several properties of the Beta distribution make it a powerful tool for this purpose. For example, the Beta distribution can reproduce a diverse range of probability density functions (PDFs) using just two shape paramet...
Article
Full-text available
Amongst the many hundreds of transiting planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission, one finds a large number of candidates with sizes between that of the Earth and Neptune. The composition of these worlds is not immediately obvious with no Solar system analogue to draw upon and there exists some ambiguity as to whether a given candidate is...
Article
Full-text available
With the detection of extrasolar moons (exomoons) on the horizon, it is important to consider their potential for habitability. If we consider the circumstellar Habitable Zone (HZ, often described in terms of planet semi-major axis and orbital eccentricity), we can ask, "How does the HZ for an Earth-like exomoon differ from the HZ for an Earth-like...
Article
Full-text available
From the list of 2321 transiting planet candidates announced by the Kepler Mission, we select seven targets with favorable properties for the capacity to dynamically maintain an exomoon and present a detectable signal. These seven candidates were identified through our automatic target selection (TSA) algorithm and target selection prioritization (...
Article
Full-text available
A dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres represents a major milestone in our quest to understand our place in the universe by placing our Solar System in context and by addressing the suitability of planets for the presence of life. EChO -the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory- is a mission concept specifically geared for thi...
Article
Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. In the Kepler-era, there now exists precise, continuous photometry of ~150,000 stars presenting an unprecedented opportunity for statistical analyses of these modulations. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the...
Article
Full-text available
We present multi-band optical photometry of 94 spectroscopically-confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) in the redshift range 0.0055 to 0.073, obtained between 2006 and 2011. There are a total of 5522 light curve points. We show that our natural system SN photometry has a precision of roughly 0.03 mag or better in BVr'i', 0.06 mag in u', and 0.07 mag...
Article
Full-text available
The Kepler Mission is monitoring the brightness of ~150,000 stars searching for evidence of planetary transits. As part of the "Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler" (HEK) project, we report a planetary system with two confirmed planets and one candidate planet discovered using the publicly available data for KOI-872. Planet b transits the host star with...
Article
Full-text available
Two decades ago, empirical evidence concerning the existence and frequency of planets around stars, other than our own, was absent. Since this time, the detection of extrasolar planets from Jupiter-sized to most recently Earth-sized worlds has blossomed and we are finally able to shed light on the plurality of Earth-like, habitable planets in the c...
Article
Full-text available
The Unidad de Astronomía of the Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile) has begun a collaboration with the University College London, the Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba and the Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental at Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, to enlarge a rich database of exoplanetary transits, with the efforts from both profesiona...
Article
We present a novel method to determine eccentricity constraints of extrasolar planets in systems with multiple transiting planets through photometry alone. Our method is highly model independent, making no assumptions about the stellar parameters and requiring no radial velocity, transit timing or occultation events. Our technique exploits the fact...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of four relatively massive (2-7MJ) transiting extrasolar planets. HAT-P-20b orbits a V=11.339 K3 dwarf star with a period P=2.875317+/-0.000004d. The host star has a mass of 0.760+/-0.03 Msun, radius of 0.690+/-0.02 Rsun, Teff=4595+/-80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H]=+0.35+/-0.08. HAT-P-20b has a mass of 7.246+/-0.187 MJ, and rad...
Article
We present the detection of visible light from the planet TrES-2b, the darkest exoplanet currently known. By analysis of the orbital photometry from publicly available Kepler data (0.4–0.9 µm), we determine a day—night contrast amplitude of 6.5 ± 1.9 ppm (parts per million), constituting the lowest amplitude orbital phase variation discovered. The...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of HAT-P-31b, a transiting exoplanet orbiting the V=11.660 dwarf star GSC 2099-00908. HAT-P-31b is the first HAT planet discovered without any follow-up photometry, demonstrating the feasibility of a new mode of operation for the HATNet project. The 2.17 Mj, 1.1Rj planet has a period P = 5.0054 days and maintains an unusuall...
Article
It has been previously shown that moons of extrasolar planets may be detectable with the Kepler Mission, for moon masses above ∼0.2 M⊕. Transit timing effects have been formerly identified as a potent tool to this end, exploiting the dynamics of the system. In this work, we explore the simulation of transit light curves of a planet plus a single mo...
Article
Full-text available
We present an analysis of seven primary transit observations of the hot Neptune GJ436b at 3.6, 4.5, and 8 mu m obtained with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. After correcting for systematic effects, we fitted the light curves using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Combining these new data with the EPOXI, Hubble Space...
Article
Full-text available
We present an analysis of seven primary transit observations of the hot Neptune GJ436b at 3.6, 4.5, and 8 μm obtained with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. After correcting for systematic effects, we fitted the light curves using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Combining these new data with the EPOXI, Hubble Space T...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of HAT-P-26b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.744 K1 dwarf star GSC 0320–01027, with a period P = 4.234516 ± 0.000015 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455304.65122 ± 0.00035 (BJD; Barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit dur...
Article
The hot Jupiter HD 209458b was observed during primary transit at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We describe the procedures we adopted to correct for the systematic effects present in the IRAC data and the subsequent analysis. The light curves were fitted including limb-darkening effe...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of HAT-P-24b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.818 F8 dwarf star GSC 0774−01441, with a period P = 3.3552464 ± 0.0000071 days, transit epoch T_c = 2455216.97669 ± 0.00024 (BJD)11, and transit duration 3.653 ± 0.025 hr. The host star has a mass of 1.191 ± 0.042M_⊙, radius of 1.317 ± 0.068R_...
Article
Full-text available
Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection...
Article
We show that for a transiting exoplanet accompanied by a moon which also transits, the absolute masses and radii of the star, planet and moon are determinable. For a planet–star system, it is well known that the density of the star is calculable from the light curve by manipulation of Kepler's Third Law. In an analogous way, the planetary density i...
Article
We explore how finite integration times or equivalently temporal binning induces morphological distortions to the transit light curve. These distortions, if uncorrected for, lead to the retrieval of erroneous system parameters and may even lead to some planetary candidates being rejected as ostensibly unphysical. We provide analytic expressions for...
Article
Full-text available
We present an analysis of 18 short-cadence (SC) transit lightcurves of TrES-2b using quarter 0 (Q0) and quarter 1 (Q1) from the Kepler Mission. The photometry is of unprecedented precision, 237ppm per minute, allowing for the most accurate determination of the transit parameters yet obtained for this system. Global fits of the transit photometry, r...
Article
Full-text available
We report the discovery of HAT-P-14b, a fairly massive transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright star GSC 3086-00152 (V = 9.98), with a period of P = 4.627669 ± 0.000005 days. The transit is close to grazing (impact parameter 0.891+0.007 –0.008) and has a duration of 0.0912 ± 0.0017 days, with a reference epoch of mid-transit of T...
Article
In this work, we investigate the accuracy of various approximate expressions for the transit duration of a detached binary against the exact solution, found through solving a quartic equation. Additionally, a new concise approximation is derived, which offers more accurate results than those currently in the literature. Numerical simulations are pe...
Article
Full-text available
We present two independent, homogeneous, global analyses of the transit light curves, radial velocities and spectroscopy of Kepler-4b through Kepler-8b, with numerous differences over the previous methods. These include: 1) improved decorrelated parameter fitting set, 2) new limb darkening coefficients, 3) time-stamps modified to BJD for consistenc...
Article
Out of the known transiting extrasolar planets, the majority are gas giants orbiting their host star at close proximity. Both theoretical and observational studies support the hypothesis that such bodies emit significant amounts of flux relative to the host star, increasing towards infrared wavelengths. For the dayside of the exoplanet, this phenom...
Article
In this paper we investigate the detectability of a habitable-zone exomoon around various configurations of exoplanetary systems with the Kepler Mission or photometry of approximately equal quality. We calculate both the predicted transit timing signal amplitudes and the estimated uncertainty on such measurements in order to calculate the confidenc...
Article
In our previous paper, we evaluated the transit duration variation (TDV) effect for a co–aligned planet–moon system at an orbital inclination of i= 90°. Here, we will consider the effect for the more general case of i≤ 90° and an exomoon inclined from the planet–star plane by Euler rotation angles α, β and γ. We find that the TDV signal has two maj...
Article
We report the detection of a transit egress by the ∼3.9-Jupiter-mass planet HD 80606b, an object in a highly eccentric orbit (e∼ 0.93) about its parent star of approximately solar type. The astrophysical reality of the signal of variability in HD 80606 is confirmed by observation with two independent telescope systems and checks against several ref...
Article
As the number of known exoplanets continues to grow, the question as to whether such bodies harbour satellite systems has become one of increasing interest. In this paper, we explore the transit timing effects that should be detectable due to an exomoon and predict a new observable. We first consider transit time variation (TTV), where we update th...
Article
Transiting planet light curves have historically been used predominantly for measuring the depth and hence ratio of the planet–star radii, p. Equations have previously been presented by Seager & Mallén-Ornelas for the analysis of the total and trough transit light-curve time to derive the ratio of semimajor axis to stellar radius, a/R*, in the case...
Article
The time resolution of SANS experiments is generally limited by frame overlap to some ms. We report on a new time-resolved stroboscopic SANS method, called TISANE, offering μs time resolution without a major sacrifice in intensity by making use of very large frame overlap. We may explore a new field in neutron scattering and complement the emerging...

Network

Cited By