David Kazmer

David Kazmer
University of Massachusetts Lowell | UML · Department of Plastics Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University Mechanical Engineering Design Division
Multi-material additive manufacturing & polymer processing; model-based product & process design; plastics recycling.

About

309
Publications
106,922
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Introduction
David Owen Kazmer is Professor of Plastics Engineering at the University of Massachusetts Lowell, returning to the faculty after serving as Associate Dean for the College of Engineering as well as Chair of the Plastics Engineering Department. Dr. Kazmer received his doctorate from Stanford University’s Design Division. His academic research is motivated by industry experiences in engineering and management at General Electric and Dynisco. He performs teaching and research in product and machine
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - September 2019
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (309)
Preprint
Mechanical properties of additively manufactured structures fabricated using material extrusion additive manufacturing are predicted through combining thermal modeling with entanglement theory and molecular dynamics approaches. A one-dimensional model of heat transfer in a single road width wall is created and validated against both thermography an...
Article
Full-text available
Melt post-condensation and thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation of a cycloaliphatic polyamide (Trogamid™ CX7323) were studied through time-resolved rheometry (TRR). The implemented TRR elucidates structural changes occurring during the two concurrent phenomena, namely, melt post-condensation and thermal/thermo-oxidative degradation, during the...
Article
The strength and toughness of material extrusion 3D printed parts is increased through the extrusion of core-sheath dual material thermoplastic filament feedstocks in which the filament core has a significantly higher glass transition temperature (Tg) than the filament sheath. Parts printed with these dual material filaments can thus be annealed af...
Article
This work investigates three-dimensional simulation of fused filament fabrication using the Cross-WLF model for the non-isothermal and shear thinning behavior of the melt. To realistically simulate the deposition flow, the acceleration, viscosity evolution, and flow front tracking models have been included with the pressure gradient in the deposite...
Article
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Four sustainable materials including a recycled polypropylene blend, polybutylene adipate terephthalate, and two grades of polylactic acid are compared to a reference isotactic polypropylene. Tensile specimens were produced using a two-cavity, hot runner mold with fully automatic cycles per standard industrial practices to investigate the effect of...
Article
A ram extruder is described for high-pressure extrusion of fully compounded thermoset rubber to achieve additive manufacturing. The extruder uses a piston driven by a geared stepper motor to provide volumetric displacement of the rubber charge residing in a temperature-controlled barrel. Along with activators, accelerators, and a vulcanizing agent,...
Article
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Compressibility and viscosity of polymer feedstock are critical to their volumetric flow rate, weld strength, and dimensional accuracy in material extrusion additive manufacturing. In this work, the compressibility and viscosity of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) material is characterized with an instrumented hot end design. Experiments ar...
Article
Polyamides (PAs) are repeatedly exposed to environments of varying humidity throughout their service life. Due to their hygroscopic nature, moisture diffusion can alter the polymer properties, sometimes irreversibly. It has been previously found that the effect of transport of water on the structure, morphology, and physical properties of polymers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A three-level multivariate control system is described that transforms a vector of machine inputs to a vector of virtual process states, and then these virtual process states to key performance objectives. The multivariate system is implemented on a 150 mm (6 inch) screw diameter producing approximately 500 kg/hr of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film ha...
Article
Material extrusion is a popular process for both prototyping and digital manufacturing, yet it is lacking in terms of part strength, feature resolution, and production rate relative to alternative processes. Injection printing addresses these issues by combining material extrusion of the outer surfaces of the part at fine resolution with injection...
Article
The interlayer strengths of parts produced through material extrusion (also referred to as fused filament fabrication or FFF) suffer due to poor interlayer contact and insufficient diffusion. A model for predicting interlayer contact, based on pressure-driven flow, is combined with a model for polymer chain diffusion to predict the interlayer stren...
Article
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Extrusion screw designs and validation are presented for three multiple channel, fractal screws for comparison with common general purpose, and barrier screws using an instrumented single screw extruder with high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) at varying screw speeds. The fractal screws are designed with multiple chan...
Article
Full-text available
An in-line rheometer and data acquisition system are used to monitor the melt pressure, melt temperature, and environmental temperatures while producing parts via fused filament fabrication (FFF). Melt pressures are observed to increase when printing parts with small layer heights, which is attributed to the confined space created between the nozzl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a new solar panel design with a focus on weight reduction. The optical and thermal performances are comparable to the conventional solar panels. A 20% weight reduction was achieved through the replacement of the front glass cover with a hard-coated acrylic and using a thermal conductive plastic backing for structural rigidity. Thermal an...
Article
Full-text available
An in-line rheometer has been incorporated into a fused deposition modeling printer for the first time by designing a modified nozzle with a custom pressure transducer and a thermocouple for measuring the processed melt temperature. Additionally, volumetric flow rates and shear rates were monitored by counting the stepper motor pulses as well as th...
Article
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Variances in polymers processed by single-screw extrusion are investigated. While vortical flows are well known in the fluids community and fountain flows are well known to be caused by the frozen layers in injection molding, our empirical evidence and process modeling suggests the presence of vortical fountain flows in the melt channels of plastic...
Article
Full-text available
Background Force modulating tissue bridges (FMTB) represent a new class of combined wound closure and scar reduction devices designed to optimize the tension milieu of the healing wound. Objectives Engineering analysis and testing in both intact skin and incisional models was undertaken to assess changes in tissue tension associated with device pl...
Method
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Grid and isometric paper on 5 mm spacing with darker lines every 20 mm. Prints well in color or monochrome black and white. Designed for 8.5x11 inch paper, but we can produce A4 sized paper if interested.
Article
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A multivariate sensor (MVS) is described for measurement of melt temperature, melt pressure, melt velocity, and melt viscosity. Melt pressure and temperature are respectively obtained through the incorporation of a piezo-ceramic element and infrared thermopile. Melt velocity is derived from the initial response of the melt temperature as the polyme...
Article
Capillary and parallel plate rheological characterization was conducted for a low-density polyethylene. In contrast with conventional rheological analysis, steady conditions were not assumed. Transient data, with time steps between 0.0001 and 0.2 s, were analyzed with a nonlinear, viscoelastic constitutive model in which the relaxation time was mod...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-sensor data fusion enables more comprehensive representation of the physical process being monitored to improve manufacturing consistency and productivity. The effectiveness of data fusion, however, is dependent upon the type of the data being fused. This paper investigates orthogonality as a measure for the effectiveness of data fusion, with...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a diffusion-controlled healing model for predicting fused deposition modeling (FDM) bond strength between layers ( z -axis strength). Design/methodology/approach Diffusion across layers of an FDM part was predicted based on a one-dimensional transient heat analysis of the interlayer interface using a...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors governing bond strength in fused deposition modeling (FDM) compared to strength in the fiber direction. Design/methodology/approach Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) boxes with the thickness of a single fiber were made at different platform and nozzle temperatures, print speeds,...
Chapter
Practical considerations for plastic part design are presented beginning with an overview of advantages of polymeric materials and manufacturing processes. Basic material selection is considered with respect to electrical, mechanical, thermal, and processing properties. A comparison of common manufacturing processes including extrusion, blow moldin...
Chapter
Common three-dimensional processes including stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modeling, and polyjet modeling are described and benchmarked for production of a three-sided cube with protrusions and depressions of various sizes; metrology of 3D printed parts indicates that tolerances vary by process but are typically on...
Article
Full-text available
An analytical method for estimating the bulk melt temperature in the injection molding process by means of in-mold temperature sensors was presented in Part A of this article. This method was validated using a transient cooling simulation of an injection molding process. The simulation considered the heat flux and heat accumulation in the mold star...
Article
The effect of deformation history (hysteresis) on transient capillary rheometric data was studied compared to conventional assumptions regarding steady state data. The factors studied were: the position instrumentation, the pressure instrumentation, entrance and exit effects, polymer melt compressibility, pressure dependence of the viscosity, and p...
Conference Paper
Data fusion enables the integration of multiple sensing data associated with the same physical process for more comprehensive process representation, thereby improving quality control in manufacturing. Based on a correlation analysis of measurement data, the effectiveness of data fusion has been investigated, using precision injection moulding as a...
Article
Full-text available
The role of colorant in polymer processing was investigated with respect to pressure and infrared (IR) sensing. Polystyrene was combined with blue, black, and purple color additives using twin-screw extrusion. Injection molding was then conducted using these three materials with a mold instrumented with a suite of commercial sensors as well as a cu...
Article
An auxiliary process controller was designed, implemented, and validated for on-line process and quality optimization. The objective function included terms related to the process variation, model uncertainty, and control energy. The controller architecture relied on characterized models including both process transfer functions and principal compo...
Article
Full-text available
To improve part quality and consistency injection molders strive to control the temperature of the molten plastic during cavity filling. In-mold temperature sensors can effectively measure the temperature of the mold surface that contacts the melt; however, they do not provide a measure of the bulk melt temperature. An analysis was developed to use...
Article
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This paper describes a wireless data transmission technique using acoustic waves as the information carrier for on-line injection molding process measurements, including melt temperature, pressure, velocity and viscosity. A design scheme of the optimization of the input electrical impedance matching with the transmission system of the multivariate...
Article
The 11 articles in this special section focus on the deployment of mechatronics for intelligent manufacturing. The articles are dedicated to new advances enabled by mechatronics in modeling, analysis, sensing and control methods, implementation, and validation for advanced manufacturing.
Article
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Injection molding part quality is modeled using a multivariate sensor. Melt pressure and temperature are respectively obtained through the incorporation of a piezo-ceramic element and infrared thermopile within the sensor head. Melt velocity is derived from the transient response of the melt temperature as the polymer melt flows across the sensor’s...
Article
Numerical simulation models and methods for polymer blends are detailed in this chapter, and some of the algorithms - such as volume of fluid, Monte Carlo dynamics and Cahn-Hilliard equations - are briefly reviewed. Three specific case studies are presented to demonstrate the methods and application of numerical modeling to investigate the morpholo...
Article
Full-text available
This research explored the demographic characteristics of the engineering faculty who offer and mentor Learning Through Service (LTS) experiences. Research has found a burgeoning interest in service; i.e., helping people, among engineering students, and it is important to understand how engineering faculty will help foster this desire and assist in...
Article
Online monitoring of product quality is key to automated machine operation and process optimization. This paper demonstrates an in-process sensing technique for online product quality assessment, using injection moulding as an example. The system measures four parameters within the injection mould cavity, which are directly correlated with the part...
Article
An investigation was conducted to identify and characterize the relaxation spectrum of polymer melts from transient capillary rheological data. System identification techniques using an iterative prediction-error minimization (PEM) method were applied to isolate the viscoelastic melt response from the apparatus dynamics. Parameters for linear time...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, Learning through Service (LTS) has proliferated in higher education as an effective teaching and learning method. LTS is an umbrella term that includes both curricular and extracurricular activities, recognizing that there are many models that exist currently for how faculty members use opportunities for students to learn whil...
Article
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Manufacturing is now a national strategy for many countries to combat slow economic growth, and positively viewed with the current trend of onshoring foreign manufacturing operations. We develop a cross-country regression model that predicts manufacturing employment as a function of population growth, foreign direct investment, and purchasing power...
Article
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With the increased focus on community engagement in higher education, engineering faculty members are using Learning through Service (LTS) as a viable way of providing a platform for interactive participatory student learning and involvement in the community. By engaging students to learn in the community, the creation of knowledge shifts from the...
Article
Both course-based service-learning (S-L) and extracurricular community service activities, together referred to as Learning Through Service, provide the opportunity for rich learning, personal growth, and tangible beneficial outcomes for students, community partners, and faculty. However, to fully realize this potential careful planning and design...
Article
For over two decades, a number of engineering faculty members at a research institution of higher education in the United States have successfully integrated service-learning in their courses as an effective curricular strategy. While some faculty members have continued to integrate service-learning in their teaching, others have discontinued its u...
Article
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The realization of human potential requires each individual to consider their future possibilities relative to their current capabilities so that they may develop and execute a plan to gain knowledge, experience, and opportunities. Accordingly, a model is herein presented in which an individual's understanding of their own capabilities is informed...
Article
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An infrared temperature sensor is detailed using a thermopile with an incorporated thermistor into a standard Dynisco snout. A testing apparatus was built to measure the temperature of a heated polymer at steady state. The apparatus was also used to validate the response time of the multivariate senor. Results show the multivariate sensor can accur...
Article
Several sets of experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamics and hysteresis in capillary rheometry. Experimental data indicate that the imposed flow rate history can vary the apparent viscosity by a factor of 10, a magnitude as significant as a change between the minimum and maximum recommended processing temperatures. Contributing factor...
Article
Metallic shielding of electromagnetic waves presents a roadblock for machine tool and process monitoring. Acoustic waves, alternatively, provide a viable mechanism, due to their inherent transmissibility in metals. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of factors affecting the performance of acoustic-based signal transmission including carrie...
Article
Full-text available
Improving process observability is of high relevancy to improved manufacturing process control. This paper describes a novel measurement technique using acoustic waves for the transmission of multiple physical parameters from within the cavity of an injection mold to a receiver outside: temperature, pressure, velocity, and viscosity of polymer melt...
Conference Paper
In this paper, acoustic wave has been investigated as a medium to transmit data from sensors inside a machine to a receiver outside of the machine without wire connection. To evaluate the effectiveness of such a acoustic based data transmission, the propagation of acoustic wave within an injection mold was modeled on the ANSYS platform. The receive...
Article
Full-text available
Engineering students have a growing number of opportunities to engage in service-learning and co-curricular service activities. Because of the range of opportunities that exist for students to engage in community service activities, the umbrella term Learning Through Service (LTS) has been created. As these types of opportunities increase, the rang...
Article
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Utilizing mold filling simulation to validate a multivariate molding sensor is described. The multivariate sensor uses an infrared thermopile for temperature measurement and a piezoelectric ring for measuring pressure. A zinc selenide window is used in order to transmit melt radiation, pressure, and prevent leakage. Velocity is estimated based on t...
Article
Learning through Service (LTS) is an umbrella term that includes, both curricular and extracurricular activities, reflecting that there are many models that exist currently for how faculty use opportunities for students to learn while providing service to a community. Over the past decade, Learning through Service has proliferated in higher educati...
Article
Full-text available
Roll-to-roll (R2R) lithography is a continuous manufacturing process used to create patterns on a polymer substrate. Thermally curing of R2R embossed features is time consuming, and is commonly replaced with faster UV or chemical curing. A technique of induction heating the lithography stamp in a R2R process has been conceived for heating, forming...
Article
Full-text available
Polymer flow behavior is influenced by the rheology of additives such as colors, fibers or fillers. To prevent expensive and time consuming material testing after compounding, mixing models have been developed to estimate the resulting viscosity. In this investigation, three different mixing models were applied to the mixture of masterbatches inclu...
Article
Full-text available
An infrared temperature sensor is detailed using a thermopile with an incorporated thermistor into a standard Dynisco snout. A testing apparatus was built to measure the temperature of various heated polymers, with sapphire and zinc selenide windows of varying thickness. Simulation was also developed to determine the heat transfer from the hot poly...
Article
The EFELTS project consists of a three-year effort focused on Learning Through Service (LTS) - A pedagogical method that combines academic learning with service. These educational efforts can range from curricular service-learning to extracurricular community engagement efforts; each enhancing the educational experience for engineering students. Th...
Article
Online process metrology is critical to ensuring manufacturing quality and productivity. This paper presents the design and modelling of a multivariate sensor that enables the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters from within an RF shielded environment, e.g. an injection mold. A coded wave modulation scheme is developed for wirelessly tra...
Article
Assembling conducting polyaniline (PANi) on pre-patterned nano-structures by a high rate, commercially viable route offers an opportunity for manufacturing devices with nanoscale features. In this work we report for the first time the use of pulsed electric field to assist electrophoresis for the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Online measurement of polymer melt properties during an injection molding process is a key to provide a high quality plastic product. In-situ cavity pressure and temperature sensors are used to observe the polymer states in the mold cavity during an injecting molding process. A new multivariate sensor is introduced to measure pressure, temperature,...