David M. Johnston

David M. Johnston
Massey University · School of Psychology

About

274
Publications
197,896
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
9,062
Citations

Publications

Publications (274)
Article
The principles of disaster risk reduction includes understanding of disaster risk in all dimensions including meaningful inclusion of marginalised populations. This research sought to hear and record the voices of big bodied people to answer the question “What are the experiences, perceptions and preparedness for disasters of big bodied people and/...
Article
At 2.27 a.m., on 5 March 2021, an Mw 7.3 earthquake occurred approximately 100 km off the East Cape of the North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand. This earthquake was felt across the entire country, including in the capital city of Wellington and the surrounding region. Previous work reports varied levels of tsunami evacuation behavior for natural wa...
Article
Full-text available
Impact forecasts and warnings (IFW) are key to resilience for hydrometeorological hazards. Communicating the potential social, economic, and environmental hazard impacts allows individuals and communities to adjust their plans and better prepare for the consequences of the hazard. IFW systems require additional knowledge about impacts and underlyin...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanisms for sharing information in a disaster situation have drastically changed due to new technological innovations throughout the world. The use of social media applications and collaborative technologies for information sharing have become increasingly popular. With these advancements, the amount of data collected increases daily in differen...
Article
Full-text available
High-impact weather events cause considerable social and economic harm, with these effects likely to increase as climate change drives extremes and population growth leads to commensurate growth in exposure. As part of the World Meteorological Organization’s World Weather Research Programme, the 10-year High-Impact Weather Project (HIWeather) facil...
Article
Full-text available
Aotearoa New Zealand's national seismic network, GeoNet, administers Felt Reports, including the Felt RAPID and Felt Detailed databases, which are being collected at present. NZ has a long tradition of using earthquake Felt Reports provided by the public to analyse the damage caused by moderate to large earthquakes. From traditional paper-based Fel...
Article
Earthquake early warning systems (EEW) are becoming increasingly available or are in development throughout the world. As these systems develop, it is important to provide evidence-based recommendations for protective action so people know how to protect themselves when they receive an alert. However, many factors need to be considered when develop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social media applications such as Twitter and Facebook are fast becoming a key instrument in gaining situational awareness (understanding the bigger picture of the situation) during disasters. This has provided multiple opportunities to gather relevant information in a timely manner to improve disaster response. In recent years, identifying crisis-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traffic emergencies and resulting delays cause a significant impact on the economy and society. Traffic flow estimation is one of the early steps in urban planning and managing traffic infrastructure. Traditionally, traffic flow rates were commonly measured using underground inductive loops, pneumatic road tubes, and temporary manual counts. Howeve...
Article
Full-text available
Physical distancing (also commonly known as social distancing) is an important non-pharmaceutical strategy to minimise the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. A range of restrictions to promote physical distancing form a key part of the Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) all-of-government response to the global COVID-19 pandemic. The effectiveness of...
Article
Hotels are an important part of the tourism landscape, providing both a valued service for tourists and a significant contribution to community vitality through generating employment. Disaster resilience is essential for hotels because resilience reduces downtime after a crisis, supports tourist welfare, and provides continuity of employment. The o...
Article
The November 14, 2016 MW7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes to occur in New Zealand in the past 100 years and resulted in two deaths and 618 injuries. Understanding the context and cause of casualties from earthquakes is important for informing risk reduction activities such as building codes, education of protective actions,...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Earthquake early warning (EEW) can be used to detect earthquakes and provide advanced notification of strong shaking, allowing pre-emptive actions to be taken that not only benefit infrastructure but reduce injuries and fatalities. Currently Aotearoa New Zealand does not have a nationwide EEW system, so a survey of the public was undertake...
Poster
We present a system for real-time traffic flow estimation using a low-quality video footage. Traditional methods of traffic data acquisition such as underground inductive-loops, pneumatic road tubes, and manual counts are labour intensive, expensive, difficult to install and can be inaccurate. The recent advancement of computer vision techniques in...
Article
Mobile apps have the potential to aid disaster response by providing an avenue to distribute relevant and time-critical information to the public. Disaster apps already exist in the app markets. However, it is a challenge to engage users in retaining disaster apps on their smartphones. A mixed-methods approach is used in this study to investigate w...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Mass masking is emerging as a key non-pharmaceutical intervention for reducing community spread of COVID-19. However, although hand washing, social distancing and bubble living have been widely adopted by the ‘team of 5 million’, mass masking has not been socialised to the general population. AIM: To identify factors associated with f...
Article
BACKGROUND: People have been left behind in disasters in direct association with their size, shape and weight (Gray & MacDonald, 2016) and experience difficulties taking protective action (McBride et al, 2019). However, little research has been conducted to understand disaster risks and preparedness actions from the perspective of people with very...
Article
Wellington city, the capital of New Zealand, experienced substantial damage and impacts from the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake, despite its relatively large distance of 60 km from the source of the earthquake. This article draws on impact observations from this event to discuss critical issues for Wellington’s earthquake resilience. Ground motion charac...
Article
Full-text available
Early warning systems (EWSs) can prevent loss of life and reduce the impacts of hazards. Yet, recent severe weather events indicate that many EWSs continue to fail at adequately communicating the risk of the hazard, resulting in significant life and property loss. Given these shortcomings, there has been a shift towards people-centred EWSs to engag...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines media commentary related to wildfire risk in Aotearoa-New Zealand following two large-scale wildfires that affected urban and rural areas of the country in 2017 and 2019. Surrounding commentary is considered using an established model of disaster risk that highlights the relevance of increased wildfire scale and effects. The mod...
Article
Full-text available
Emergency Traffic Management (ETM) is one of the main problems in smart urban cities. This paper focuses on selecting an appropriate object detection model for identifying and counting vehicles from closed-circuit television (CCTV) images and then estimating traffic flow as the first step in a broader project. Therefore, a case is selected at one o...
Article
The Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquake disaster of 2010–2011 had a major impact on children. The present study aims to increase understanding of schools’ contributions to children’s recovery by examining how this core context fosters children’s effective coping in a disaster. The study uses a phenomenological approach to investigate the disaster e...
Article
Full-text available
The public has access to a range of mobile applications (apps) for disasters. However, there has been limited academic research conducted on disaster apps and how the public perceives their usability. This study explores end-users’ perceptions of the usability of disaster apps. It proposes a conceptual framework based on insights gathered from them...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the populations exposed to different shaking intensities of recent New Zealand earthquakes with injury burden, demography, and scene of injury. The population exposed to each earthquake was approximated by overlaying estimates of ground shaking with models of day and night population distributions. Injury data from all earthquak...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Wellington region has a history of tectonic movement and damaging earthquakes. Social research on Wellington’s earthquake risk is limited but has explored aspects of public education and issues around preparedness and resilience. As part of the Wellington It’s Our Fault project and QuakeCoRE a New Zealand Tertiary Education Commission funded Ce...
Article
This study assesses the number of injuries directly caused by structural and non-structural damage within New Zealand commercial buildings from notable shaking events between 2010 and 2014 and the treatment level required. After applying filtering to a comprehensive New Zealand earthquake-induced injury database, 947 injuries matched this study’s s...
Article
Full-text available
To be more prepared for future hazard events, learnings from past events must be identified, shared, and applied. This task does not belong solely to either practice or academia but requires a collaborative approach. In line with this goal, this special issue presents a combination of empirical research papers, research updates, and practice update...
Article
Summarizing a research project exploring disaster resilience in the hotel sector, this update provides highlights of the different research components and presents a summary of findings. Disaster resilience in the hotel sector is studied from a mixed methods approach to develop the Disaster Resilience Framework for Hotels (DRFH). The DRFH uses a si...
Poster
Background: People with very high body mass (extreme obesity) have been left behind in disasters (Gray, 2017). However, disaster risk reduction (DRR) considerations are not visible in literature to understand risk, adaptive capacities and concerns (Gray & MacDonald, 2016). Method: Semi-structured interviews with up to 20 people who have extreme ob...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Limited research has studied how citizens' perspectives as end-users can contribute to improving the usability of disaster apps. This study addresses this gap by exploring end-user insights with the use of a conceptual disaster app in the New Zealand (NZ) context. NZ has multiple public alerting authorities that have various technological options i...
Poster
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: There is an urgency to plan for, and reduce disaster risk as argued by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. However to achieve this, disaster risk reduction (DRR) approaches need to be more people-centred and inclusive of diverse and marginalised groups. People with high body mass have been recognised as one such group, h...
Article
The cultivation of neighborhood-based social capital has gained significant attention in the disaster management sector in recent years as a means to increase community disaster resilience. However, within the sector, the concept of social capital remains unclear and its measurement is limited at the neighborhood level due to a focus on predominate...
Article
Full-text available
Animal welfare emergency management is a critical component of modern emergency management, because the powerful bond between people and animals influences decisions and actions taken during emergency events. High risk behaviour and poor decision-making can negatively affect evacuation compliance, observance of cordons, the safety of frontline resp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multiple disaster mobile applications (apps) already exist for public use; however, availability does not automatically translate to continued usage. Limited research has explored whether disaster apps are usable and whether the apps' usability affects users' intent for continued use. The paper presents a work-in-progress study that aims to test a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Successful emergency management decision-making during natural hazard events is fundamentally dependent upon individual and team situation awareness (SA, i.e., how selection, interpretation, and understanding of available information defines the problem and identifies solutions) whilst operating under high time and risk pressures. The development a...
Article
The measure of disaster resilience within the hotel sector is investigated in this exploratory quantitative study. Disaster resilience of hotels describes the organisations’ ability to withstand and recover from a disaster. Data collected from hotel general managers and staff in two New Zealand tourist destinations were derived through an Internet-...
Article
Building disaster resilience within the hotel sector may help hotels experience decreased effects when disasters occur. This paper uses a capital-based approach to examining disaster resilience. Factors that have been identified in the literature as contributing to disaster resilience combine to create a conceptual framework of pre-dictors of disas...
Article
On the 14 November 2016, an M 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of Aotearoa/New Zealand, causing damage to homes and disrupting critical infrastructure. The earthquake produced a local-source tsunami that impacted the east coast of the South and North Islands, with the first wave (of a few centimeters height) arriving in...
Article
Full-text available
The Alpine Fault is the most major source of seismic hazard in the South Island of New Zealand, with the potential to produce a magnitude 8+ earthquake and associated ground shaking and co-seismic hazards (e.g. landslides and liquefaction), and severe, widespread and long-term impacts throughout southern and central New Zealand. Scientific investig...
Article
Purpose As disaster resilience activities are increasingly occurring at the neighbourhood level, there is a growing recognition in research and in practice of the contributions that community stakeholders can make in assessing the resilience of their communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process in deriving a disaster resilience...
Article
In countries exposed to natural hazards, population preparedness is an important component of a comprehensive disaster risk reduction strategy. Recognition of poor preparedness, despite risk acknowledgement, prompted the development of theories for identifying motivators and barriers to hazard preparedness. While the majority of preparedness theori...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Effective input of earthquake science and engineering information into decision making : results of a workshop discussion, 26 April 2017
Article
This study examines households’ immediate responses to the potential for tsunami generated by 2011 earthquakes in New Zealand and Japan. Surveys conducted in Christchurch, New Zealand and Hitachi, Japan investigated pre-impact tsunami hazard communication, immediate post-impact expectations that these earthquakes would cause tsunamis, the informati...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a near-term reconnaissance of the economic and social impacts of the November 14th, 2016 Kaikōura earthquakes and tsunami. The effect of this event on the national economy is relatively minimal. The main impacts at the national scale include short-term falls in tax revenues from the affected regions and the Government's NZ$1 bil...
Article
How members of society interact during disasters has significantly changed because of technological innovations and new media evolution. The modality changes in crisis communications, such as the popular rise of mobile applications use, may pose risks to the public if not properly studied, with results adopted and utilised. Crisis informatics, as a...
Article
The M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake in 2016 presented a number of challenges to science agencies and institutions throughout New Zealand. The earthquake was complex, with 21 faults rupturing throughout the North Canterbury and Marlborough landscape, generating a localised seven metre tsunami and triggering thousands of landslides. With many areas isolated...
Article
Full-text available
Children may experience distress and can become vulnerable as the result of a disaster. However, recent research suggests that children experiencing such adversity can address adversity by employing their capacities to adapt. The present study investigates how children coped effectively with a disaster, the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes of 20...
Article
Full-text available
Earthquake epidemiological research indicates that the behavioural response influences the nature and severity of injuries sustained. However, there is no observational evidence of the actions individuals engage in during and immediately following earthquake shaking, and the context in which earthquake injuries and deaths are caused. Closed Circuit...
Chapter
Full-text available
When Mt. Ruapehu erupted in 1995–1996 in New Zealand, a tephra barrier was created alongside Crater Lake on the top of Mt. Ruapehu. This barrier acted as a dam, with Crater Lake rising behind it over time. In 2007 the lake breached the dam and a lahar occurred down the Whangaehu Valley and across the volcano’s broad alluvial ring-plain. Given the l...
Article
The development of the Australian Tsunami Warning System (ATWS) was in recognition of the fact that the Australian coastline faces some 8000 km of active tectonic plate boundary capable of generating a tsunami that could reach Australia in 2-4 hours. The work reported in this paper complements an earlier questionnaire study (Paton, Frandsen & Johns...
Article
Full-text available
Motivating household preparedness for earthquakes can be difficult, especially given the infrequent and varying nature of major events. Past research has shown that people's experiences contribute to their beliefs about whether, and how, they should prepare for earthquakes. Direct experience of a disaster can be a strong motivator of preparedness;...
Article
Full-text available
Within the tourism industry, the hotel sector's vulnerabilities are multi-faceted. This literature discussion scrutinizes how disaster and resilience is framed for the tourism sector, and, more specifically, how the concepts can be applied to the hotel sector. A synthesis of the literature points to the importance of prioritizing disaster resilienc...
Article
Full-text available
Within the tourism industry, the hotel sector's vulnerabilities are multi-faceted. This literature discussion scrutinizes how disaster and resilience is framed for the tourism sector, and how the concepts can be applied to the hotel sector. A synthesis of the literature points to the importance of prioritizing disaster resilience building for the h...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines people’s response actions in the first 30 min after shaking stopped following earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch, 332 respondents in Hitachi, and 204 respondents in Wellington revealed notable similarities in some response actions immed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How members of society interact during disasters has significantly changed because of technological advancements and new media evolution. The modality changes in crisis communication pose risks to public misinformation and confusion if not adopted and addressed. This review, therefore, looks at the literature of crisis informatics from the perspect...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We report on a two-year project to develop, validate and evaluate a complex scenario-based role-play (SBRP) exercise. Using an earthquake scenario, our aim was to assist participants (students in geology, engineering, and hazard and disaster management, as well as emergency management professionals) to improve their science communication skills. T...
Poster
Full-text available
Engineers often receive limited or no formal training in risk communication and may not have time to be up to date with current communication research. Additionally, communication training of practitioners is often 1-dimensional and recipe-style, and doesn’t explore contextual and situational nature of communication. Over the past couple of years,...
Article
There is an increasing need to evaluate the underlying drivers of community resilience. Much of the existing research on resilience measurements assesses factors pertaining to a spectrum of societal domains that includes social, economic, institutional, infrastructural, and natural environments. Research has focused on the importance of social resi...
Article
The boundary organization concept has been used to establish that collaborative arrangements and outputs across science and policy domain boundaries need to be credible, relevant, and legitimate in order to be to be effective. Although widely accepted in other issue-driven fields, this concept does not have equivalent currency in the natural hazard...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that experiencing a single disaster influences people's risk judgments about the hazard, but few studies have studied how multiple disasters in different locations affect risk judgments. Following two earthquake sequences in two different regions (Christchurch, Cook Strait), this study examined earthquake risk judgments, non-fata...