David Horst

David Horst
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich | LMU · Institute of Pathology

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165
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Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Background In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During ECMO therapy, anticoagulation is crucial to prevent device-associated thrombosis and device failure, however, it is associated with bleeding complications. In COVID-19, additional...
Article
Background SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the ACE2 transmembrane peptidase as cellular entry receptor. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 in the alveolar compartment is strictly ACE2-dependent and to what extent virus-induced tissue damage and/or direct immune activation determines early pathogenesis is still elusive. Methods Spectral microscopy, single-cell/-nucle...
Article
3536 Background: We evaluated the prognostic and predictive impact of DNA mutations related to anti-EGFR antibody resistance in patients of the PANAMA trial, which compared Panitumumab (Pmab) and FU/FA versus FU/FA maintenance therapy after Pmab-FOLFOX induction therapy in RAS wild-type (wt) mCRC. Methods: Next generation panel sequencing was condu...
Article
Background High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common subtype of ovarian cancer and is associated with high mortality rates. Surgical outcome is one of the most important prognostic factors. There are no valid biomarkers to identify which patients may benefit from a primary debulking approach. Objective Our study aimed to discover...
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Objectives The use of liquid biopsies (LB) in patients with solid malignancies enables comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and has the potential to guide therapy stratification and support disease monitoring. To examine clinical uptake of LB in a real-world setting, LB implementation was analyzed at two German can...
Article
Background Cancer prevention has augmented the proportion of early stage colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnoses. Especially UICC stage II CRC is in urgent need for a better patient stratification to improve clinical and therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the prognostic value of AURKA expression in stage II CRC patients. By using a scoring system b...
Article
Background Regulation (EU) 2017/746 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVDR) was passed by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union on 5 April 2017 and came into force on 26 May 2017. A new amending regulation, which introduces a phased implementation of the IVDR with new transitional provisions for certain in vitro diagno...
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The use of autopsies in medicine has been declining. The COVID-19 pandemic has documented and rejuvenated the importance of autopsies as a tool of modern medicine. In this review, we discuss the various autopsy techniques, the applicability of modern analytical methods to understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the major pathological organ find...
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It is now well known that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), rather than protein-coding transcripts, are the preponderant RNA transcripts. NcRNAs, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are widely appreciated as pervasive regulators of multiple cancer hallmarks such as proliferation, apoptosis, invasio...
Article
Lung carcinoid tumors, also referred to as pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors or lung carcinoids, are rare neoplasms of the lung with a more favorable prognosis than other subtypes of lung cancer. Still, some patients suffer from relapsed disease and metastatic spread. Several recent single‐cell studies have provided detailed insights into the cellula...
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Background Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) fall into two subclasses: the well-differentiated, low- to high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), and the poorly-differentiated, high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (PanNECs). While recent studies suggest an endocrine descent of PanNETs, the origin of PanNECs remai...
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Background Autopsies are an important tool in medicine, dissecting disease pathophysiology and causes of death. In COVID-19, autopsies revealed e.g., the effects on pulmonary (micro)vasculature or the nervous system, systemic viral spread, or the interplay with the immune system. To facilitate multicentre autopsy-based studies and provide a central...
Preprint
Hyperinflammation, coagulopathy and immune dysfunction are prominent in patients with severe infections. Extracellular chromatin clearance by plasma DNases suppresses such pathologies in mice but whether severe infection interferes with these pathways is unclear. Here, we show that patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection or microbial sepsis exhib...
Preprint
Background Autopsy studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Controversies remain whether the clinical presentation is due to direct organ damage by SARS-CoV-2 or secondary effects, e.g. by an overshooting immune response. SARS-CoV-2 detection in tissues by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) or electron micro...
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Background Risk assessment on the molecular level is important in predictive pathology to determine the risk of metastatic disease for ERpos, HER2neg breast cancer. The gene expression test EndoPredict (EP) was trained and validated for prediction of a 10-year risk of distant recurrence to support therapy decisions regarding endocrine therapy alone...
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Recent developments in immuno-oncology demonstrate that not only cancer cells, but also the tumor microenvironment can guide precision medicine. A comprehensive and in-depth characterization of the tumor microenvironment is challenging since its cell populations are diverse and can be important even if scarce. To identify clinically relevant microe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lung carcinoid tumors, also referred to as pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors or lung carcinoids, are rare neoplasms of the lung with a more favorable prognosis than other subtypes of lung cancer. Still, some patients suffer from relapsed disease and metastatic spread while no consensus treatment exists for metastasized carcinoids. Several recent sing...
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Full-text available
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there is an ongoing debate on the prognostic value of the early bone marrow (BM) assessment in patients receiving intensive therapy. In this retrospective study, we have analyzed the prognostic impact of the early response in 1008 newly diagnosed AML patients, who were treated at our institution with intensive chemo...
Article
COVID-19-induced ‘acute respiratory distress syndrome’ (ARDS) is associated with prolonged respiratory failure and high mortality, but the mechanistic basis of lung injury remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed pulmonary immune responses and lung pathology in two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 ARDS using functional single cell genomi...
Conference Paper
Introduction/Background* Mesothelin (MSLN) is a CA125 binding protein that mediates cell adhesion. This interaction was suggested to play a role in the peritoneal metastasis development. In preclinical models, MSLN overexpression activates the PI3K/AkT, NFκB, and MAPK/ERK pathways, to promote cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. For these...
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Background The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is challenging, particularly in post-mortem human tissues. However, there is increasing evidence for viral SARS-CoV-2 manifestation in non-respiratory tissues. In this context, it is a current matter of debate, whether SARS-CoV-2 shows hepatotropism. Case presen...
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In colorectal cancer, oncogenic mutations transform a hierarchically organized and homeostatic epithelium into invasive cancer tissue lacking visible organization. We sought to define transcriptional states of colorectal cancer cells and signals controlling their development by performing single-cell transcriptome analysis of tumors and matched non...
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces lung injury of varying severity, potentially causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary injury patterns in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients with other causes of ARDS. We aimed to explore the frequ...
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With this external quality assessment (EQA) scheme, we aim to investigate the diagnostic performance of the currently available methods for the detection of ALK alterations in non-small cell lung cancer on a national scale, namely, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and RNA/DNA sequencing (NGS). The EQA scheme cohort consisted...
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Objectives Studies on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually focus on middle aged and older adults. However, younger patients may present with severe COVID-19 and potentially fatal outcomes. For optimized, more specialized therapeutic regimens in this particular patient group, a better understanding of underlying pathomechanisms is of utte...
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Background: Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) against donor human leukocyte antigen after liver transplantation, which are associated with histological changes, have been widely studied with respect to their sustained impact on transplant function. However, their long-term impact after liver transplantation remains unclear. Methods: We performed a...
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Cambodia harbours a variety of human aboriginal populations that have scarcely been studied in terms of genetic diversity of entire mitochondrial genomes. Here we present the matrilineal gene pool of 299 Cambodian refugees from three different ethnic groups (Cham, Khmer, and Khmer Loeu) deriving from 16 Cambodian districts. After establishing a DNA...
Article
e17544 Background: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) can be separated by gene expression profiling into four molecular subtypes with clear correlation of the clinical outcome. However, these gene signatures have not been implemented in clinical practice to stratify patients for targeted therapy. This is mainly due to a lack of easy, cost-eff...
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Despite the correlation of clinical outcome and molecular subtypes of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), contemporary gene expression signatures have not been implemented in clinical practice to stratify patients for targeted therapy. Hence, we aimed to examine the potential of unsupervised matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging...
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Signaling pathways that drive bladder cancer (BC) progression may be promising and specific targets for systemic therapy. Here, we investigated the clinical significance and targetability of NOTCH and MAPK signaling for this aggressive malignancy. We assessed NOTCH1 and MAPK activity in 222 stage III and IV BC specimens of patients that had undergo...
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Infection by the new corona virus strain SARS-CoV-2 and its related syndrome COVID-19 has been associated with more than two million deaths worldwide. Patients of higher age and with preexisting chronic health conditions are at an increased risk of fatal disease outcome. However, detailed information on causes of death and the contribution of pre-e...
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Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01534-2.
Conference Paper
Background: Risk assessment on molecular level is becoming more common in modern pathology to determine the recurrence risk for patients diagnosed with estrogen receptor positive (ER+), HER2 negative (HER2-) breast cancer (BC). The gene expression test EndoPredict (EP) was trained and validated to predict a 10-year risk of distant recurrence to sup...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces lung injury of varying severity, potentially causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary injury patterns in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients with other causes of ARDS. We aimed to explo...
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Full-text available
Objectives In COVID-19, the adaptive immune response is of considerable importance and detailed cellular immune reactions in the hematological system of patients with severe SARS-CoV2-infection are yet to be clarified. Methods Here, we provide a morphologic characterization of both bone marrow (BM) and spleen (SPL) in 11 COVID-19 deceased with res...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent developments in immuno-oncology demonstrate that not only cancer cells, but also features of the tumor microenvironment guide precision medicine. Still, the relationship between tumor and microenvironment remains poorly understood. To overcome this limitation and identify clinically relevant microenvironmental and cancer features, we applied...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
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Recent findings suggested a benefit of anti-EGFR therapy for basal-like muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, the impact on bladder cancer with substantial squamous differentiation (Sq-BLCA) and especially pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown. Therefore, we comprehensively characterized pure and mixed Sq-BLCA (n = 125) on ge...
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Background β-catenin activation plays a crucial role for tumourigenesis in the large intestine but except for Lynch syndrome (LS) associated cancers stabilizing mutations of β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) are rare in colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous animal studies provide an explanation for this observation. They showed that CTNNB1 mutations induced tran...
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Oncoproteins such as the BRAFV600E kinase endow cancer cells with malignant properties, but they also create unique vulnerabilities. Targeting of BRAFV600E-driven cytoplasmic signaling networks has proved ineffective, as patients regularly relapse with reactivation of the targeted pathways. We identify the nuclear protein SFPQ to be synthetically l...
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Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is generally accepted as a sequential process, with genetic mutations determining phenotypic tumor progression. However, matching genetic profiles with histological transition requires the analyses of temporal samples from the same patient at key stages of progression. Results: Here, we compared th...
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To unravel vulnerabilities of KRAS-mutant CRC cells, a shRNA-based screen specifically inhibiting MAPK pathway components and targets was performed in CaCo2 cells harboring conditional oncogenic KRASG12V. The custom-designed shRNA library comprised 121 selected genes, which were previously identified to be strongly regulated in response to MEK inhi...
Preprint
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Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (PanNENs) comprise a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors derived from neuroendocrine cells of the pancreas. Despite genetic and epigenetic characterization, biomarkers for improved patient stratification and personalized therapy are sparse and targeted therapies, including the mTOR inhibitor Everolimus, have s...
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Gene fusions involving the three neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase genes NTRK1, NTRK2, or NTRK3 were identified as oncogenic drivers in many cancer types. Two small molecule inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials recently and require the detection of an NTRK fusion gene prior therapeutic application. Fluorescence in‐situ hybridization (...
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Background & Aims The miR-34a gene is a direct target of p53 and is commonly silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we identified the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF1R as a direct miR-34a target and characterized CSF1R as an effector of p53/miR-34a-mediated CRC suppression. Methods Analyses TCGA-COAD and three other CRC cohorts for association of...
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Introduction Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a quantitative assessment of the number of somatic mutations within a tumor genome. Immunotherapy benefit has been associated with TMB assessed by whole exome sequencing (wesTMB) and by gene panel sequencing (psTMB). The initiatives of Quality in Pathology (QuIP) and Friends of Cancer Research (FoCR) ha...
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Background/aims: MLK4 (KIAA1804) is the second most frequently mutated kinase in microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal carcinomas (CRC). This molecule is known to regulate different physiological cellular processes, including cell cycle, senescence and apoptosis, and mechanistic evidence has been provided that MLK4 plays a role in carcinogenesis....
Article
NTRK fusions involving the three neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase genes NTRK1, NTRK2, or NTRK3, and a variety of fusion partners were identified as oncogenic drivers across many cancer types. Drugs that target the chimeric protein product require the identification of the underlying gene fusion. This advocates the diagnostic use of molecular a...
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RBP7 is a member of the cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) family and previous data suggested a link between CRBPs and the malignant transformation of colon cancer cells. Here, we investigated the potential of RBP7 as a predictive biomarker for patients with colon cancer and determined its functional relevance for tumor progression. We analyze...
Article
Objective: Dysregulation of the extracellular matrix molecule biglycan (BGN) predicts poor survival in several cancer entities. Our study investigated the prognostic impact of BGN in bladder cancer (BC) in 2 independent cohorts and assessed its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and association with molecular BC subtypes. Methods: B...
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Patients with advanced colorectal cancer often are treated with systemic cytotoxic therapy using fluouracil (5‐FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and FOLFOX or FOLFIRI combination protocols. Additionally, signaling pathways that are active in colorectal cancer can be therapeutically targeted. Here, we examined if chemotherapy impacts on WNT, MAPK and NO...
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The gene encoding the transcription factor TFAP4/AP4 represents a direct target of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Here, we deleted Ap4 in ApcMin mice, a preclinical model of inherited colorectal cancer. Ap4 deficiency extends their average survival by 110 days and decreases the formation of intestinal adenomas and tumor-derived organoids. The effects of Ap...
Article
Background & aims: Combined inactivation of the microRNA 34a gene (MIR34A, by methylation) and the TP53 gene (by mutation or deletion) is observed in 50% of colorectal tumors that progress to distant metastases. We studied mice with intestinal disruption of Mir34a and Tp53 to investigate mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis and identify strateg...
Article
In colorectal cancer patients, a high density of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in tumors is associated with better prognosis. Using a Stat3 loss-of-function approach in two wnt/β-catenin-dependent autochthonous models of sporadic intestinal tumorigenesis, we unravel a complex intracellular process in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that controls the in...
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Purpose: Colorectal cancers are composed of phenotypically different tumor cell subpopulations within the same core genetic background. Here, we identify high expression of the TALE transcription factor PBX3 in tumor cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), analyze PBX3 regulation, and determine clinical associations in colorectal...