David Hopkins

David Hopkins
University of Bolton

About

101
Publications
109,532
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6,158
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
2493 Citations
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Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
During the last four decades, the bases of research on effectiveness and school improvement have been gaining recognition at the international level. Both theoretically and empirically, they have matured through a wide range of well-documented and innovative projects in several countries. In general, these works focus on the successes and failures...
Article
The article begins with a review of what is known internationally about system level reform. With these frameworks in mind, a critique is then made of recent educational change efforts in Wales. This is followed by a comprehensive description of a system reform strategy for Wales based around the four drivers of personalised learning, professionali...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 4 decades, the school effectiveness and school improvement research bases have gained prominence and recognition on the international stage. In both a theoretical and empirical sense, they have matured through a wide range of well-documented projects, interventions, and innovations across a range of countries, describing how efforts t...
Article
Using capacitive-based chip-to-chip signaling in large-scale systems offers an interesting tradeoff between design and packaging complexity versus power consumption and performance. Placing chips together in close proximity offers low energy-per-bit costs and high I/O density, and therefore enables off-chip bandwidth levels far beyond those offered...
Article
This article presents a case study of a fast and energy-efficient hardware implementation of a stack. The design is highly scalable, as its cycle time remains unchanged and energy per operation grows very slowly, with an increase in the number of storage locations. This design example demonstrates two often-claimed benefits of asynchronous circuit...
Chapter
Prof. David Hopkins was recently appointed to the inaugural HSBC chair in international leadership, where he supports the work of iNet, the international arm of the specialist schools trust and the leadership center at the Institute of Education, University of London. He has also just been appointed a professorial fellow at the Faculty of Education...
Article
Recent interest in multi-chip integration has motivated the development of on-chip sensors to address alignment challenges of assembling complex multi-chip packages. Earlier sensor implementations were susceptible to transistor leakage currents. More recent demonstrations correct this issue by measuring differences in coupling capacitances and usin...
Article
The migration towards multi-chip integration in microelectronic systems has motivated the use of on-chip sensors for in situ measurement of chip alignment, both at initial assembly and during system operation. This paper presents a CMOS position sensor that measures chip alignment by measuring differences in coupling capacitance. Unlike previous im...
Article
Within the context of a rapid recent expansion of school-to-school collaboration, this chapter seeks to advance analysis of how some school leaders and teachers are taking on wider system roles to support student learning in other schools. We explore in particular how such schools and their leaders have developed the knowledge and skills to contrib...
Chapter
Capacitive coupled communication is a wireless chip to chip communication technology that uses capacitive coupling to transfer signals from a chip to neighboring chips. Its high-bandwidth, low-power, and low-latency chip-to-chip I/O capabilities enable the construction of high-performance and economical multi-chip modules (MCMs). Chips are placed f...
Article
This chapter sets out an approach to "system leadership" leading to sustainable educational transformation. The author proposes a definition of system leaders as those who are willing to shoulder system leadership roles and work for the success of other schools as well as their own. He elaborates the concept and argues that the movement towards sys...
Conference Paper
Proximity Communication enables high-performance multi-chip packages by providing high-bandwidth, low-power, and low-latency chip-to-chip I/O. Chips are placed face-to-face, with only a few microns of separation, such that overlapping transceiver circuits can send and receive signals through capacitive or inductive coupling. Packaging chips in this...
Article
Recently, we introduced a novel chip packaging platform based on the passive self-alignment of chips into 2D arrays, which extends the physical area of fully integrated CMOS VLSI silicon chip beyond the area of the single chip reticle [1]. We report the first active demonstration of this packaging concept, in which functional chips are configured i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a novel way to implement high-radix crossbar switches. Our work is enabled by a new chip interconnect technology called proximity communication (PxC) that offers unparalleled chip IO density. First, we show how a crossbar architecture is topologically mapped onto a PxC-enabled multi-chip module (MCM). Then, we describe a first prototype...
Conference Paper
Aggressive scaling of transistor feature sizes has enabled unprecedented levels of integration and corresponding performance improvements in VLSI systems. However, fabrication costs present barriers to continued growth in transistor density. Proximity Communication breaks these barriers by providing high-density, high-bandwidth, low-power, and scal...
Article
This paper extends the introduction to the authors’ study of successful school leadership and how it influences pupil outcomes begun in the Editorial introduction. Critical to an appreciation especially of the external validity of their results is an understanding of the policy context in which the English leaders in their study found themselves; t...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the literature concerning successful school leadership. It draws on the international literature and is derived from a more extensive review of the literature completed in the early stage of the authors’ project. The prime purpose of this review is to summarise the main findings from the wealth of empirical stud...
Conference Paper
We present techniques to detect all six degrees of positioning of one CMOS chip relative to another using capacitance measurements. Unlike other capacitive sensing schemes, these solutions achieve sub-femofarad resolution by directly measuring coupling capacitance and rejecting parasitic capacitances. We apply these techniques to dynamically monito...
Article
Executive heads are those head teachers in England who lead two or more schools that have entered into a federation. One of the more common forms of federations involves a lead school working to improve a partner school (or schools). The executive heads of these federations, and their wider leadership teams, constitute one of an emerging set of pra...
Article
System leaders are those headteachers who are willing to shoulder system-wide roles in order to support the improvement of other schools as well as their own. As such, system leadership is a new and emerging practice that embraces a variety of responsibilities that are developing either locally or within discrete national networks or programmes tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Two chips communicate over a capacitively-coupled I/O link at 1.8Gb/s/ch. Channels are placed on a 36mum pitch. 144 channels operate simultaneously for an aggregate bandwidth of 260Gb/s, or 430Gb/s/mm<sup>2</sup> in 0.18mum CMOS. Measured energy consumption is 3.0pJ/b and BER is <10<sup>-15</sup>. Electronic alignment and crosstalk rejection allow...
Conference Paper
We present a method of building pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) generators using coupled asynchronous FIFO rings. A traditional PRBS generator using a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) can only generate a single maximal-length pattern with a fixed period. Our proposed FIFO implementation allows a single circuit to produce many different patter...
Article
This article explores the relationship between distributed leadership and organizational change. It draws upon the existing literature to consider whether distributed forms of leadership influence development and change in schools. The article examines the research base relating to distributed leadership and organizational outcomes. It focuses on h...
Article
Full-text available
ISBN 978 1 84478 822 4 This is a wide - ranging review of theory and evidence about the nature, causes and consequences for schools and students of successful school leadership. We undertook the review for several purposes. One purpose was to provide a state-of-the-evidence description of what is already known about successful leadership. We an...
Conference Paper
We describe an asynchronous control circuit for interchip communication that enables high throughput proximity communication. The circuit has been fabricated in TSMC 180nm technology and operates over a wide range of coupling capacitances between the chips and over a wide range of supply voltages. At the nominal voltage of 1.8 V and a coupling capa...
Book
Full-text available
and policy discussions on education’s future and so is a natural component of CERI’s “Schooling for Tomorrow” programme. It springs from the awareness that “one-size-fits-all” approaches to school knowledge and organisation are illadapted both to individuals’ needs and to the knowledge society at large. But “personalisation” can mean many things an...
Chapter
The purpose of this volume of the International Handbook is to review current theories of school development, the evolution of school improvement as a strategy of educational change over the past 30 years, and to critique current theories of development and strategies for growth from a variety of different national contexts. In this introductory ch...
Article
We present some novel hardware implementations of a stack. All designs are clockless, fast, and energy efficient, while occupying modest area. We implemented a 42-place stack chip with a family of GasP circuits, making use of automatic transistor sizing and automatic layout generation. Results from simulations show that the chip will function corre...
Article
The article outlines the three phases that school improvement has been through since the mid-1980s, paying particular attention to the characteristics of the recent 'third age' improvement paradigm. It is argued that these new models of improvement stand a chance of overcoming the difficulties that past improvement has had in affecting outcomes, an...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary educational reform places a premium on the effective leadership and management of schools. An orderly, efficient and well-managed school environment provides the preconditions for enhanced student learning. Complex and dynamic 'cultural' changes needed for sustained school improvement, are more likely to occur as a result of transforma...
Article
This paper is a personal reflection on the purpose and scope of school improvement. In explaining why in education the more things change the more they stay the same, I clarify the focus of educational reform as being powerful learning on the part of students, and then demonstrate that this occurs in contexts where content is conceptual rather than...
Article
The growth of interest in school improvement in the last decade has been striking. In the UK, the educational system has moved to a position where school improvement is not merely expected but demanded. As a result, a large number of school improvement projects and initiatives have emerged to meet this demand. Many of these initiatives have emphasi...
Article
In 1995, the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) had the first opportunity to look at a substantial number of inspection reports from across the education system. Using this analysis, the London Boroughs of Waltham Forest and Lambeth were identified as having over 40% of their schools within the category of ‘serious weaknesses’ or failing’....
Article
Success For All is a comprehensive programme for restructuring primary schools where students are ‘at risk’ of not developing functional literacy by the end of Key Stage 1 (age 7 years). The programme was developed at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA, and uses research-based approaches to curriculum, instruction, assessment and classroom ma...
Article
A postal survey of health education and related policy issues was conducted in Nottinghamshire state-maintained primary and secondary schools, in 1995. A response rate of 82 per cent was achieved. Fifty-eight per cent of schools possessed a written policy in health education or were in the process of drafting one. Teaching staff were involved in th...
Article
Creemers, B. (1994). The Effective Classroom. London Cassell. ISBN: 0-304-32709-3. Freiberg, H.J. & Driscoll, A. (1996). Universal Teaching Strategies. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN: 0-205-16722-5. Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing Teachers, Changing Times. London: Cassell. ISBN: 0-304-32281-4. Sizer, T.R. (1996). Horace's Hope. New York: Ma...
Article
Despite recent advances, the research literature on school effectiveness, school improvement and educational change has relatively little to say about how schools become effective over time, and what strategies or combination of strategies work best to improve schools at different levels of effectiveness. A recent British research study – ‘The Impr...
Article
Site-based management has failed to generate change significant enough to increase student learning even where principals, leadership teams, and faculties have had extensive Organizational Development training. The problem may lie in the nature of the workplace rather than in the reasonableness of the theory. This work presents a structure of schoo...
Article
Reviews five books on instructional improvement: "The Effective Classroom" (Bert Creemers); "Universal Teaching Strategies" (H.J. Freiberg); "Changing Teachers, Changing Times" (A. Hargreaves); "Horace's Hope" (Theodore Sizer); and "Education for All" (Robert Slavin). Each book stresses the importance of teachers' classroom efforts and connections...
Article
When development planning was first introduced some 10 years ago it was regarded as a strategy to assist schools in managing change. Recent research evidence however suggests that schools that exhibit 'best practice' in development planning have transcended its use as a change management strategy and now see it as a means of enhancing pupil achieve...
Article
The research on ‘classroom conditions’ reported in this paper forms a strand of the research and development activities undertaken as part of the ‘Improving the Quality of Education for All’ (IQEA) school improvement project. The ‘IQEA approach’ to school improvement emphasises the importance of enhancing the internal conditions of the school whils...
Article
ABSTRACT This article focuses upon differential strategies for school development and improvement. It argues that much school improvement work has placed an emphasis upon systemic change and has neglected to consider the extent to which schools have different capacities for change and development. We suggest in this article that different improveme...
Article
Teachers are at the heart of educational improvement. Any benefits that accrue to students as a result of educational policies require the enabling action of teachers. It is for this reason that the OECD, through its Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI), recently undertook a comparative study of policies aimed at improving teacher...
Article
The existing literature provides only limited methodological guidance on how to research the dynamics of school change. In addition, traditional research methods such as interviews, questionnaires and observations are too cumbersome and time‐consuming in disclosing the intricacies of the change process. A grant from the ESRC was sought to remedy th...
Article
The United Kingdom's approach to planned educational change is called school improvement. This book presents a new approach to school improvement based on the experiences of 30 British schools that are being monitored by the Improving the Quality of Education for All (IQEA) project. Following the foreword by Michael Fullan and the preface and ackno...
Article
This book aims to provide a succinct and clear overview of the principles and practices associated with adventure education in order to help practitioners do their work more effectively. Implicit in the book is a belief that adventure education has a positive impact on an individual's self-confidence, understanding of the world, and actual behavior...
Article
A survey is undertaken of the ‘paradigms’ of the academic communities of school effectiveness and school improvement researchers, practitioners and scholars. It is argued that the two ‘paradigms’ are very different, and that this has hindered the improvement of educational practice. Examples are given of programmes which are a ‘blend’ of the two di...
Article
In many countries, education legislation embodies contradictory pressures for centralization and decentralization. In the United Kingdom, there is growing government control over policy and direction of schools; schools are also being given more responsibility for resource management. "Moving" schools within Improving the Quality of Education for A...
Article
What is evaluation? evaluation for school development approaches to evaluation. Methods of working: designing and doing evaluation evaluation methods analyzing data and enhancing validity evaluation roles. developmental approaches: evaluating classroom, departments and cross-curricular initiatives whole school evaluation evaluation on INSET project...
Article
Although qualitative methods are particularly suited to research and evaluation in education there are few agreed guidelines for the analysis of qualitative data. Qualitative researchers are also often delinquent in reporting on their analytic procedures. In this paper we attempt to initiate a debate on the analysis of qualitative data by outlining...
Article
In the research dealing with innovation, little attention has been given to the social and psychological characteristics of the receiving system and their effect on the process of utilisation. With the factors of school climate and the psychological state of the individual teacher in mind a local authority's inservice aesthetics course was selected...
Article
Establishing validity in qualitative evaluation research is problematic. The established orthodoxies available to researchers operating within the psycho‐statistical paradigm do not translate easily into procedures accessible to those working with word data. Consequently qualitative research has tended to be suspect in terms of its generalizability...
Article
A strategy for the local evaluation of nationally initiated curriculum change provides the substance of the paper. Problems associated with the evaluation of categorically funded projects, particularly at the local level, are discussed and a framework which meets some of these concerns is outlined. The framework links policy formation to evaluation...
Article
An assessment is made of the effectiveness of a survey feedback intervention in engendering a capacity for change within a sample of 10 Canadian teacher training institutions (TTIs). This article establishes a conceptual framework for the intervention, presents data on the process of program change, and considers the positive and negative effects r...
Article
Organization development as action research is a way of enhancing the problem‐solving capacity of teacher training institutions and of gaining understanding of how they function as organizations. The paper describes this approach to research by referring to an action research project that studied the impact of an organization development interventi...
Article
Educational research and evaluation for the purpose of improving practice is becoming increasingly common. The teacher‐researcher movement, LEA sponsored self‐evaluation schemes, for example, both involve teachers in reviewing their own practice or the practices of the school as an organization, with the express purpose of utilizing the review data...
Article
The argument of this paper is that the relative failure of change efforts in teacher education is a result of a lack of understanding of the dynamics of change, and a lack of consideration of the organisational features of teacher training institutions. These observations are supported by a critical review of the North American literature on educat...
Article
Change in educational systems is a highly complex yet barely understood phenom enon ; and this is particularly true of teacher training institutions (TTIs). My central argument is that the complexity of change is a function of the political and ecological environments in which educational change occurs. Unfortunately contemporary attempts to concep...
Article
Demonstrates how teachers--without disrupting their teaching duties--can increase their effectiveness by conducting research on teaching methods in their own classrooms, using simple data collection techniques and research methods permitting confident development of hypotheses and research strategies. (PGD)
Article
Proposing a scale of experientiality which can be used to scale learning events according to degree of experientiality potential, this article presents each of the scale's five modes (receptive, analytic, productive, developmental and personal growth) which encompass qualities of the scale's predecessors and add a further dimension of quality. (DS)
Article
David Hopkins and Wayne Craig explain how they are using powerful learning to meet the needs of schools in Melbourne’s north. This is an edited extract of Chapter 2, ‘Powerful learning: Taking education reform to scale in the northern metropolitan region,’ in Powerful Learning: A strategy for systemic educationalimprovement, edited by David Hopkins...
Article
For a country to succeed it needs both a competitive economy and an inclusive society. That requires an education system with high standards, which transmits and develops knowledge and culture from one generation to the next, promotes respect for and engagement with learning, broadens horizons and develops high expectations. We want to ensure all y...

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Projects (2)
Project
Developing a two year masters programme for practising aspiring leaders in schools that will help them deliver the changes neceesary for a goal driven personalized pedagogical approach
Project
To explore the nature of school populations, both socio-economic and academic and the performance of their pupils within the types of school