David Hogan

David Hogan
The University of Calgary | HBI · Department of Medicine

MD

About

415
Publications
54,833
Reads
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21,197
Citations
Citations since 2017
127 Research Items
10984 Citations
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Introduction
My research interests revolve around the health issues encountered with aging such as cognitive impairment & dementia, falls, frailty and multiple morbidity coupled with evaluating the impact of interventions such as exercise and medications on these problems in this population. I primarily use quantitative methods and have been involved in both clinical and epidemiological studies. As 2020 begins I'm currently involved in research on HIV and frailty among other projects.
Additional affiliations
August 1990 - present
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Brenda Strafford Chair in Geriatric Medicine

Publications

Publications (415)
Article
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Background People with obesity are at increased risk of chronic stress, and this may have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are also associated with both obesity and stress, and may modify risk of stress among people with obesity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the associations between...
Article
Background frailty imparts a higher risk for hospitalisation, mortality and morbidity due to COVID-19 infection, but the broader impacts of the pandemic and associated public health measures on community-living people with frailty are less known. Methods we used cross-sectional data from 23,974 Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging participants who...
Article
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Background The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a spectrum of adversities that have affected older adults disproportionately. This paper examines older adults with multimorbidity using longitudinal data to ascertain why some of these vulnerable individuals coped with pandemic-induced risk and stressors better than others – t...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted access to healthcare services in Canada. Research prior to the pandemic has found that depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with increased unmet healthcare needs. The primary objective of this study was to examine if mental health was associated with perceived access to healthcare during the p...
Article
Objectives To examine the prevalence of coping behaviours during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic among caregivers of Assisted Living (AL) residents and variation in these behaviours by caregivers’ gender and mental health. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey. Setting and Participants Family/friend caregivers of AL resident...
Article
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Introduction: Despite the availability of various pressure injury (PI) prevention strategies (e.g., risk identification, use of pressure re-distribution surfaces, frequent repositioning), they persist as a significant issue for healthcare systems worldwide. Continuous pressure imaging (CPI) is a novel technology that could be integrated within a c...
Article
The University of Calgary joined the Age-Friendly University (AFU) Global Network in 2018. As part of our university’s AFU action plan, a baseline assessment of the institution’s age-friendliness will be conducted to identify areas of strength and growth. To inform our approach and that of other institutions undertaking this work, an environmental...
Article
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Background our aim was to assess the effectiveness of medication review and deprescribing interventions as a single intervention in falls prevention. Methods Design systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO until 28 March 2022. Eligibility criteria randomised controlled trials of older partici...
Article
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Family or friend caregivers’ concerns about assisted living (AL) residents’ mental health are reflective of poor resident and caregiver mental health. COVID-19-related visiting restrictions increased caregiver concerns, but research on these issues in AL is limited. Using web-based surveys with 673 caregivers of AL residents in Western Canada, we a...
Article
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Background: falls and fall-related injuries are common in older adults, have negative effects on functional independence and quality of life and are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health related costs. Current guidelines are inconsistent, with no up-to-date, globally applicable ones present. Objectives: to create a set of evi...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption to research activities across Canada. The Training and Capacity Building (T&CB) Program of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) conducted a survey between May 11th, 2020 and May 19th, 2020 to identify the challenges faced by CCNA trainees because of the pan...
Article
Background Chronic non-cancer pain is common among older residents of long-term care (LTC) homes and often poorly recognized and treated. With heightened concerns regarding opioid prescribing in recent years, it is important to examine the current prevalence of opioid use and its association with resident characteristics to help identify those pote...
Article
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Background Family and friend caregivers play significant roles in advocating for and ensuring quality health and social care of residents in Assisted Living (AL) homes. However, little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic and related visitor restrictions affected their health and mental well-being. We examined the prevalence and correlates of a...
Article
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Objective To examine proportions and predictors of change in alcohol intake and binge drinking during the first 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic among middle-aged and older participants in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 Questionnaire Study. Methods A total of 28,559 (67.2% of the potential sample) CLSA participants consen...
Article
Background: Estimates of polypharmacy have primarily been derived from prescription claims, and less is known about the use of non-prescription medications (alone or in combination with prescription medications) across the frailty spectrum or by sex. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of polypharmacy (total, prescription, non-prescripti...
Article
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Introduction: This study aimed to develop and validate a 3-year dementia risk score in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on variables collected in routine clinical care. Methods: The prediction score was trained and developed using data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC). Selection criteria included age...
Article
Introduction: Comprehensive, population-based investigations of the extent and temporality of associations between common neurological and psychiatric disorders are scarce. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used linked health administrative data for Ontarians aged 40-85 years on 1 April 2002, to estimate the adjusted rate of incident deme...
Article
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Physical inactivity is a leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and global mortality. Regular exercise might mitigate age-related declines in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular function. In this study, we hypothesize that a 6-month aerobic exercise intervention will lead to a decrease i...
Article
Objectives To examine the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and opioid use among nursing home residents followed up to March 2021, and possible variation by dementia and frailty status. Design Population-based cohort study with an interrupted time series analysis. Setting and Participants Linked health administrative databases for residen...
Article
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Importance The association of COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization with functional mobility in community-dwelling adults above and beyond the impact of the pandemic control measures implemented in 2020 remains to be elucidated. Objective To evaluate the association between a COVID-19 diagnosis and change in mobility and physical function of adul...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge to public health, with over 233 million confirmed cases and over 4.6 million deaths globally as of September 20211. Although many studies have reported worse mental health outcomes during the early weeks of the pandemic, some sources suggest a gradual decrease in a...
Article
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Alzheimer’s disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are no disease-modifying pharmacotherapies for this condition. Aducanumab, an amyloid beta-directed monoclonal antibody that targets aggregated forms of amyloid-beta in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease, has raised hopes that such a therapy has been discov...
Article
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Background: Fear of falling (FOF) is prevalent among older adults and associated with adverse health outcomes. Over recent years a substantial body of research has emerged on its epidemiology, associated factors, and consequences. This scoping review summarizes the FOF literature published between April 2015 and March 2020 in order to inform curre...
Article
Full-text available
Importance With the global population aging, falls and fall-related injuries are ubiquitous, and several clinical practice guidelines for falls prevention and management for individuals 60 years or older have been developed. A systematic evaluation of the recommendations and agreement level is lacking. Objectives To perform a systematic review of...
Article
Abstract Background Neurological disorders and mental health conditions, including mood/anxiety disorders, are a leading cause of disability and healthcare use. These disorders have shared risk factors and commonly co-occur in older adults. Mood/anxiety disorders are often under-diagnosed and under-treated among those with neurological disorders, p...
Article
The objective of this study was to identify group-level health outcomes associated with the 2013 Calgary flood on Calgary participants (45–85 years of age) in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). We compared baseline CLSA data collected on Calgary participants during the 6 months prior to and following the flood. Logistic regression mod...
Article
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Importance: COVID-19 has had devastating effects on the health and well-being of older adult residents and health care professionals in nursing homes. Uncertainty about the associated consequences of these adverse effects on the use of medications common to this care setting remains. Objective: To examine the association between the COVID-19 pan...
Article
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Background: The predicted growth of Canadians aged 65+ and the resultant rise in the demand for specialized geriatric services (SGS) requires physician resource planning. We updated the 2011 Canadian Geriatrics Society physician resource inventory and created projections for 2025 and 2030. Methods: The number and full-time equivalents (FTEs) of...
Article
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Objective To evaluate the pattern of frailty across several of social stratifiers associated with health inequalities. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional baseline data on 51 338 community-living women and men aged 45–85 years from the population-based Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (collected from September 2011 to May 2015) we...
Article
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Background There remains no effective intervention capable of reversing most cases of dementia. Current research is focused on prevention by addressing risk factors that are shared between cardiovascular disease and dementia (e.g., hypertension) before the cognitive, functional, and behavioural symptoms of dementia manifest. A promising preventive...
Article
Background: The co-occurrence of frailty and cognitive impairment in older (50+) persons with HIV (PWH) is common and increases the risk of poor outcomes. In HIV clinics, the most commonly used frailty measures are the frailty phenotype (FP), which requires measuring grip strength and gait speed to implement, and the frailty index (FI) based on co...
Article
Background falls and fall-related injuries are common in older adults, have negative effects both on quality of life and functional independence and are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Current clinical approaches and advice from falls guidelines vary substantially between countries and settings, warranting a st...
Article
Background: Multimorbidity is increasing among older adults, but the impact of these recent trends on the extent and complexity of polypharmacy and possible variation by sex remains unknown. We examined sex differences in multimorbidity, polypharmacy (5+ medications) and hyper-polypharmacy (10+ medications) in 2003 vs 2016, and the interactive ass...
Article
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is relatively common among nursing home residents, and decisions regarding anticoagulant therapy in this setting may be complicated by resident frailty and other factors.Objectives The aim of this study was to examine trends and correlates of oral anticoagulant use among newly admitted nursing home residents with...
Chapter
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Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Chapter
Full-text available
Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Book
Full-text available
Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Chapter
Full-text available
Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Article
Introduction L’Étude longitudinale canadienne sur le vieillissement (ELCV) est une ressource riche, représentative de la population à l’échelle nationale et utilisable à de multiples fins. Même si les municipalités pourraient vouloir utiliser les données de l’ELCV pour répondre à certains besoins stratégiques locaux, on ne sait pas dans quelle mesu...
Article
Introduction The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a rich, nationally representative population-based resource that can be used for multiple purposes. Although municipalities may wish to use CLSA data to address local policy needs, how well localized CLSA cohorts reflect municipal populations is unknown. Because Calgary, Alberta, is ho...
Article
Full-text available
IMPORTANCE With the global population aging, falls and fall-related injuries are ubiquitous, and several clinical practice guidelines for falls prevention and management for individuals 60 years or older have been developed. A systematic evaluation of the recommendations and agreement level is lacking. OBJECTIVES To perform a systematic review of c...
Article
The Canadian Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (CICA) tool is an innovative culturally‐grounded dementia case finding tool. Currently, dementia is underdiagnosed and when diagnosis occurs it is at later stages in Indigenous populations in Canada when compared to the general population; a trend documented in Indigenous populations beyond Canada, inclu...
Article
Most cognitive screening tools are culturally inappropriate for Indigenous peoples. The Kimberly Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA) screening tool was collaboratively developed in Australia with, and for, Indigenous peoples. Using a similar community‐based method, the KICA was adapted to Canadian Indigenous peoples’ culture and translated into...
Article
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Background: Studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) employ rigorous eligibility criteria, resulting in sampling that may not be representative of the broader clinical population. Objective: To compare the characteristics of MCI patients in a Calgary memory clinic to those of MCI participants in published Canadian studies. Methods: Clinic pa...
Article
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Introduction: Vascular disease is a common cause of dementia, and often coexists with other brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease to cause mixed dementia. Many of the risk factors for vascular disease are treatable. Our objective was to review evidence for diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) to issue recommendati...
Article
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Aging is associated with subjective memory complaints. Approximately half of those with subjective memory complaints have objective cognitive impairment. Previous studies have provided evidence of an association between genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia progression. Also, aging is a significant risk factor for vascular patholog...
Article
The efficacy of a technology-driven visual arts recreation activity, delivered virtually, was evaluated for its potential to achieve positive impacts, similar to traditional arts-interventions, on wellbeing in long-term care residents. Thirty-one residents (average age 86.8 years; SD = 9.4) engaged with the arts-intervention for 30-minutes, twice w...
Article
Background: In nursing homes, residents with dementia frequently receive potentially inappropriate medications that are associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Despite known sex differences in clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics among persons with dementia, few studies have examined sex differences in patterns a...
Article
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A personal top ten list of literature about aging and the practice of geriatrics is offered. This is primarily directed at those completing their training in the care of older patients. While acknowledging the limitations of any such exercise, it is hoped that it will engender interest in prior work by and about older persons and their care. Those...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There remains no effective intervention capable of reversing most cases of dementia. Current research is focused on prevention, by addressing risk factors that are shared between cardiovascular disease and dementia (e.g., hypertension) before the cognitive, functional, and behavioural symptoms of dementia manifest. A promising preventiv...
Article
Frailty is prevalent in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH), but factors predisposing older PWH to frailty remain uncertain. We examined factors associated with frailty and determined whether there were multiple frailty subtypes in older adults with controlled HIV infection. This was a cross-sectional outpatient study in an urban HIV cl...
Article
Rational, aims, and objectives The FallProof Balance and Mobility Program is a multifactorial fall prevention intervention that targets intrinsic risk factors such as muscle strength, balance, gait, and posture. Using mixed methods, we evaluated the implementation of the program for older adults at high risk of falling in the community. Methods A...
Article
Objective To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise is associated with improvements in cognition and cerebrovascular regulation, we enrolled 206 healthy low-active middle-aged and older adults (mean ± SD age 65.9 ± 6.4 years) in a supervised 6-month aerobic exercise intervention and assessed them before and after the intervention. Methods The s...
Article
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In 2017, Hypertension Canada removed advanced age and frailty as considerations for caution when deciding on intensive therapy in their guidelines for the diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults. Dementia is not mentioned. In this commentary, we review why advanced age and frailty were removed, and examine wh...
Article
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Background: Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are recommended for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but older patients reportedly experience more adverse events (AEs) and show variable treatment response. The objective of this study was to evaluate AEs and effectiveness of bDMARDs in a cohort of older patients. Methods: AE and...
Article
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Background: The Canadian Geriatrics Society (CGS) fosters the health and well-being of older Canadians and older adults worldwide. Although severe COVID-19 illness and significant mortality occur across the lifespan, the fatality rate increases with age, especially for people over 65 years of age. The dichotomization of COVID-19 patients by age ha...
Article
Objectives: Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine are approved for Alzheimer disease in Canada. Regional drug reimbursement policies are associated with cross-provincial variation in ChEI use, but it is unclear how these policies influence predictors of use. Using standardized data from two provinces with differing policies, we compared r...
Article
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To determine the relationship between sleep spindle characteristics (density, power and frequency), executive functioning and cognitive decline in older adults, we studied a convenience subsample of healthy middle‐aged and older participants of the Brain in Motion study. Participants underwent a single night of unattended in‐home polysomnography wi...
Article
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Background: Benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) use disorder among older adults is a relatively common and challenging clinical condition. Method: The Canadian Coalition for Seniors' Mental Health, with financial support from Health Canada, has produced evidence-based guidelines on the prevention, identification, assessment, and management of...
Article
Oxidative stress may be involved in disease pathology and dependent on both modifiable and non-modifiable factors. This study aimed to assess exercise-induced changes in markers of oxidative stress among older, sedentary adults, and to determine the effects of metabolic syndrome (MetS) status, aerobic capacity, age, sex and weight on these biomarke...
Article
In this narrative review, we focus on aspects of the complicated relationship between frailty and medications that we feel would be of particular interest to researchers and health care practitioners. Frailty and polypharmacy (≥5 medications) are inter-related with evidence of a bidirectional potentially casual relationship. Medication review and w...
Article
Objective: High blood pressure is one of the main modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the best antihypertensive class for optimizing cognition. Our objective was to determine whether any particular antihypertensive class was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline or dementia using com...
Article
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Background The aim of the present study was to calculate a frailty index (FI) in older adults (≥50) living with HIV, search for cross-sectional associations with the FI, and investigate the association between the FI score and two-year mortality. Methods Cross-sectional study with a short-term prospective com-ponent for the determination of two-yea...
Article
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Research suggests that older adults with neurodegenerative diseases are at increased risk of developing a subsequent neurodegenerative or comorbid psychiatric disorder or both. Depression and other psychiatric conditions, though prevalent, are often under-diagnosed and under-treated among those with neurodegenerative conditions potentially leading...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) utilize stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria which may impact the generalizability of findings to the broader clinical population. We compared characteristics of MCI patients in a Canadian memory clinic in Calgary to MCI research participants in published Canadian studies to assess the representativeness...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects...
Article
Aging is associated with decline in white matter (WM) microstructure, decreased cognitive functioning, and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Recent research has identified aerobic physical exercise as a promising intervention for increasing white matter microstructure in aging, with the aim of increasing cognitive abiliti...
Article
The 2019 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) for Mood, Cognition and Fatigue following Stroke is a comprehensive set of evidence-based guidelines addressing three important issues that can negatively impact the lives of people who have had a stroke. These include post-stroke depression and anxiety, vascular cognitive...
Conference Paper
Background Rheumatoid arthritis is common among older adults and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are effective in treating this population. However, older patients reportedly experience more adverse events (AEs) with effectiveness being either equivalent or worse than younger patients. Objectives Our primary objective wa...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To examine the associations between dementia and 1-year health outcomes (urgent hospitalisation, long-term care (LTC) admission, mortality) among long-stay home care recipients and the extent to which these associations vary by clients’ frailty level. Design A retrospective cohort study using linked clinical and health administrative da...
Article
Objective: In this study, we investigated the incremental 1-year direct costs of health care associated with frailty among home care recipients in Ontario with and without dementia. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of 159,570 home care clients aged 50 years and older in Ontario, Canada in 2014/2015. At index home care assessment, we ascertai...
Article
Hydration is a key consideration for athletes, where even mild levels of dehydration may negatively impact performance. Existing methods of assessment are either inaccurate or impractical for use in field settings, motivating the search for new approaches. Extremity microwave measurement is a promising method for ongoing hydration monitoring, owing...