David Hallford

David Hallford
Deakin University · School of Psychology

D.Psych (Clinical)

About

115
Publications
28,653
Reads
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1,557
Citations
Introduction
I am a practising clinical psychologist and academic with a research focus on the process of recalling past experiences and thinking about the future. I study the interaction between mental illnesses and these abilities, and develop interventions that draw on this capacity, and aim to improve it. If you have any interest in these areas and/or my work, feel free to be in touch.
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - February 2016
Australian Catholic University
Position
  • Research Associate
January 2010 - present
Deakin University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
March 2010 - December 2013
Deakin University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Full-text available
Difficulty in accessing specific memories, referred to as reduced memory specificity or overgeneral memory, has been established as a marker of clinical depression. However, it is not clear if this deficit persists following the remission of depressive episodes. The current study involved a systematic review and meta‐analysis of empirical studies w...
Article
Full-text available
Narrative identity allows various experiences to be integrated and incorporated into the concept of the self. Recent studies indicate that being aware of developing the story about the self that brings cohesion and meaning may be adaptive. This paper presents preliminary findings across three studies (two quantitative methods and one mixed) aimed a...
Article
Full-text available
Several decades of research have established reduced autobiographical memory specificity, or overgeneral memory, as an important cognitive factor associated with the risk for and maintenance of a range of psychiatric diagnoses. In measuring this construct, experimenters code autobiographical memories for the presence or absence of a single temporal...
Article
Reminiscence-based interventions involve the guided recall and interpretation of autobiographical memories to promote adaptive thinking. This study involved secondary analyses of a recent trial of a positively focused, group-based, three-session version of cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT) on perceptions of general relationship quality and inter...
Preprint
Researchers have been interested in what retrieval process is responsible for overgeneral autobiographical memories (OGM) in depression. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated that, for negatively-valenced cues, directly retrieved OGM, rather than generatively retrieved OGM, are associated with depression. However, longitudinal evidence of t...
Article
Full-text available
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a significant global problem. Interventions implemented with youth affected by CSE frequently target singular adjacent issues (e.g., substance misuse or running away); however, research indicates these interventions are most efficacious when they simultaneously treat CSE sequelae (e.g., emotion dysregulation) pair...
Article
Suicide remains a leading cause of preventable death worldwide, despite advances in research and decreases in mental health stigma through government health campaigns. Machine learning (ML), a type of artificial intelligence (AI), is the use of algorithms to simulate and imitate human cognition. Given the lack of improvement in clinician-based suic...
Preprint
This presentation will introduce the first quantitative, self-report measure of the awareness of narrative identity and how globally coherent one’s autobiographical memories are perceived to be, in terms of temporal ordering, causal associations, and the perception of unifying themes. The construct validity and reliability of the Awareness of Narra...
Article
Full-text available
Imagining future events is a crucial cognitive process in adaptation, but impairments have been identified in a range of mental disorders. Taking a functional approach to future thinking, this paper reports on the development and deployment of a scale to assess the frequency of self-reported functions of future thinking: The Functions of Future Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a serious and persistent global issue affecting up to 5% of the child and youth population worldwide; yet there is no universally accepted definition. To develop a theoretically robust definition of CSE, this review systematically synthesized literature examining CSE definitions aiming to develop a conceptual mode...
Article
Full-text available
Reminiscence‐based interventions focus on the recall of autobiographical memories and reflective reasoning about these remembered experiences. This study assessed the effect of a three‐session, positive‐memory version of cognitive‐reminiscence therapy (CRT) on the psychological resources and mental well‐being of young adults. The participants (N =...
Article
Full-text available
Deficits in episodic future thinking (EFT) characteristics such as detail/vividness, specificity and the use of mental imagery are associated with psychopathology. However, whether these characteristics are associated with anxiety is not well understood. This article reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of research examining associations b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deficits in episodic future thinking (EFT) characteristics such as detail/vividness, specificity and the use of mental imagery are associated with psychopathology. However, whether these characteristics are associated with anxiety is not well understood. This article reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of research examining associations b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death. As a precursor to suicide attempts, disclosure of suicidal ideation provides opportunity for intervention and prevention. Objective: Meta-analyse available studies and estimate the prevalence of disclosure of suicidal ideation to others, and to whom people disclose. Data Sources: Multiple...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced specificity in autobiographical memory. It has been argued that this tendency occurs through a failure of effortful generative retrieval, regardless of valence of cue word. However, we propose that in MDD general memories are likely to be recalled via direct retrieval, and direct retrieval...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet Addiction Test is a widely used assessment of symptoms of internet addiction. Although originally proposed as assessing different components of internet addiction, research has been mixed in terms of its factor structure. This study is the first to examine the psychometric properties of the IAT in an Indian population. A large sample (...
Article
Full-text available
Mental simulations of positive future events increase their detail/vividness and plausibility, with effects on cognitive-affective processes such as anticipated and anticipatory pleasure. More recently, spatial details have been distinguished as important in increasing detail and elaborating mental scene construction. Building on this research, thi...
Preprint
Narrative identity allows us to integrate various experiences and incorporate them into the concept of the self. Recent studies indicate that being aware of developing the story about the self that brings cohesion and meaning may be adaptive. This paper presents preliminary findings across three studies (two quantitative and one mixed methods) aime...
Preprint
This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy of palliative care staff and thus enable them to better detect and manage depression among palliative care patients and their families. Participants were 90 professional carers who completed a four-session training prog...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reminiscence-based interventions involve the guided recall and interpretation of autobiographical memories to promote adaptive thinking. This study involved secondary analyses of a recent trial of a positively focused, three-session version of cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT) on generalised perceptions of relationship quality and interpersonall...
Preprint
Full-text available
Suicide is a substantial contributor to global mortality, with suicidal ideation (SI) a significant predictor of suicide. Research has demonstrated relationships between dispositional coping styles and SI. This study aimed to advance this research by moving from the disposition coping level to examining the specific coping strategies people use whe...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of research has examined the difficulty that people with psychiatric diagnoses have in recalling specific autobiographical memories of events that lasted less than a day. Instead, they seem to retrieve general events that have occurred many times or which occurred over longer periods of time, termed overgeneral memory. We present the first...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Improving future thinking may be one means to reduce anhedonia, particularly in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in which future thinking is impaired. The current study therefore examined whether enhancing future thinking is a viable method of reducing anhedonia in MDD. Methods: Participants (N=177; 80.8% women; M age=43.7, SD=11.8) with...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic specificity inductions, involving brief training in recollecting episodic details, have been shown to improve subsequent performance on tasks involving remembering the past, imagining the future and problem solving. The current study examined if specificity inductions targeting self-referential past or future episodic thinking would have d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the established effectiveness of reminiscence-based interventions for depression, little research exists into the pathways through which specific reminiscence functions are related to depressive symptoms. Drawing on theory of the mechanisms of change in cognitive-reminiscence therapy, the current study tests the hypothesised indirect associ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Memory Specificity Training (MeST) improves the recall of past personal experiences, an impairment in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Extending on previous findings that computerised MeST (c-MeST) improves memory specificity and depressive symptoms in adults, this study aimed to answer two questions: 1) does c-MeST improve memory specif...
Preprint
Full-text available
Difficulty in accessing specific memories, referred to as reduced memory specificity or overgeneral memory, has been established as a marker of clinical depression. However, it is not clear if this deficit persists following the remission of depressive episodes. The current study involved a systematic review and meta-analysis of empirical studies w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reminiscence-based interventions focus on the recall of autobiographical memories and reflective reasoning about these remembered experiences. This study assessed the effect of a three-session, positive-memory version of cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT) on the psychological resources and mental well-being of young adults. The participants (N=62...
Preprint
Reminiscence-based psychotherapies have been demonstrated to have robust effects on a range of therapeutic outcomes. However, little research has been conducted on the immediate effects of guided activities they are comprised of, or how these might differ dependent on the type of reminiscence. The current study utilised a controlled experimental de...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in retrieving event-level, specific autobiographical memories, termed overgeneral memory (OGM), are recognised as a feature of clinical depression. A previous meta-analytic review assessing how OGM predicts the course of subsequent depressive symptoms showed small effects for correlations and regression analyses when baseline depressive...
Preprint
Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a novel intervention for depression in young adults, and currently no specific clinical guidance exists for its use in this age group. The aim of this article is to disseminate our experiences from a recent clinical trial in which we engaged in cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT) with young adults for the purpose...
Article
Full-text available
The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a multidimensional self-report measure that has been used to improve understanding of anticipation (“wanting”) and consummation (“liking”) of reward. The TEPS has been used to assess anhedonia in clinical depression, but its factor structure has not yet been confirmed in this population. This seem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sext dissemination presents policy and legislative challenges given its potential psychological, social, and legal harms. We report on a cross-national comparison of sext-image dissemination in a large sample of 1148 young adults aged 18–29 years (M = 22.54, SD = 2.50, 53.0% women, 47.0% men), either U.S. (53.8%) or Australian (46.2%) residents. Th...
Article
Sext dissemination presents policy and legislative challenges given its potential psychological, social, and legal harms. We report on a cross-national comparison of sext-image dissemination in a large sample of 1148 young adults aged 18–29 years (M = 22.54, SD = 2.50, 53.0% women, 47.0% men), either U.S. (53.8%) or Australian (46.2%) residents. Th...
Article
Full-text available
The coherence of autobiographical memories plays an important role in psychological well-being, as borne out by recent studies. This study aimed to advance this understanding by assessing whether coherence predicted depressive symptoms over time in adults. Further, it aimed to specify mediators through which this association might occur, namely psy...
Article
Introduction: Cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance among adolescents worldwide, and the age at which consumption begins to decrease. Cannabis use in adolescents is associated with a wide range of adverse consequences in adulthood including increased vulnerability to psychosis and other mental disorders, as well as suicidal ideat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mental simulations of positive future events increase their detail/vividness and plausibility, with effects on cognitive-affective processes such as anticipated and anticipatory pleasure. More recently, spatial details have been distinguished as important in increasing detail and elaborating mental scene construction. Building on this research, thi...
Article
Full-text available
Memory Specificity Training (MeST) is an intervention developed from basic science that has found clinical utility. MeST uses cued recall exercises to target the difficulty that some people with emotional disorders have in recalling personally experienced events. MeST is simple enough to be delivered alongside traditional interventions or online by...
Article
Full-text available
Given modest response and high relapse after treatment for Major Depressive Episodes (MDE), the development and refinement of treatments to target cognitive vulnerabilities is indicated. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) remediates deficits in recalling detailed memories of past experiences through repeated practice of autobiographical memory retr...
Preprint
Decades of research has examined the difficulty that people with psychiatric diagnoses, such as Major Depressive Disorder, Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, have in recalling specific autobiographical memories from events that lasted less than a day. Instead, they seem to retrieve general events that have occurred...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with depression have difficulty anticipating pleasure, which can negatively impact motivation and functioning. One factor in this may be impairments in their episodic future thinking (EFT). This study examined whether enhancing EFT through increasing detail/vividness and mental imagery would increase anticipatory pleasure among individu...
Preprint
Full-text available
This investigation examined conflicting suggestions regarding the association between problems retrieving specific autobiographical memories and the tendency to retrieve the details of these memories. We also examined whether these tendencies are differentially related to depression symptoms. U.S., Belgian, Hong Kong and Japanese participants retri...
Preprint
Background: Characteristic of the cardinal symptom of anhedonia, people with clinical depression report lower levels of anticipatory pleasure. However, the psychological mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. This is the first study to assess whether, and to what extent, phenomenological characteristics of episodic future think...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation examined conflicting suggestions regarding the association between problems retrieving specific autobiographical memories and the tendency to retrieve the details of these memories. We also examined whether these tendencies are differentially related to depression symptoms. U.S., Belgian, Hong Kong and Japanese participants retri...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Although research has examined factors associated with child sexual exploitation (CSE), consensus is lacking in regard to which factors should be prioritized, thereby hindering policy reform, prevention efforts, and development of early detection and intervention. Objective: To provide a meta-analytic synthesis of studies examining f...
Preprint
Background and Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a tendency to retrieve general autobiographical memories, in particular more categoric memories and less specific memories. Autobiographical memories are retrieved via generative retrieval methods involving an effortful search, or direct retrieval methods whereby the memo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a multidimensional self-report measure that has been used to improve understanding of anticipation (“wanting”) and consummation (“liking”) of reward. The TEPS has been used to assess anhedonia in clinical depression, but its factor structure has not yet been confirmed in this population. This seem...
Preprint
Reminiscence therapy is a novel psychosocial approach to treating depressive symptoms in young adults. We present the first qualitative inquiry into young adults’ experience of reminiscence-based therapy, aimed at exploring attitudes towards this approach and their view of processes underpinning positive change. Help-seeking young adults (mean age...
Article
Background: The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) is a widely used measure of negative emotional states. While the DASS is increasingly used in mental health research in India, to date no study has examined the factor structure among Indian adults. Methods: A large community sample of English-speaking Indian adults completed the DASS...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic future thinking for positive future events is known to evoke positive affect. We aimed to assess whether it specifically evokes anticipated and anticipatory pleasure for future events, and behavioral intention. As a secondary aim, we examined if this differed compared to a condition of thinking of positive past events. In two studies, part...
Preprint
Full-text available
Impairments in retrieving event-level, specific autobiographical memories, termed overgeneral memory (OGM) are recognised as a feature of clinical depression. A previous meta-analytic review (Sumner, Griffith, & Mineka, 2010) assessing how OGM predicts the course of subsequent depressive symptoms showed small, but robust effects for correlations an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) is a widely used measure of negative emotional states. While the DASS is increasingly used in mental health research in India, to date no study has examined the factor structure among Indian adults. Methods: A large community sample of English-speaking Indian adults completed the DASS 21-...
Article
This study investigated sext dissemination in a large convenience sample of young adults (N = 691, M age = 22.4, SD = 3.2, 53% female). Participants who disseminated sexts (17.4%) were more likely sexually active, and from a younger age, had requested sexts, received disseminated sexts, and reported higher dark triad trait levels. Images were usual...
Article
Full-text available
A range of psychiatric disorders are characterised by impairments in episodic future thinking (EFT), and particularly simulating specific, spatiotemporally-located future events. No study has examined whether training can lead to sustained improvement in specific EFT. In this study, participants (N = 60; M age = 31, SD = 13.2) were randomized to a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Imagining future events is a crucial cognitive process in adaptation, but impairments have been identified in a range of mental disorders. Taking a functional approach to future thinking, this paper reports on the development and deployment of a scale to assess the frequency of self-reported functions of future thinking: The Functions o...
Article
Parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high levels of stress. Several studies have conceptualized this as a traumatic stress response to challenging child behaviors such as self‐harm, suicidal ideation, and physical aggression toward caregivers. In the present study, we explored the relevance of a trauma‐based diag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Given modest response and high relapse after treatment for Major Depressive Episodes (MDE), the development and refinement of treatments to target cognitive vulnerabilities is indicated. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) remediates deficits in recalling detailed memories of past experiences through repeated practice of autobiographical...
Preprint
Depressive symptoms are associated with deficits in objectively-rated detail and specificity in autobiographical future thinking for personally-relevant events. However, how depressive symptoms might affect the subjective, phenomenal characteristics of future thinking in general is not well understood. This study examined future thinking as self-re...
Preprint
Full-text available
A range of psychiatric disorders are characterised by impairments in episodic future thinking (EFT), and particularly simulating specific, spatiotemporally-located future events. To date, no study has examined whether training can lead to sustained improvement in the specificity of EFT. In this study, participants (N=60; M age=31, SD=13.2) were ran...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Youth depression is highly prevalent and is related to impairments in academic, social and behavioural functioning. Evidence-based treatments are available, but many young people do not respond or sufficiently recover with first-line options, and a significant proportion experience relapse. Consequently, there is clear scope to enhance...
Preprint
Background: Autobiographical memory-based interventions have shown promise in the treatment of depression. This study is the first to examine the effects of one such therapy, cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT), for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Method: A total of 26 young adults (mean age = 20.8 years, SD = 1.9) presenting...
Article
Background This study investigated the validity of conceptualising elevated stress in parents of children who exhibit challenging behaviour within the framework of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It was hypothesised that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and parents of children with a rare disease would endorse greater...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The ability to think about future events serves a range of important functions. People with schizophrenia show impairments in future thinking. However, whether these impairments are specific to positive or negative events and to what extent they are associated with impairments in verbal fluency and autobiographical memory remains poorl...
Article
Full-text available
Future-oriented variants of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) are often used to assess the generation of specific episodic future thoughts, however, as yet the underlying factor structure of items in this modified test has not been examined. Therefore, over two studies we examined the factor structure and validity of an episodic future thinkin...
Article
Background: Characteristic of the cardinal symptom of anhedonia, people with clinical depression report lower levels of anticipatory pleasure. However, the psychological mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. This is the first study to assess whether, and to what extent, phenomenological characteristics of episodic future think...
Article
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder appear to experience high levels of psychological distress, yet little is known about the prevalence of psychological disorders in this population. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the proportion of these parents who experience clinically significant psychopatholog...
Article
Background and objectives: Impairments in the specificity of autobiographical memory (AM) and future thinking are associated with a range of affective and psychopathological states, however, whether these deficits also occur in the context of state anxiety is not well known. We examined the effects of increasing state anxiety on the specificity of...
Article
Sexting (e.g., conveying nude electronic images) is now common among young adults. Despite leading to negative consequences for some (e.g., harassment and unwanted dissemination), findings regarding sexting behaviors and mental health variables have been mixed. We recruited a convenience sample of young adults (N = 444, M age = 20, SD = 1) to test...