David George

David George
University of Hull · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

41
Publications
3,601
Reads
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771
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
405 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
Introduction
David George currently works at the Department of Psychology, University of Hull. David does research in Behavioural Science, Biological Psychology and Experimental Psychology.
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
University of Hull
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 2003 - December 2010
Cardiff University
Position
  • Royal Society University Research Fellow

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
Full-text available
Attention is known to modulate itch intensity. In contrast, the reverse relationship, i.e. the degree to which the presence of an acute itch affects attention, is currently not well understood. The aims of this study were to investigate whether acute itch induces an attentional bias towards or away from visual itch-related stimuli, and if so, wheth...
Article
Full-text available
The perceived pitch of human voices is highly correlated with the fundamental frequency ( f 0) of the laryngeal source, which is determined largely by the length and mass of the vocal folds. The vocal folds are larger in adult males than in adult females, and men’s voices consequently have a lower pitch than women’s. The length of the supralaryngea...
Article
Time perception is malleable ‒ it can be made to speed up and slow down by various experimental manipulations including the presentation of a sequence of auditory clicks and also angry facial expressions. Recent evidence supports the idea that auditory click trains increase accumulation of evidence across time. Here, we test this idea for both angr...
Article
How does emotion change the way we perceive time? Studies have shown that we overestimate the duration of faces that express anger of fear–an effect that has been explained as due the speeding of a pacemaker that resides within an internal clock. Here, we test the idea that attending longer to facial threat leads to an overestimation of time. Seven...
Article
Full-text available
In 5 experiments, we assessed the effects of preexposure to simple auditory stimuli on subsequent conditioning and discrimination learning. Experiment 1 showed that preexposure to a single stimulus retarded acquisition of conditioned responding to that stimulus. The same preexposure regimen facilitated the subsequent acquisition of a discrimination...
Article
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This article briefly reviews 3 theories concerning elemental and configural approaches to stimulus representation in associative learning and presents a new context-dependent added-elements model (C-AEM). This model takes an elemental approach to stimulus representation where individual stimuli are represented by single units and stimulus compounds...
Article
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Learning to categorize perceptually similar stimuli can result in people becoming more sensitive to differences along perceptual dimensions that are relevant to category membership and/or less sensitive to equivalent differences along irrelevant perceptual dimensions. These effects of acquired distinctiveness and acquired equivalence may be caused...
Article
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We describe and report the results of computer simulations of the three-layer Hebbian network informally described by Honey, Close, and Lin (2010): A general account of discrimination that has been shaped by data from configural acquired equivalence experiments that are beyond the scope of alternative models. Simulations implemented a conditional p...
Article
Full-text available
While temperatures in the noxious range are well-known to inhibit acute itch, the impact of temperature in the innocuous temperature range is less well understood. We investigated the effect of alternating short-term temperature changes in the innocuous range on histamine and cowhage-induced acute itch, taking into account individual differences in...
Article
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The less-is-better effect is a preference for the lesser of two alternatives sometimes observed when they are evaluated separately. For example, a dinner service of 24 intact pieces might be judged to be more valuable than a 40-piece dinner service containing nine broken pieces. Pattison and Zentall (Animal Cognition, 17: 1019-1022, 2014) reported...
Article
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In four experiments, participants’ performance on a variety of nonlinear patterning discriminations was assessed using a predictive learning task and visual patterns. Between groups, the similarity of the stimuli that composed these visual patterns was manipulated. When the stimuli were of low similarity, participants’ performance was consistent wi...
Article
Perspective: This article presents an experiment suggesting that a placebo treatment applied to a rubber hand during the rubber hand illusion can produce placebo analgesia. This finding indicates that embodiment may influence the placebo effect, a previously unexamined factor in the treatment process with potential applications to treatment admini...
Article
This article presents a comprehensive survey of research concerning interactions between associative learning and attention in humans. Four main findings are described. First, attention is biased toward stimuli that predict their consequences reliably (). This finding is consistent with the approach taken by Mackintosh (1975) in his attentional mod...
Article
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The cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia have been characterized as a failure to utilize task-setting information to guide behaviour, especially in situations in which there is response conflict. Recently, we have provided support for this account; high schizotypy individuals demonstrated inferior biconditional discrimination performance co...
Article
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Four experiments with rats examined the origin of outcome-selective Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). Experiment 1 used a standard procedure, where outcomes were embedded within extended conditioned stimuli (CSs), to demonstrate the basic effect: Pavlovian stimuli augmented instrumental lever presses that had been paired with the same outco...
Article
A formal account of the relationship between attention and associative learning is presented within the framework of a configural theory of discrimination learning. The account is based on a connectionist network in which the entire pattern of stimulation presented on a trial activates a configural unit that then enters into an association with the...
Article
Full-text available
In a category-learning experiment, we assessed whether participants were able to selectively attend to different components of a compound stimulus in two distinct contexts. The participants were presented with stimulus compounds for which they had to learn categorical labels. Each compound comprised one feature from each of two dimensions, and on d...
Article
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There is converging evidence that the prefrontal and mesolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) systems are involved in the performance of a variety of tasks that require the use of contextual, or task-setting, information to select an appropriate response from a number of candidate responses. Performance on tasks of this nature are impaired in schizophreni...
Article
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Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia have been characterized as reflecting a core deficit in the maintenance or use of task-setting cues to mediate appropriate ongoing behaviour. This analysis suggests that cognitive deficits in schizophrenia will be particularly evident when different task-setting cues dictate when different responses are requir...
Article
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The acquisition of a conditioned response to a stimulus when it is paired with a reinforcer is retarded if the stimulus has previously been repeatedly pre-exposed in the absence of the reinforcer. This effect, called latent inhibition, has previously been found to be insensitive to lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats. Using an on...
Article
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Mitchell et al. contend that there is no need to posit a contribution based on the formation of associative links to human learning. In order to sustain this argument, they have ignored evidence which is difficult to explain with propositional accounts; and they have mischaracterised the evidence they do cite by neglecting features of these experim...
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The results from five experiments are considered in relation to two of Spence's (1937, 1938) proposals concerning discrimination learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated whether his ideas about the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients can be used to understand how animals solve a complex patterning discrim...
Article
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A novel paradigm is presented that was designed to mimic aspects of cue and response competition seen in humans in conflict procedures such as the Stroop task. Rats were trained simultaneously on two biconditional discrimination tasks, one auditory and one visual, in two different contexts: C1, in which A1:LP1-->R, A2:LP2-->R; and C2, in which V1:L...
Article
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A novel, optional-shift procedure was used to assess changes in the attention paid to stimuli that occur over the course of discrimination learning. In Phase 1, rats were trained on a conditional instrumental discrimination using audiovisual stimulus compounds; one stimulus dimension (auditory or visual) was relevant to the solution of the discrimi...
Article
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Pigeons (Columba livia) were trained with a spatial structural discrimination, which was based on the spatial relationship among the components of a pattern, and a feature-binding structural discrimination, which was based on how different visual features within a pattern were combined. Neither discrimination was impaired by damage to the hippocamp...
Article
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Pigeons received a discrimination in which the spatial relationship between 2 adjacent rectangles filled with different colors signaled the trial outcome. Test trials then involved the same rectangles separated horizontally by a gap. The tests in Experiment 1 disrupted the discrimination more when the rectangles were tall and thin than when they we...
Article
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A novel automated procedure was used to study imitative learning in pigeons. In Experiments 1 and 2, observer pigeons witnessed a demonstrator pigeon successfully performing an instrumental discrimination in which different discriminative stimuli indicated which of 2 topographically distinct responses (R1 and R2) resulted in the delivery of seed. T...
Article
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In two experiments, participants were presented with pictures of different foods (A, B, C, D, X,) and learned which combinations resulted in an allergic reaction in a fictitious patient, Mr X. In Problem 1, when A or B (but not C or D) was combined with food X an allergic reaction occurred, and when C or D (but not A or B) was combined with Y an al...
Article
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In 3 experiments, pigeons acquired a discrimination between patterns comprising the same features. Thus vertical green bars beside horizontal red bars might have signaled food, and horizontal green bars beside vertical red bars might have signaled no food. The solution of this discrimination can be explained by assuming each pattern is represented...
Article
Pigeons received an odd-item search task that involved an array of 12 patterns containing 11 similar distractors and a single target. Pecks to the target resulted in the delivery of food. Accuracy was greater on trials when a distinctive feature was located in the target but not in the distractors, rather than when the feature was in the distractor...
Article
In two experiments pigeons received a complex negative patterning discrimination, using autoshaping, in which food was made available after three stimuli if they were presented alone (A, B, C), or in pairs (AB, AC, BC), but not when they were all presented together (ABC). Subjects also received a positive patterning discrimination in which three ad...
Article
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Six appetitive conditioning experiments with rats demonstrated that an irrelevant X accompanying a negative patterning discrimination (XA+, XB+, XAB-) acquires extraordinarily high levels of conditioned excitation. Responding to X was similar to that evoked by 2 excitors in combination (Experiment 1) and was greater than responding to a separately...
Article
Six appetitive conditioning experiments with rats demonstrated that an irrelevant X accompanying a negative patterning discrimination (XA+, XB+, XAB-) acquires extraordinarily high levels of conditioned excitation. Responding to X was similar to that evoked by 2 excitors in combination (Experiment 1) and was greater than responding to a separately...
Article
Full-text available
Pigeons received autoshaping with 2 stimuli, A and B, presented in adjacent regions on a television screen. Conditioning with each stimulus was therefore accompanied by stimulation that was displaced from the screen whenever the other stimulus was presented. Test trials with AB revealed stronger responding if this displaced stimulation was similar...
Article
when A+ B+ training was conducted in the absence of CD+ trials. A further failure to observe abnormally strong responding during AB was found in Experiment 3 for which the training trials with A+ B+ CD+ were accompanied by trials in which C and D were separately paired with food. The results are explained in terms of a configural theory of conditio...
Article
Full-text available
In each of 4 experiments animals were given a structural discrimination task that involved visual patterns composed of identical features, but the spatial relations among the features were different for reinforced and nonreinforced trials. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were pairs of colored circles, and pigeons were required to discriminate between p...
Article
In 2 experiments, the relationship between the role of a stimulus in signaling trial outcome and the attention paid to it was investigated. In Exp 1, an intradimensional–extradimensional shift effect was shown in pigeons using autoshaping. In Exp 2, pigeons were trained with a biconditional discrimination, using stimulus compounds varying on 3 dime...
Article
Five experiments examined the factors that determine whether or nor summation will occur when experimental stimuli are presented on a television screen for autoshaping with pigeons. In Experiment 1 there were periods when the television screen was illuminated white and periods when it was dark. When conditioning was conducted during the white perio...
Article
This chapter presents a series of experiments which used autoshaping with pigeons to examine the extent to which changes in attention can influence acquisition of a conditional discrimination. In one set of experiments, pigeons received a conditional discrimination in which some stimuli, but not others, were relevant to its solution. Subsequent tra...

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