David Fennell

David Fennell
Brock University

About

94
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (94)
Article
The purpose of this paper was to develop a theoretical model of climate change disclosure in the hotel industry that builds on stakeholder and institutional theories from the broader sustainability and carbon disclosure literature. A second aim was to develop a climate change disclosure index for the hotel industry and use it to empirically investi...
Article
The purpose of this study was to address the need for a global-scale study of sustainability practices and ecotourism principles in ecolodges with a focus on their communication via the Internet. The study developed an assessment framework to evaluate ecotourism principles and sustainability communication in ecolodges across five dimensions (nature...
Article
Animals are used in tourism in many ways. Some uses are more benign such as ecotourism (e.g., viewing elephants in natural settings), while others induce significant levels of suffering, pain and distress with the denial of dignity and respect (e.g., elephants performing at a circus). What is missing is a comprehensive overview of how just these us...
Article
The purpose of this conceptual paper was to develop the Tourism Knowledge Translation (TKT) framework, which is positioned as a possible solution to the critical disconnect that has for some time plagued tourism theory and practice. It is adapted from state-of-the-art thinking in healthcare, and acts as a roadmap for managing a sizeable base of kno...
Article
This study identified best practices in the sustainable management of leading ecolodges around the world based on a qualitative content analysis of sustainability communications. Sixty-five top global ecolodges were identified and analyzed according to (1) independent third party ecolodge designations, and (2) a conceptual framework of ecolodges ba...
Article
We are in the midst of a transition into a new age of travel and tourism based on the convergence of several key disruptive influences in the form of new technologies, periodic chaos in markets and economies, health and safety concerns, and environmental crises. How we navigate these disruptive influences is important for the enjoyment of tourists,...
Article
This article introduces the idea of sustainable transformation at a time when sustainability science is crucial to the future development of the tourism industry. Here, we discuss background topics including sustainability, social-ecological systems, technology and innovation, resilience, and transitions, how each relate to each other, as well as h...
Article
This paper presents the content analysis of 123 tourism policies, from 72 countries, at the national and subnational level. Specifically, we examined the policies for evidence of growing awareness of and concern for the impacts of tourism development and activities on non-human animals. The analysis reveals that tourism policy has been evolving ove...
Article
This article aims to explore an emergent sub-field in the study of tourism: the relationship between plants and tourism, which has been neglected in the literature. We discuss plants as a life form and confront the animal–plant divide, implicitly permeating tourism studies, with recent findings in biology and arguments in contemporary ontological a...
Chapter
This chapter develops a framework for the future of ethics in tourism. Beyond a brief summary of the history and evolution of ethics in tourism, the discussion turns to an overview of social contract theory and codes of ethics in tourism, with a focus on the UNWTO Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (GCET) and the new Framework Convention on codes of...
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of Christian Becker’s (2012) model of sustainability ethics, and secondly, to indicate what sustainability ethics would look like in tourism, using this model. Becker's primary focus is recognition of the inherent ethical dimension in sustainability. What underlies all of the various issues, probl...
Article
The purpose of this paper was to to argue that although there are many ways of conceptualising the nature of the tourist experience, the clearest ontological platform from which to explain this nature is through the concept of pleasure. Pleasure as the utlimate end or supreme good (the summum bonum) has occupied the thoughts of philosophers for mil...
Article
Bourdieu’s theory of habitus was used to determine if a comprehensive identity exists amongst female fly anglers. Past research has emphasised a need to address ‘doing gender’ and ‘gender performativity’ in sport and recreation to understand ideology surrounding male superiority and the marginalisation of women. Fly fishing is a traditional male-do...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on three main components: the history of the use of ethics in tourism research; framing of the field, which includes the current state of the art/thinking and a clearly legible mapping of the field into main areas of study; and emerging issues and a future-focused agenda for the field, including such topics as justice, rights,...
Book
This book remains the most in-depth large-scale introductory text on ethics as applied to tourism, examining the deep theoretical aspects of how human nature applies to tourism. It explores theory from a number of different disciplines, provides an overview of work on moral reasoning and development, and weaves together theory with real-world touri...
Article
The aim of this paper was to identify and better understand factors and conditions related to fear in travel. A review of literature on concepts such as constraints, shock, panic, risk, anxiety, and worry provided the necessary content from which to both summarize the tourism literature on fear, and also formulate a Model of Travel Fear. This model...
Article
This article explored the symmetry of characteristics and practices that define meaning and identity of fly anglers using Bourdieu’s theory of habitus. Content analysis was used to analyze a systematic random sample of videos (N = 260) that anglers posted on Vimeo in relation to characteristics, fishing behavior, parallel actions, and content. Resu...
Article
Zoos serve as recreation facilities and tourist attractions, but their primary roles also include education, research and conservation. Conservation in particular has emerged as a vital component of zoos, with the aim of diversifying the genetic base of many species that have been rendered threatened or endangered. However, conservation is often co...
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The first decades of the twenty-first century are witnessing growing public interest in the ethical and sustainability dimensions of food production and consumption. Increasing numbers of consumers are buying meat that has been produced using ‘free-range’ rather than intensive, ‘factory-farm’ methods and for seafood harvested from sustainable fishe...
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Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a “fashionable” and “highly controversial scientific topic”. This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on clim...
Article
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This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of...
Article
Full-text available
Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a “fashionable” and “highly controversial scientific topic”. This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on clim...
Article
Full-text available
In pursuit of a more just international tourism: the concept of trading tourism rights Tanja Mihalic and David Fennell Abstract Research on sustainable tourism mainly focuses on incoming tourism, and destination perspectives and impacts, and less on the focus of this paper – outgoing tourism. In this context, direct and personal access to tourism...
Article
For millennia, mountain regions have been important centres for human livelihood. The economies and lifestyles of these areas have been built around traditional forms of resource use such as forestry, mining, agriculture, livestock grazing as well as the transport and trading of goods. However, more recent trends in economic globalization have cont...
Article
Carbon footprint is becoming a widely used measure of an organization's contribution to climate change. However, despite a growing number of international standards and guidelines, there is still no consistent and widely agreed-upon methodology for assessment. The current practice of carbon footprint reporting in many industries is not well known a...
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Millions of animals are used annually in the tourism industry as captives for display and entertainment, as porters and carriers, as quarry to be hunted and fished, as well as for purposes of competition and sport. This paper investigates the extent to which the welfare of animals is considered in tourism, both in theory and practice. The paper bro...
Article
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Although tourism researchers have recently started to examine moral issues tied to the use of animals in tourism, there is much work that needs to be done. It is particularly important to introduce animal ethics theories into the tourism lexicon because of the vast number of ways the tourism industry uses animals for commercial and personal benefit...
Article
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With this issue, we are introducing a series of papers on ‘Tourism and animal ethics’, a somewhat obscure though significant theme. The series will include discussion on animal ethics: rights, welfare, etc. David Fennell comes up with the inaugural contribution and takes up one of the five main theories that frame the debate on animal ethics. Reade...
Article
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Uses of animals in tourism range widely, including their consumption as food. This paper explores the use of animals as food in tourism, drawing on the work of ecofeminist theorists for insights into the issue. It begins by identifying some core tenets of ecofeminist philosophy. It then demonstrates its relevance to the tourism context—specifically...
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The aim of this paper is to discuss the topic of who, or what, is deserving of moral consideration in nature as this applies to the emerging discourse on tourism, animals and ethics. The paper focuses primarily on deep green or ecocentric ethics, and more specifically, on how this perspective differs from other theories of environmental ethics—espe...
Article
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Tourism, by its nature, emphasizes the value of one over the value of others. This axiom is supported by the fact that tourism creates innumerable negative costs that stem from the pursuit of primarily hedonistic ends. The response from the tourism community has been the development of several new forms of tourism to offset these costs. As one of t...
Article
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It is indeed ironic that despite the importance of pleasure as a central theme in both the practice and theory of travel, there is a critical absence of knowledge from which to theoretically and conceptually situate this concept in our field. Given this current state, the purpose of this paper is to undertake a general survey of literature on pleas...
Article
This study examines the values and environmental attitudes of three independent samples of ecotourists, including (i) Polish ecotourists, (ii) Canadian ecotourists visiting Costa Rica, and (iii) American ecotourists visiting Mexico. The purpose is to provide a base of cross-cultural data on contemporary measurement scales which have utility in allo...
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There are many practical problems that we must come to grips with in our daily lives. Often, we are presented with options or alternatives in reference to these problems. How we weigh and choose which course of action to pursue is of obvious significance. We may choose rationally, i.e. we may choose the option that is judged to be in our best inter...
Chapter
This chapter argues that ethics provides an alternative way in which to better understand an act upon tourism industry dilemmas (as an alternative to the over-reliance on the impacts literature). There is a rich foundation of ethics knowledge emerging in the tourism literature, and this foundation continues to expand at a modest rate. In an effort...
Book
Ecotourism continues to be embraced as the antithesis of mass tourism because of its promise of achieving sustainability through conservation mindedness, community development, education and learning, and the promotion of nature based activities that were sensitive to both ecological and social systems. The extent to which this promise has been rea...
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This opinion piece reviews the claim by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) that its Global Code of Ethics "is an important frame of reference for the responsible ... development of world tourism". Most of the prescriptions contained within the Code's 10 Articles and accompanying sections focus on human rights, freedoms and benefi...
Chapter
The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the precautionary principle, examine the fundamental concepts underlying the principle, and present an introductory discussion regarding its applicability to the tourism industry. Precaution is grounded in a cautious and conservative approach to human environmental interventions that in...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine wetland utilisation and protection through the lens of ecotourism. More specifically, we explore the conditions around the use of Bogota´’s wetlands and how such use has contributed to significant spatial fragmentation by wetland zone reduction mainly by illegal landfilling and institutional turmoil generated...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine wetland utilisation and protection through the lens of ecotourism. More specifically, we explore the conditions around the use of Bogotá’s wetlands and how such use has contributed to significant spatial fragmentation by wetland zone reduction mainly by illegal landfilling and institutional turmoil generated...
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Full-text available
This article examines the challenges that have emerged in tourism as a result of the new audit culture, and the effects this system is having on the creation of knowledge. A premium is now being placed on quantifying just about every type of output in our efforts to rank one agent or entity against another: people, programs, journals, disciplines,...
Article
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This article uses animal ethics theory to address the issue of whether zoos are a morally acceptable form of ecotourism. Arguments in favour of the zoo as ecotourism have justified this stance according to education and conservation factors. However, a survey of literature on zoos points to the fact that they are not as effective in the area of con...
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In the spring of 2010, approximately two months after the conclusion of the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (Winter Olympics) held in British Columbia, Canada, approximately 100 sled dogs were culled in what the media quickly dubbed a ‘massacre’. A sled dog tour company had overestimated the tourism draw and demand of the Winter Olympics a...
Article
Full-text available
In the spring of 2010, approximately two months after the conclusion of the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (Winter Olympics) held in British Columbia, Canada, approximately 100 sled dogs were culled in what the media quickly dubbed a ‘massacre’. A sled dog tour company had overestimated the tourism draw and demand of the Winter Olympics a...
Article
Although ecotourism is often theorised as a hard path and ecocentric, in the last decade such travel has softened to accommodate heightened demand in a growing number of regions, and the inclusion of other more consumptive types of activities. In light of these changes, we focus on the moral debate surrounding human–animal interactions in ecotouris...
Chapter
Adaptation is a foundational concept in the natural sciences. In the context of biological evolution it refers to the process of change through natural selection whereby those best adapted or most fit out compete others for resources or mates. This general idea has been adopted and variously applied in the social sciences in reference to the persis...
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This paper looks at the challenging enterprise of managing protected areas for sustainable tourism. It notes that during the past 25 years multistakeholder conflicts, complexity and uncertainty have emerged and persisted as important issues requiring managerial responses. These issues reflect substantial paradigmatic shifts in pursuing and understa...
Article
Altruism is commonly associated with volunteer tourism as a motivational force for participants and a key factor in their on-site experiences. In this paper we seek a better understanding of the term altruism, and how it applies to the volunteer tourism sector. By applying altruism models that include outcomes of helping defined as both instrumenta...
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The credibility of contemporary ecotourism is threatened by the global dominance of a model that minimally fulfils the three core criteria – nature-based attractions, learning opportunities, ecological and sociocultural sustainability – that characterise this sector. A more rigorous 'comprehensive' model is better capable of fulfilling ecotourism's...
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Reidenbach and Robin's Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES), has been tested and employed in a number of applications. This study sought to test the ability of the MES to be extended to examine the ethical standards of cruise ship tourists in Alaska (USA) and Cozumel (Mexico). Based upon the findings of this research, the utility of employing the ME...
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'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, t...
Article
This paper questions the legitimacy of ecological stewardship as an innate characteristic of traditional societies, a widely held belief in much academic work on ecotourism and manifest in ecotourism operations. Evidence from biologists, archaeologists and anthropologists is used to show that traditional societies found it difficult to manage resou...
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Individuals visiting natural areas, such as national parks, or engaging in certain outdoor recreation activities like birdwatching, are often assumed to be ecotourists and also concomitantly assumed to be highly specialised by virtue of their behaviour. In this study, tourists visiting the Churchill Wildlife Management Area in Canada to view polar...
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Co-management has gained prominence due to the sustained interest in participatory forms of natural resource management. While theoretical development posed an initial challenge, it has become an integral part of the co-management literature. This paper comprehensively explores co-management theory. It begins with an investigation of theory itself....
Book
With ethics fast becoming a mainstay in tourism studies and the tourism industry in general, this volume provides a timely and intensive look at the theory and practice of codes of ethics in tourism. While the book includes a broad overview of what has been done to date in tourism studies in the area of code development and implementation, it range...
Article
Focusing on an array of economic, social and ecological inconsistencies that continue to plague ecotourism in theory and practice, this third edition continues to examine the evolution of ecotourism in reference to other related forms of tourism, impacts, conservation, sustainability, education and interpretation, policy and governance and the ethi...
Book
Tourism Ethics applies moral concepts and issues to some of the most vexing tourism dilemmas of the day, through foundational research from many disciplines including biology, psychology, anthropology, geography and philosophy. Areas of emphasis include sex tourism, all-inclusives, ecotourism, justice, rights, deontology and teleology.
Article
Although cooperation in tourism has been studied for some time in regional development, alliance, and marketing contexts, missing is a focus on cooperative relationships which are not based solely on an economic agenda. In this study, the sociobiological theory of reciprocal altruism is explored to explain why cooperation should not take place in t...
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The precautionary principle is an emerging norm of international environmental policy affirmed in many treaties and laws. The principle, congruent to the ideal of sustainable development, is a controversial future-focused planning and regulatory mechanism which mandates that to protect against threats of serious and irreversible damage, precaution...
Article
Whalewatching has grown into a major tourist activity, yet there are many concerns about its negative impacts. This has stimulated the development of a large number of codes of conduct. This paper presents the results of a manifest content analysis of 58 such codes from around the world. The analysis revealed considerable variation among them, not...
Article
Building on the previous work of Budowski, Murphy and Butler, this paper develops a conceptual framework that examines tourism industry relationships from a human ecological perspective. In particular, predation, competition, neutrality and symbiosis are used to illustrate that tourism industry stakeholders (i.e., various types of tourism, operator...
Article
This book provides an overview of the extent of international ecotourism policy. A key objective of the book is to highlight the importance of balancing social, ecological, and economic factors in the development of policy for the ecotourism industry. Thus sustainability issues are addressed from a variety of approaches at a range of levels. The bo...
Article
In the present study, a sample of Polish ecotourists is compared to a sample of mainstream or conventional Polish tourists, with the purpose of examining differences between these groups on the basis of attractions and benefits sought. It replicates a study conducted by D. A. Fennell and B. J. A. Smale in 1992 on Canadian ecotourists. Contrary to t...
Article
This paper replicates a study by Fennell (1990) which found that a sample of ecotourists to Costa Rica was statistically different from the average Canadian tourist along a number of attraction and benefit dimensions. This 1990 study is compared against a sample of Canadian ecotourists who recently travelled to Costa Rica. The purpose of the compar...
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One of the most habitual practices in the sub-field of ecotourism, from both academic and industry perspectives, is the development of definitions. Although the reasons for such a proliferation of definitions is unknown, it appears as though the trend will continue. This research sought to better understand the concept of ecotourism through an exam...
Article
But to the extent that anglers act responsibly tominimise their impacts and billfish angling remains sustainable as a result of their efforts, the ecotourism label seems appropriate for billfish angling.
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This section has been specifically introduced to include findings of special significance and problem areas of subtle nuances in tourism research. Insightful contributions presenting the state-of-the-art preferably from the developing societies will be appreciated. Critical résumé on tourism projects and field researches will also be considered. Fo...
Article
This paper argues that the field of applied ethics, in association with its theoretical counterpart, must be used more extensively by tourism researchers and those working in the field in order to address many of the pressures and dilemmas brought about by the operations of the tourism industry. The presentation (i) explores a number of normative e...
Article
Selected ecotourism, adventure, fishing, cruiseline, and golf operators were studied in an effort to determine possible ethical differences among them as distinct groups. Through the implementation of a multidimensional ethics scale, the resulting data illustrate that ecotourism operators were in fact more ethical than their counterparts in the oth...
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Current research suggests that there may be positive local economic benefits associated with holding local sporting and other tourism-related events in communities. This study examined the economic impact of two municipal hockey tournaments, one urban and one rural, in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Based on the responses of three geographi...
Article
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the content of a number of codes of ethics∗ from the tourism industry. To accomplish this objective, the researchers analysed 414 statements from 40 codes of ethics based upon a theoretical framework. This framework was developed using ethical theory and locus of analysis (LOA) constructs. Six categories...
Article
As the ecotourism industry grows and matures, the need to address ethical conduct from an organizational perspective becomes increasingly more important for this sector to survive and prosper into the 21st century. The literature suggests that those organizations with ethical cultures tend to provide work environments that encourage employee person...
Article
Vacation farms represent an increasingly significant rural diversification option for chronically unstable agriculture-based economies such as Saskatchewan. Concurrently, ecotourism is a rapidly expanding form of tourism which could serve to enhance the recreation product of such rural enterprises. Accordingly, a self-administered questionnaire was...
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A self-administered questionnaire to vacation farm operators in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan revealed that the typical enterprise was established during the 1990s in order to supplement the income base, consisted of a 459-hectare site, offered 6.2 visitor bed spaces, and operated mainly in the summer. Major visitor activities included wild...
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This paper addresses the need to better understand tourist pressure in selected regions of the Shetland Islands, United Kingdom, using measures of space, time, perception, region, and core-periphery. Normally an economic theory, core-periphery was applied in the context of this study as a locational and mental construct in examining tourism group m...
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There has been little study of the effects of major developments on (he tourism industry of a region. This article examines the impacts of North Sea oil-related developments on a small but growing tourism industry in the Shetland Islands during the period from 1970 to the present. It notes that such development proved both beneficial to the tourism...
Article
The growth of special interest tourism, or ecotourism, brings with it several concerns associated with the protection of the natural areas and features to which these types of tourists are drawn. In this paper, the concept of ecotourism is examined first as a form of alternative tourism, then case study examples are described that exemplify the spe...
Article
This chapter deals with: the importance of stakeholder groups in ecotourism; ecotourism management actions; and ecotourism policy development, complexity and governance. It examines both the macro perspective of policy (i.e. the role that sustainable development and governance play in policy) and the micro perspective, which involves how ecotourism...
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This introductory chapter sets the context of ecotourism policy and planning by reviewing issues pertaining to: tourism and sustainability; the goals of tourism plans; and the levels of tourism planning.