David W. Evans

David W. Evans
Bucknell University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

73
Publications
13,578
Reads
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3,185
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - October 2016
Bucknell University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 1993 - August 1995
Yale-New Haven Hospital
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 1993 - August 1995
Yale University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is a global health problem affecting both normative and clinical populations. Theoretical models that examine mechanisms underlying suicide risk across heterogeneous samples are needed. The present study explored core characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a sub-population at high risk of suicide, as well as two dim...
Article
Full-text available
Edward Zigler transformed the science and humanity of the work with persons with intellectual disability. The developmental approach is Ed's great contribution to the field of intellectual disability as it both led to more conceptually compelling and methodologically rigorous science and provided an alternative to the Zeitgeist of segregation, defe...
Article
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Biomarker discovery has become a central topic in neurodevelopmental research. A validated biomarker could be any objective measure or test that has clinical utility for diagnostic, stratification, or predictive purposes, or that can be used to objectively measure therapeutic efficacy. Here we discuss the potential and challenges of converting test...
Article
The present study examined the link between poor self‐regulation (measured by the child behavior checklist dysregulated profile [DP]) and core autism symptoms, as well as with developmental level, in a sample of 107 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 19–46 months. We further examined the utility of DP in predicting individual differe...
Article
Recent work has demonstrated that variability in probands’ phenotypes, including physical features, cognitive abilities, social functioning, and other developmental domains, is influenced by parental traits. Here we examine the role of parental education as a factor contributing to the variability of intelligence quotient (IQ) of offspring with tri...
Article
Background: Healthy functioning relies on a variety of perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral abilities that are distributed throughout the normal population. Variation in these traits define the wide range of neurodevelopmental (NDD) and neuropsychiatric (NPD) disorders. Here, we introduce a new measure for assessing these traits in typ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Both self-regulation and insistence on sameness (IS) are related to anxiety, which is a common feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we aimed to characterise the IS-self-regulation-anxiety interrelationship by investigating the potential contribution made by self-regulation, assessed via effortful control (EC)...
Article
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22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genomic disorder reported to associate with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in 15–50% of cases; however, others suggest that individuals with 22q11.2DS present psychiatric or behavioral features associated with ASDs, but do not meet full criteria for ASD diagnoses. Such wide variability in findings may ar...
Article
Objective: Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a heterogeneous set of behaviors common across a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) that extend well into the general population. This study introduces 2 dimensional measurements of RRBs for use in typical and clinical populations from inf...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a heterogeneous set of behaviors common across a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) that extend well into the general population. This study introduces 2 dimensional measurements of RRBs for use in typical and clinical populations from in...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the...
Article
Schizophrenia represents the extreme end of a distribution of traits that extends well into the general population. Using a recently developed measure of psychotic-like traits in children, we examined the neural substrates of psychotic (and other psychiatric) symptoms using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight typically-develop...
Article
Full-text available
The present study had two aims: first to compare levels of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) across two groups of typically developing (TD) children, and two disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Down syndrome (DS), and second to explore the relationship between fear and repetitive behaviours in these four groups. Parents of 41 off...
Article
Full-text available
Background Restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) constitute a core symptom domain of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the nature of RRBs in the context of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) is not well understood. In particular, the relationship between RRBs in ASD probands and their parents remains largely unexplored. The current stu...
Article
Full-text available
Background While asymmetry in the fusiform gyrus (FFG) has been reported in functional and structural studies in typically developing controls (TDC), few studies have examined FFG asymmetry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects and those studies are limited by small sample sizes, and confounded by cognitive ability or handedness. No previous w...
Article
Full-text available
ASD and ADHD are regarded as distinct disorders in the current DSM-5. However, recent research and the RDoC initiative are recognizing considerable overlap in the clinical presentation of ASD, ADHD, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In spite of numerous neuroimaging findings in ASD and ADHD, the extent to which either of the above views are s...
Article
To characterize the clinical phenotype of the recurrent copy-number variation (CNV) at 1q21.1, we assessed the psychiatric and medical phenotypes of 1q21.1 deletion and duplication carriers ascertained through clinical genetic testing and family member cascade testing, with particular emphasis on dimensional assessment across multiple functional do...
Article
Full-text available
Most disorders caused by copy number variants (CNVs) display significant clinical variability, often referred to as incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Genetic and environmental sources of this variability are not well understood. To investigate the contributors to phenotypic variability in probands with CNVs involving the same genomic...
Article
Full-text available
Background Deletion of the recurrent ~600 kb BP4-BP5 chromosomal region 16p11.2 has been associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Method To clarify the phenotype of 16p11.2 deletion, we examined psychiatric and developmental presentation of predominantly clinically referred individuals, with a particular emphasis on broader aut...
Article
Full-text available
The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitati...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC) and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspe...
Article
Social cognition is an important aspect of social behavior in humans. Social cognitive deficits are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we examine the neural substrates of social cognition and face processing in a group of healthy young adults to examine the neural substrates of social cognition. Fifty-s...
Article
This study examined compulsive-like behaviors (CLBs) which are higher-order types of Repetitive Behaviors And Restricted Interests (RBRIs) in typically developing children in Turkey. Caregivers of 1,204 children between 8 and 72 months were interviewed with Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI) by trained interviewers in a cross-sectional survey. Fact...
Article
Neurodevelopmental disorders can be caused by many different genetic abnormalities that are individually rare but collectively common. Specific genetic causes, including certain copy number variants and single-gene mutations, are shared among disorders that are thought to be clinically distinct. This evidence of variability in the clinical manifest...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the links between human perceptions, cognitive biases and neural processing of symmetrical stimuli. While preferences for symmetry have largely been examined in the context of disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders, we examine various these phenomena in non-clinical subjects and suggest tha...
Data
OC-CIT Stimuli Presentation. In the congruent phase (A), subjects were asked to sort words relating to symmetry and order with happy faces and words associated with asymmetry and disorder with faces expressing disgust. In the incongruent phase (B), subjects were asked to sort asymmetry/disordered words with happy faces and symmetry/ordered words wi...
Data
ERP Oddball Task Stimuli. In a novel oddball task (A), a set of parallel lines was presented to the subjects on 80% of the trials (the “standard” stimulus), and a set of unparallel lines (the “deviant” stimulus; one line rotated 9°) was presented on 20% of the trials. Subjects subsequently experienced a standard oddball task (B), during which they...
Conference Paper
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), like intellectual disabilities, can be caused by many different highly penetrant genetic abnormalities, including mutations and genomic imbalances. These variants are individually rare but collectively common; even though no single genetic variant accounts for more than 1-1.5% of ASD, together they curre...
Conference Paper
Background: Until recently, the study of restricted, repetitive behavior (RRB) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been largely neglected relative to the research on the language and social deficits associated with ASD. This may be due in part to the high prevalence of repetitive behavior that presents in other, non-ASD neurodevelopmental disord...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Restricted, repetitive behavior (RRB) is a core feature in a wide variety of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Tourette syndrome (TS), and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), among many others. RRBs also vary as a function of developmental status, and children with Down syndrom...
Article
This study examines the link between children's repetitive, ritualistic, behavior and cortical brain activity. Twelve typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years were administered two visual P300, oddball tasks with a 32-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) system. One of the oddball tasks was specifically designed to reflect s...
Article
In humans and several nonhuman animals, repetitive behavior is associated with deficits on executive function tasks involving response inhibition. We tested for this relationship in nonhuman primates by correlating rates of normative behavior to performance on a reversal-learning task in which animals were required to inhibit a previously learned r...
Article
Full-text available
A new inventory assessing thought-action fusion (TAF) in children is presented. We explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and examine the associations between TAF, ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior (CLB) and anxiety. Three hundred thirteen children ages 7-14 (M = 10.16, SD = 1.92) representing six grades (grouped into three g...
Article
The relationship between self-perception and adolescent psychopathology was examined on nine domains of self-perception in a group of adolescent psychiatric inpatients and a comparison group of nonpatients. Inpatients rated themselves significantly lower in four domains, and correlations between symptom reports and domains of self-perception suppor...
Conference Paper
Background: In contrast to the widespread attention given to the social and communication deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little work has addressed the repetitive and ritualistic behaviors associated with autism. Less work has examined the adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behaviors in ASD. Objectives: Th...
Article
This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report questionna...
Article
Full-text available
The profiles and developmental trajectories of adaptive behavior were cross-sectionally examined in 80 children with Down syndrome ages 1 to 11.5 years using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Profile findings indicated a significant weakness in communication relative to daily living and socialization skills. Within communication itself, expres...
Article
Recent research has shown that the range of repetitive behaviour seen in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) extends beyond food-related behaviour. The presence and intensity of repetitive, rigid and routinized behaviour in children with PWS was compared with that seen in children with another neurodevelopmental condition in which repetiti...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) from developmental and evolutionary perspectives. It begins with a definition of obsessions and compulsions and a description of this diagnostic category. The chapter then examines several normal epochs of development that are characterized by obsessive-compulsive behaviors that resemble th...
Article
This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant difference...
Article
Full-text available
Mounting evidence concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders points to abnormal functioning of the orbitofrontal cortices. First, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) perform poorly on tasks that rely on response suppression/motor inhibition functions mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex relative to both normal and clinical controls. Se...
Article
This study examined the nature of repetitive, ritualistic, and compulsive-like behaviors in 50 typically developing children and 50 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), matched on mental age (MA; M = 59.72 months). Parents reported on their children's compulsive-like behaviors — including ritualistic habits — and perfectionistic behaviors, as well...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-one children were administered a structured interview that assessed their beliefs about magic, tricks and wishes. Children were also presented with demonstrations of magic tricks/illusions, and asked to offer explanations as to how they worked. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), a 19-item parent report measure that ass...
Article
We began this article with brief overview of the theoretical and methodological shortcomings that led to the decades-old myth of attentional deficit as central to mental retardation. We presented a reanalysis of the available data and suggested that no empirical evidence supports any relationship between attention deficits and mental retardation pe...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between visual organization, perceptual closure, and "compulsive-like" behaviors were examined in a sample of young children. Fifty-one preschool-aged children were administered a variety of measures assessing visual organization and perceptual closure, and embedded-figures performance. Parents reported on their children's compulsi...
Article
Full-text available
A study of two groups of female psychiatric inpatients, differing in level of ego development, explored domains of self-perception that best predicted global self-worth and symptom clusters that best predicted second-order factors of self perception. Findings revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in self-complexities, and more positive...
Article
A study of two groups of female psychiatric inpatients, differing in level of ego development, explored domains of self-perception that best predicted global self-worth and symptom clusters that best predicted second-order factors of self perception. Findings revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in self-complexities, and more positive...
Article
This study investigated developmental aspects of psychological defenses in relation to self-complexity, self-perception, and symptomatology through a comparison of two groups of adolescents characterized by defense maturity level (i.e., immature versus mature defenses). The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-78), the Self-Complexity Inventory (SCI),...
Article
This study examined the nature of repetitive, ritualistic, and compulsive-like behaviors in 50 typically developing children and 50 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), matched on mental age (MA; M = 59.72 months). Parents reported on their children's compulsive-like behaviors-including ritualistic habits-and perfectionistic behaviors, as well as t...
Article
Full-text available
In line with theme of this special issue, this article speaks to a topic in developmental psychology from a Wernerian perspective. We take a Wernerian, comparative, and orthogenetic approach in addressing rituals and other compulsive behaviors in a variety of contexts: Ritual as cultural practice, as a part of pathologic behavior, and as a normativ...
Article
Neuropsychological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) point to a fairly consistent pattern of deficits in response inhibition, visual memory, and visuoperceptual functioning. However, little is known about these areas of functioning with respect to child onset OCD because most studies to date have focused on adults. Data from adult OCD s...
Article
This study examined the relationship between ritualistic, compulsive-like behaviors and normative fears and phobias in 61 children ranging from 1 to 7 years of age. Parents reported on their children's ritualistic habits, and perfectionistic behaviors that reflect what we have previously called compulsive-like behaviors. Parents also reported on th...
Article
This study focuses on early parental preoccupations and behaviors (EPPB) surrounding the birth of a new family member. An interview instrument was developed to assess EPPB at eight months prepartum and two weeks and three months postpartum. Measures with adequate psychometric and conceptual properties were used to assess the overall level of parent...
Article
Young children engage in a significant amount of ritualistic, repetitive, and compulsive-like activity that appears to be part of their normal behavioral repertoire. Empirically, little is known about the onset, prevalence, and developmental trajectory of these phenomena. A parent-report questionnaire, the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), was de...
Article
Young children engage in a significant amount of rutualitic, repetitive, and compulsive-like activity that appears to be part of their Normal behavioral repertoire. Empirically, little is known about the onset, prevalence, and developmental trajectory of these phenomena. A parent-report questionnaire, the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), was dev...
Article
This study compared the self-perceptions of three groups of adolescents: one group with conduct disorder, a second group comorbid with both mood and conduct disorder, and a third group of normal controls. Results indicated that the three groups differed on several domains of self-perception, with each group reporting perceived strengths and weaknes...
Article
Effects of MA and CA on everyday leisure-time behaviors of children with mild and moderate mental retardation were examined by comparing 40 children with mental retardation to groups of 40 MA- and 40 CA-matched children without mental retardation on an adult-reported scale. Child's overall score, highest single behavior performed by the child, and...
Article
Self-complexity refers to the degree to which various aspects of self-concept are differentiated from each other. A new measure of self-complexity (the SCI) was administered to 182 adolescents. The SCI correlated positively with chronological age and global self-worth and was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Regressio...
Article
Emotional reactions were examined cross-sectionally over the 1- to 6-year period in mothers of children with Down syndrome (N = 25) and with predominantly motor impairments (N = 20). Mothers rated their degree of concern about 16 early milestones and four events, and were also interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Although milesto...
Article
The content and structure of teacher input language to children with severe handicaps during early stages of language development were examined. Teacher-child dyads (N = 21) were videotaped during interactions in a semi-structured play setting. Each child was ranked as to level of communicative abilities on a scale of early communicative behaviors....

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