David A. Dzombak

David A. Dzombak
Carnegie Mellon University | CMU · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

281
Publications
59,692
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11,739
Citations
Introduction
David Dzombak is the Hamerschlag University Professor and Head of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carnegie Mellon. The emphasis of his research and teaching is on water quality engineering, water resource sustainability, and energy-environment issues.
Additional affiliations
January 1989 - present
Carnegie Mellon University
Position
  • Hamerschlage University Professor and Department Head

Publications

Publications (281)
Article
Materials production is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and as consumption of commodities and resources continues to increase, so does the environmental footprint of extraction per unit of material. Primary production of metals has been progressing with steadily declining ore grades, resulting in higher energy requireme...
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Drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are affected by climate change and this work aimed to assess the effect of changing ambient air temperature on the water temperature and various water quality parameters in DWDS. A water temperature estimation model was identified and evaluated at seven specific locations in the U.S. and water quality para...
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There has been significant advancement in understanding of element cycles over the past 50 years, and the contributions of the three editions of Aquatic Chemistry by Stumm and Morgan on the critical role of reactions in the aqueous phase on the global cycles of elements have been substantial. The primary focus of investigation of biogeochemical ele...
Article
An integrated technique combining global climate model (GCM) simulation results and a statistical time series forecasting model (the autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA model) was developed to bring together the climate change signal from GCMs to city-level historical observations as an approach to obtain location-specific temperature an...
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Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of valuable metals with growing demand and broad applications. Mineral ores, the traditional sources of REE, require significant capital investment and their refinement has been a source of environmental contamination. Industrial fluids and natural REE-bearing liquids are potential alternative sources for these...
Article
The 1972 paper by Professor Jack McKee of the California Institute of Technology, consulting engineer Finley Laverty and Raymond Hertzel of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board‐Los Angeles (McKee et al., 1972) was an early, important contribution to the understanding of groundwater contamination with organic liquids and to the integr...
Article
A data-driven approach for obtaining near-term (2 to 20 years) regional temperature and precipitation projections utilizing local historical observations was established in this study to facilitate civil and environmental engineering applications. Given the unique characteristics of temporal correlation and skewness exhibited in individual time ser...
Article
An analysis of the copper life cycle in the U.S. was performed to investigate the circularity of copper from 1970 to 2015. A stocks and flows model for copper was developed for the major life cycle phases by collecting extensive primary data from government and private sector sources, via available data and surveys and interviews with individuals w...
Article
Kerim Dickson, Landon Marston and David Dzombak provide an ‘Editorial Perspective’ on the importance of understanding interbasin water transfers in managing water resources.
Article
Examination of water supply risk is important to identify areas of potential insecurity and prioritize allocation of resources. This work builds on and advances a previous U.S. water supply risk analysis developed at county-scale resolution by Roy et al. (2012), which did not account for water flow between counties and identified some counties on m...
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Assessments of availability and sustainability of metals necessary for economic development into the future are important for planning by producers, consumers, and governments. This work assessed the U.S. copper life cycle and examined six future scenarios by which to assess the circular economy and sustainability of copper to 2030. Regression anal...
Article
Conventional ion exchange resins are widely utilized to remove metals from aqueous solutions, but their limited selectivity precludes dilute ion extraction. This research investigated the adsorption performance of ligand-functionalized resins towards rare earth elements (REE). Functionalized resin particles were synthesized by grafting different li...
Article
Time series of historical annual average temperature, total precipitation, and extreme weather indices were constructed and analyzed for 103 (for temperature indices) and 115 (for precipitation indices) U.S. cities with climate records starting earlier than 1900. Mean rate of change and related 95% confidence bounds were calculated for each city us...
Article
Interbasin transfers (IBTs) are manmade transfers of water that cross basin boundaries. In an analysis of 2016 data, this work identified 2,161 reaches crossing United States (U.S.) Geological Survey hydrologic unit code 6 boundaries in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to characterize and classify IBTs, and examine the development drivers...
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Mined materials have constantly growing environmental footprints, as population and economic growth continue to increase demand, while ore grades continue to decline. Effective assessment of mineral sustainability, therefore, need to consider management of the entire life cycle of a material, from extraction through end of life and recycling to opt...
Article
Application of sustainability principles to mining is inherently challenging, as mining is the act of removing and consuming a limited resource. However, consideration of sustainability – meeting present needs without compromising needs of future generations – is increasingly being incorporated into mine development and operation as demand for mine...
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Rare earth elements (REE) are essential components of equipment used for renewable energy, green technologies, and more traditional sectors such as chemical catalysis and metallurgy. Interest has been growing in alternative REE sources to supplement current ore sources and related refining, which have historically supplied the bulk of REE oxides. T...
Article
Predictive models for urban water demand can help identify the set of factors that must be satisfied in order to meet future targets for water demand. Some of the explanatory variables used in such models, such as service area population and changing temperature and rainfall rates, are outside the immediate control of water planners and managers. O...
Article
Interbasin transfers (IBTs) are man-made transfers of water that cross basin boundaries. These transfers are used to distribute water resources according to supply and demand. The objectives of this work were to quantify the number of IBTs that exist in the United States (U.S.) and to examine the distribution of IBTs and potential causes associated...
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With a service area population exceeding four million people and with close to 90 % of the water supply being imported from sources outside the city, the Los Angeles water system is subject to multiple stressors, including climate change and population growth. The influence of various factors on water demand in Los Angeles was evaluated through dev...
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The rare earth elements (REE) are elements that drive the development of new technologies in many sectors, including green energy. However, the supply chain of the REE is subject to a complex set of technical, environmental, and geopolitical constraints. Some of these challenges may be circumvented if the REE are recovered from naturally abundant a...
Article
Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) is one of the most common mineral sources of arsenic in rocks, sediments, and ores. The dissolution of arsenopyrite releases arsenic, which has potential implications for human and environmental health. With carbon dioxide storage in saline, sedimentary geologic formations being an important component of mitigation strategies f...
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Among the various risks associated with CO2 storage in deep geologic formations, wells are important potential pathways for fluid leaks and groundwater contamination. Injection of CO2 will perturb the storage reservoir and any wells that penetrate the CO2 or pressure footprints are potential pathways for leakage of CO2 and/or reservoir brine. Well...
Article
Oxidative dissolution experiments were carried out on pyrite from multiple petrogenetic environments (hydrothermal, sedimentary fossil replacement, and coal-related nodules) to investigate possible variations in the iron isotopic composition of pyrite and the products of pyrite dissolution. The experimental materials were leached under carefully co...
Chapter
Carbon capture and geologic storage is a strategy to reduce CO2 emissions from large point sources and mitigate climate change. The key to successful CO2 storage is to assure a very high degree of retention of the injected CO2 within the target CO2-storage aquifer, so that little to no potential remains for injected CO2 to return to the atmosphere....
Article
Alkali and alkaline metal chlorides have been considered as inert electrolyte species with respect to sulfide mineral dissolution in the presence of oxidizing agents such as O2 and Fe3+. Under anoxic conditions in the laboratory or the field, as exist in most saline subsurface environments, the potential reactivity of alkali and alkaline metal chlo...
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Tertiary treatment is needed to render secondary-treated municipal wastewater usable in power plant cooling systems. Various tertiary treatment options exist to provide different levels of water quality. This paper integrates life cycle inventory emissions from a life cycle assessment approach with direct costs to determine the optimal treatment al...
Article
The City of Los Angeles, with a population reaching 4 million people in 2013, imports nearly 90% of its water from sources outside the city. However, climate change, population growth, competing demands, water quality concerns, and environmental restoration projects all have a large impact on Los Angeles' dependency on future water importation. In...
Article
Complex, hypersaline brines - including those co-produced with oil and gas, rejected from desalination technologies, or used as working fluids for geothermal electricity generation - could contain critical materials such as the rare earth elements (REE) in valuable concentrations. Accurate quantitation of these analytes in complex, aqueous matrices...
Article
The total water withdrawal for U.S. industrial sectors decreased by ∼20 trillion gallons for 2005–2010, representing a reduction of 14% compared to the 2005 water withdrawal. The contributions of five governing factors—population, GDP per capita, water use intensity, production structure, and consumption pattern—to changes in total water withdrawal...
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Aluminum oxide nanofibers having different fiber diameters were characterized to determine if and how the fiber diameter affects their colloidal behavior and solubility in water. The measurements provide initial data on the behavior of alumina nanofibers in aqueous systems. Three different aluminum oxide materials with average fiber diameters rangi...
Article
In this chapter we examine the dimensions of sustainability for urban water supply systems, beginning with a look at the state of current water supply systems in the developed world and drivers for sustainability in water infrastructure. We propose a new paradigm for urban water supply systems, one that integrates engineered and natural infrastruct...
Article
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Tolyltriazole (TTA) has been identified as an effective copper corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems using treated municipal effluent as makeup water. Significant removal of TTA from solution has been reported in previous studies in the presence of free chlorine and copper metal. Hence, for effective dosing of TTA in the cooling systems, it is imp...
Article
Treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is recognized as a viable alternative cooling water source for power generation. One of the key challenges for the successful use of the effluent from wastewater treatment facilities for cooling is the potential for significant condenser fouling when this water is concentrated as much as 46 times in recirculating...
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Background The oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals, such as arsenopyrite (FeAsS), is of critical importance in many geochemical systems. A comprehensive understanding of their dissolution rates entails careful preparation of the mineral surface. Measurements of dissolution rates of arsenic from arsenopyrite are dependent on the size and degre...
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Iron oxides recovered from abandoned coal mine drainage (AMD) sites (Lowber, Scrubgrass, and Horner) as a soil amendment were investigated in this laboratory study for their effectiveness in the stabilization of cadmium, copper, and zinc in two metal-contaminated soils. The adsorption experimental results demonstrated that all three AMD iron oxides...
Article
Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and...
Article
A simplified mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the effect of CO2 stripping on pH of recirculating cooling water in power plant cooling systems. Experimental data from three pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater as makeup water were used to determine the CO2 mass transfer coefficients in the gas phase kg and a...
Article
Systematically varying properties and reactivities have led to focused research of the environmental forensics capabilities of the rare earth elements (REE). Increasing anthropogenic inputs to natural systems may permanently alter the natural signatures of REEs, motivating characterization of natural REE variability. We compiled and analyzed report...
Article
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that U.S. water withdrawals have been steady since 1980, but the population and economy have grown since then. This implies that other factors have contributed to offsetting decreases in water withdrawals. Using water withdrawals data from USGS and economic data from Bureau of Economic Analysis (BE...
Article
Adequate biocide addition is the key to control biological growth-related problems in recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The use of monochloramine (MCA) as the primary biocide is as effective as the use of free-chlorine in cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) as the sole makeup water source....
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Life cycle impacts have been evaluated to compare and assess six tertiary treatment alternatives for secondary treated municipal wastewater for reuse in thermo-electric power plant cooling systems. Impacts during construction and operation of tertiary treatment processes using databases and characterization tools embedded in the process-based life...
Article
The implementation of acid gas cosequestration requires investigation of the potential for acid gas leakage along existing wellbores at sequestration sites. In this study, the interaction between pozzolan-amended wellbore cement (35 vol % pozzolan/65 vol % cement, hereafter referred to as 35:65 sample) and acid gas (e.g., a mixture of CO2 and H2S)...
Conference Paper
Thermoelectric power plants withdraw and consume large volumes of freshwater. In parts of the country where freshwater resources are scarce, this demand can be problematic. One option for conserving freshwater is to utilize degraded water sources as a replacement cooling medium for thermoelectric power plants. However, utilizing degraded water in c...
Article
A mathematical model was developed to simulate ammonia stripping in wet recirculating cooling systems. The model can be used to predict ammonia concentration in cooling systems using makeup water containing ammonia, such as secondary treated municipal wastewater (MWW). The model revealed that ammonia stripping in a cooling system is a function of m...
Article
Mineral dissolution is a critical phenomenon in many geochemical systems, including those of geologic CO2 storage. It affects the mobilization, fate and transport of toxic metals in subsurface waters. A small-scale plug-flow system was designed and demonstrated for use in determining dissolution rates and simulating mineral-water interactions under...
Article
Full-text available
Life cycle costs (LCC) calculated using standard databases and first-stage cost estimation methods were used to compare selected tertiary treatment processes used to treat secondary treated municipal wastewater (MWW) for reuse in thermoelectric power plant cooling systems. Use of MWW increases challenges such as scaling, bio-fouling and corrosion....
Article
This study uses a process lifecycle inventory (LCI) to compare the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations using different sources for CO2 and to non-CO2 EOR methods. All EOR techniques were compared to the base case of natural-source CO2-EOR, which had net emissions of 0.52 +/- 0.03 metric tons of CO2-e p...
Article
The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on he...
Conference Paper
At Carnegie Mellon University, collaborators in engineering, English, and design are piloting a novel method for integrating writing instruction, assessment, and feedback in the context of a junior-level Civil and Environmental Engineering course. Specifically, we developed a series of technical communication modules, which couple short instruction...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an approach to technical communication pedagogy that considers the student's learning environment as a system consisting of multiple learning opportunities - including both digital and human resources. In this system, in-class instructions, short video descriptions, a writing center, and relevant exercises function as scaffolded...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth i...