David J. A. Dozois

David J. A. Dozois
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

203
Publications
95,160
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Introduction
David J. A Dozois is a Full Professor of Psychology and Director of the Clinical Psychology Graduate Program at the University of Western Ontario. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), the Canadian Association of Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies, the CPA Section on Clinical Psychology, the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies and the Academy of Cognitive Therapy. He is also a former Beck Institute Scholar at the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. Dr. Dozois’ research focuses on cognitive vulnerability to depression and cognitive-behavioral theory/therapy.
Additional affiliations
July 1999 - present
The University of Western Ontario
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (203)
Article
Full-text available
The current daily diary study examined the moderating impact of attachment style on the association between excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) behavior and trust in romantic dyads. A sample of 110 heterosexual couples completed measures of attachment, ERS, and relationship trust. In line with prior research, an anxious attachment style was associa...
Article
The current study presents the psychometric investigation of the Georgian version of the Cognitive Distortion Scale (G-CDS) (Covin et al., 2011). The Cognitive Distortion Scale measures the 10 cognitive distortions in interpersonal and achievement domains. Altogether 941 individuals, across seven samples (37 clinical participants amongst them) part...
Article
Background : Mood Induction Procedures (MIPs) are used widely in research on cognitive vulnerability to depression. Although empirical evidence supports certain MIPs as effective, little research has evaluated whether MIP-induced sad moods are sufficiently persistent. This study aimed to determine (1) how long an MIP-induced mood lasts according to...
Article
Psychologists have long known that people with depression often have unhelpful, negative patterns of thinking, known as cognitive distortions. Bathina et al. now show that these thought patterns can be detected in the everyday language of social media and that individuals who report a diagnosis of depression express more cognitive distortions.
Chapter
Relationship difficulties are an associated feature of depression that often exacerbate symptomatology over time. In this chapter, the dyadic partner-schema model (Wilde & Dozois, 2019) of relationship distress and depression is reviewed. This model integrates research on cognitive and interpersonal contributors to depression and proposes a pathway...
Chapter
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and its short form were designed to assess the constructs of depression, anxiety, and stress while maximizing discrimination among them. The DASS is now used widely in clinical and research settings with diverse populations. The widespread use of the DASS, in combination with research suggesting strong ps...
Article
Major depressive disorder and dysthymia (or persistent depressive disorder) are debilitating disorders that are common, chronic, and often comorbid with other mental disorders and health problems. As a result, the depressive disorders are associated with significant personal, economic, and social cost. Depression is characterized, and in many cases...
Article
Major depressive disorder and dysthymia (or persistent depressive disorder) are debilitating disorders that are common, chronic, and often comorbid with other mental disorders and health problems. As a result, the depressive disorders are associated with significant personal, economic, and social cost. Depression is characterized, and in many cases...
Article
Full-text available
Self-referential processing (i.e., self-schemas that guide processing of self-descriptive information) emerges early in youth, with deeper encoding of negative self-descriptors and/or shallower encoding of positive self-descriptors causally linked to depression. However, the relationship between depressogenic self-schemas and brain structure is unc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: According to cognitive theories of depression, more negative and less positive self-schemas are thought to play a causal role in the disorder. Existing evidence speaks to the neural substrates of self-referential processes in both healthy and depressed individuals, but little is known about how the brain relates to self-referential pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
The conceptualization and empirical knowledge base related to major depression has increased dramatically in recent years. We now have well-developed and validated models of depression from a range of theoretical perspectives. These models have significantly enhanced the development of effective treatments and preventative interventions. Although v...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale. Methods We obtained individual p...
Article
Background: Patient outcome expectancy - the belief that treatment will lead to an improvement in symptoms – is linked to favourable therapeutic outcomes in major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study extends this literature by investigating the temporal dynamics of expectancy, and by exploring whether expectancy during treatment is linked t...
Article
Full-text available
Difficulties in romantic relationships are a prominent part of the disorder for many individuals with depression. Researchers have called for an integration of interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral theories to better understand the role of relational difficulties in depression. In this article, a novel theoretical framework (the dyadic partner-sch...
Article
Background Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for adult depression, its efficacy and efficiency may be enhanced by better understanding its mechanism(s) of action. According to the theoretical model of CBT, symptom improvement occurs via reductions in maladaptive cognition. However, previous research has no...
Book
Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives exemplifies its subtitle by cohesively presenting the numerous individual perspectives of its expert contributors. It presents the differing psychological perspectives by discussing various relevant paradigms with emphasis on the conceptual approaches and therapeutic interventions that have garnered the most empiri...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is associated with a host of interpersonal difficulties, particularly within intimate relationships. Although a significant body of literature has supported the presence of a highly consolidated negative self-representation or self-schema, no studies have examined whether depression is also associated with a highly organized negative “pa...
Article
Over the past couple of decades, there has been an increasing focus on positive psychology in both the popular media and the scientific literature. Prior to this time, the predominant focus has been on what is aberrant or deficient, and how to ameliorate problems or dysfunction (i.e., a psychopathology orientation). Indeed, my own research has focu...
Article
Full-text available
Negative self-schemas have been implicated in both paranoia and depression. There is a lack of research on the structural characteristics of self-schemas, even though these characteristics might be stable risk factors. The present study explored organization of positive and negative self-schemas in currently non-depressed individuals with persisten...
Article
Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and...
Article
Full-text available
The Ruminative Thought Scale (RTS) was developed to measure the ruminative thinking style, presumably common to various psychopathological disorders. However, prior factor-analytic research was inconclusive regarding unidimensionality versus multidimensionality of the RTS. The present study was conducted on a large, heterogeneous Serbian sample (N...
Article
In North America, Asians reliably report higher levels of stigma toward people with depression than do Europeans. Possible methods of reducing this discrepancy have rarely been explored. Asian undergraduate students (n = 132) were presented with one of four antistigma videos with two actresses: one portraying a student with depression and the other...
Chapter
Despite advances in the research and dissemination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), evidence-based cognitive behavioral assessment remains relatively neglected in both research and practice. We discuss empirically supported assessment in the context of CBT and demonstrate how assessment can be effectively used to enhance outcomes across all p...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatol...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive theories have, for years, postulated the causal role of attentional biases in depression and low self-esteem. However, this assumption has been based predominantly on correlational findings. With the advent of attentional bias modification techniques (Mathews & MacLeod, 2002), it became possible to modify attentional bias experimentally....
Article
Public stigma discourages people with depression from seeking help. Attribution theory predicts that psychological causal explanations for depression increase public stigma by emphasising personal responsibility for the condition. Schema theory may, however, present a less stigmatizing psychological etiology by emphasising childhood experiences. Un...
Article
Stigma is an important barrier to recovery from depression. Individuals of Asian origin show greater levels of depression stigma compared with individuals of European origin. This study examined the mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and depression stigma in a North American context. A sample of university students, including 199 Canad...
Chapter
This entry provides a brief overview of the conceptual, empirical, and clinical components of the cognitive therapies, collectively referred to as the cognitive behavioral therapies. Particular emphasis is placed on the more prominent cognitive restructuring therapies. Next, an overview of other specific cognitive therapies is provided, followed by...
Article
Empirical research has increasingly focused on interpersonal variables associated with the development and maintenance of depression. This article outlines some key interpersonal risk factors for depression, including anxious attachment, sociotropy, excessive reassurance seeking, interpersonal stress generation, reduced social support, social skill...
Article
Full-text available
Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children's cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels...
Article
Full-text available
Background The aim of the two research studies presented in this article was to test the reliability and validity of the Polish version of the Cognitive Distortions Scale (CDS). The relation of the CDS to psychological measures of well-being and other theoretically relevant variables was also explored. Participants and procedure Two correlation...
Article
Full-text available
The psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Depression Change Expectancy Scale (DCES), a modification of an expectancy scale originally developed for patients with anxiety disorders, were examined in two studies. In Study 1, the 20-item scale was administered along with a battery of questionnaires to a sample of 416 dysphoric undergr...
Article
Randomized clinical trials suggest that cognitive therapy (CT) is comparable to antidepressant medication for the acute treatment of depression. Compelling data also indicate that CT has an added prophylactic benefit relative to pharmacotherapy (PT). The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive change in CT for depression. Participants (N = 4...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Evidence has converged to suggest that cognitive processing and content covary with depression severity, whereas indices of cognitive structure exhibit greater stability and promise as markers of vulnerability for depression. The objective of the current study was to investigate the temporal dynamics and causal role of cognitive structu...
Article
Depression is a highly debilitating and recurrent mental health condition. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of cognitive change in the treatment of depression are important to optimize psychotherapy outcome and to prevent relapse and recurrence. The articles in this special issue examine cognitive change in cognitive behavioral therapy by incor...
Article
Full-text available
In 2011, the Board of Directors of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) launched the Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice of Psychological Treatments to support and guide practice as well as to inform stakeholders. This article describes the work of this task force, outlining its raison d'etre, providing a comprehensive definition of evide...
Article
Although cognitive−behavioural therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective treatments for childhood anxiety disorders, the extent to which these interventions comprise usual care is unclear. This study evaluated the management of childhood anxiety in Ontario within 56 publicly funded community- and hospital-based...
Article
Two studies examined the associations among attachment styles, excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) and negative feedback seeking (NFS) in depression. In Study 1 (n = 303), undergraduate students completed measures assessing attachment style, depressive symptoms, and ERS following either an imaginary interpersonal (friend and partner) or achievement...
Article
This study explored core beliefs associated with excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) in depression. Undergraduate students (n = 303) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, ERS, and depression, along with a subsequent measure of depressive symptoms 6 weeks later. Anxious attachment, avoidant attachment, and an abandonmen...
Article
While diathesis-stress models of cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) in childhood have been tested, few studies have included both parent- and child-reported negative life events, despite the fact that they provide unique information on events that may be relevant to depression risk in boys and girls. It was hypothesized that different type...
Article
In June 2011, the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) Board of Directors launched a task force on the evidence-based practice of psychological treatments. The purpose of this task force was to operationalize what constitutes evidence-based practice in psychological treatment, to make recommendations about how psychologists can best integrate e...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and psychopathology is thought to be mediated by the use of maladaptive compensatory coping and deficits in adaptive coping. One form of coping that might be affected by EMSs is an individual's style of humor, which can be adaptive or maladaptive. This study examined the relationships among...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) has been used more than any other self-report questionnaire in research on depression in cardiovascular disease. However, no studies have examined whether BDI scores may be influenced by somatic symptoms common after myocardial infarction (MI) that may overlap with symptoms of depression. The objectiv...
Article
Full-text available
To systematically summarize the randomized trial evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in patients with depression in receipt of disability benefits in comparison to those not receiving disability benefits. All relevant RCTs from a database of randomized controlled and comparative studies examining the...
Data
Effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on depression within patients not receiving disability benefits in studies comparing CBT plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone. (TIF)
Data
Effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on depression within patients not receiving disability benefits in studies comparing CBT versus TAU/standard care. (TIF)
Data
Effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in patients not receiving disability benefits in studies including patients receiving disability benefits versus those that did not. (TIF)
Technical Report
Full-text available
In March, 2011, the CPA Board of Directors launched a Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice of Psychological Treatments to support and guide practice as well as to inform stakeholders. Psychological health and disorders are clearly a priority for many of Canada’s stakeholder groups (e.g., Mental Health Commission of Canada, Treasury Board, Public H...
Article
In this chapter the authors provide a brief review of some of the major historical forces that led to the development of the cognitive-behavioral therapies. The authors define the common characteristics among this increasingly diverse set of interventions, and in doing so also attempt to differentiate the cognitive-behavioral therapies from related...
Article
Full-text available
This article critically evaluates S. Freud's (1917) Mourning and Melancholia and challenges both the celebratory and reactionary views that treat this essay as an ahistorical and decontextualized "foundation-stone" of depression. Although many biographies have been written on Freud, the possible influences on his thinking in the area grief and dep...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Many parents of preschool-age children have concerns about how to discipline their child but few receive help. We examined the effects of a brief treatment along with usual care, compared with receiving usual care alone. Patients. Parents (N = 178) with concerns about their 2- to 5-year olds' discipline were recruited when they visited...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its strong relation to depression and theorized development across childhood and adolescence, cognitive schema organization has not been explored in early adolescence, a sensitive developmental period for first depression onset. Schema organization is theorized to derive from childhood cognitive internalizations of caregiving relationships,...
Chapter
The inclusion of worry as the central feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has resulted in an explosion of treatment packages based on well-supported theoretical models. Although many of these models fall under the rubric of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), they each focus on distinct cognitive components. The current chapter provides a c...
Chapter
This chapter describes the theory, practice, and empirical status of cognitive therapy. After highlighting the main conceptual axioms of the cognitive model and its treatment techniques, the role of mindfulness- and acceptance-based strategies are discussed. Although emphasized less than direct cognitive change strategies, some notions of acceptanc...
Article
Full-text available
Demonstrations of deficient emotional awareness (EA) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) measured by alexithymia were extended to trait metamood, difficulties in emotion regulation, and trait mindfulness in 55 women with PTSD related to history of interpersonal/familial maltreatment. Perceived causes of interference of emotional expression were...
Article
The relationships between cognitive products (e.g., self-perception) and cognitive structure (or organization) in clinically depressed adolescents and nonpsychiatric controls (average age = 14.68) were examined. Adolescents with major depressive disorder showed significantly higher scores than did controls on the Young Schema Questionnaire domains...
Article
Despite the extensive use of the Emotional Stroop task in depression, only qualitative reviews have been produced to date, and these reviews conclude that Stroop performance in depression is equivocal. The present meta-analysis addressed the need to summarize the data quantitatively. A thorough search of the literature was conducted and 47 publishe...
Article
Full-text available
Women have a higher prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and report more severe depressive symptoms than men. Several studies have suggested that gender differences in depression may occur because women report higher levels of somatic symptoms than men. Those studies, however, have not controlled or matched for non-somatic symptoms. The ob...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive models of child psychopathology rarely consider positive schemas in models of risk. This study presents the new Positive Schema Questionnaire (PSQ) for youth, evaluating relations of positive schema themes to depression, anxiety, and resilience. Adolescent boys (n = 84) and girls (n = 88), aged 9–14 (M = 11.44), completed the PSQ, and mea...
Article
Full-text available
Symptoms of anhedonia, or deficits in the ability to experience positive affect, are increasingly recognized as an outcome of traumatic stress including in individuals with PTSD. However, little research has investigated negative affective responses to what would normally be considered pleasant events (e.g., receiving a compliment or gift, physical...