David Crews

David Crews
University of Texas at Austin | UT · Department of Integrative Biology

PhD

About

535
Publications
100,380
Reads
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22,106
Citations
Citations since 2016
30 Research Items
4765 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
January 1982 - present
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Ashbell Smith Professor
June 1975 - December 1981
Harvard University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 1969 - May 1973
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Institute of Animal Behavior, graduate student

Publications

Publications (535)
Article
Sugar cane extract (SCE) is the end product of glucose, fructose, and sucrose elimination in molasses. SCE has various biological effects, such as anti‐inflammation and antioxidation, and it is commonly found in animal feed. The present research is aimed at investigating the reproductive endocrine influence of SCE in male Japanese quails (Coturnix...
Article
Full-text available
All individuals are directly exposed to extant environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and indirectly exposed through transgenerational inheritance from our ancestors. Although direct and ancestral exposures can each lead to deficits in behaviors, their interactions are not known. Here we focused on social behaviors based on evidence o...
Article
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At the time of my retirement there were two topics that I considered unfinished business. The first is the Evolution of Sex Differences and the second, the she‐male controversy in the Canadian red‐sided snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). These questions are developed in this perspective.
Article
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Exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) perturb hormonal systems. EDCs are particularly problematic when exposure happens in the fetus and infant due to the high sensitivity of developing organisms to hormone actions. Previous work has shown that prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure disrupts hypothalamic development, reproduc...
Article
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Is the brain bipotential or is sex-typical behavior determined during development? Thirty years of research in whiptail lizards transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience to show the brain is indeed bipotential, producing behaviors along a spectrum of male-typical and female-typical behavior via a parliamentary system of neural networks and n...
Article
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All species, including humans, are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previous experiments have shown behavioral deficits caused by EDCs that have implications for social competence and sexual selection. The neuromolecular mechanisms for these behavioral changes induced by EDCs have not been thoroughly explored. Here, we tested the h...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is ubiquitous in all species, including humans. Previous studies have shown behavioral deficits caused by EDCs that have implications for social competence and sexual selection. The neuromolecular mechanisms for these behavioral changes induced by EDCs have not been thoroughly explored. He...
Article
Environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) disrupt hormone-dependent biological processes. We examined how prenatal exposure to EDCs act in a sex-specific manner to disrupt social and olfactory behaviors in adulthood, and underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Pregnant rat dams were injected daily from embryonic day 8-18 with 1 mg/kg Arocl...
Article
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Reproductive failure associated with heat stress is a well-known phenomenon in poultry. High temperatures also induce various metabolic disturbances in many animals. Since the liver plays a central role in metabolism, the present study aimed to clarify the relationship between liver and reproduction in Japanese quails exposed to high temperatures....
Article
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Endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures to the fetus have long-lasting effects on health and disease in adulthood. Such EDC exposure to the F1 fetuses also reaches the germ cells that become the F2 generation. Previously, we demonstrated that adult social and communicative behaviors such as ultrasonic vocalizations and mating behaviors were a...
Article
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can act upon a developing organism to change its endocrine health and behavior in adulthood. Beyond actions on the exposed individuals, transgenerational effects of several EDCs have been reported. This study assessed the combinatorial impact of EDC-altered maternal care and transgenerational inheritance on F3...
Article
Full-text available
All animals have body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) despite their ban decades ago. These and modern endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as the fungicide vinclozolin (VIN) perturb hormone signaling and lead to dysfunctions following prenatal exposures. Beyond direct exposures, transgenerational disease phenotypes can persist for...
Article
Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect the development of hormone-sensitive neural circuits, the proper organization of which are necessary for the manifestation of appropriate adult social and sexual behaviors. We examined whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of ubiquitous industrial contaminan...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during gestation influences development of the F1 generation offspring and can result in disease and dysfunction in adulthood. Limited evidence suggests consequences on the F2 generation, exposed as germ cells within the F1 fetus. These F2s provide a unique window into the programming e...
Article
Endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during critical periods of gestation cause long-lasting behavioral effects, presumably by disturbing hormonal organization of the brain. Among such EDCs are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of industrial chemicals. PCB exposure in utero leads to alterations in mating behaviors and other sexuall...
Article
Humans have disproportionately affected the habitat and survival of species through environmental contamination. Important among these anthropogenic influences is the proliferation of organic chemicals, some of which perturb hormone systems, the latter referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs are widespread in the environment and...
Article
Full-text available
Embryonic gonad sex in many reptilian species is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg, a differentiation process known as temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Incubation at the pivotal temperature (PvT) results in approximately an equal number of offspring of both sexes. We investigated the potential contribution of genetic...
Chapter
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The enormous diversity of sexual differentiation patterns across reptiles allows for 'natural experiments' investigating the process of sex determination and sexual differentiation, as well as neuroanatomical and neurochemical structure-function relationships. Examples include temperature-dependent sex determination, the presence of within-sex alte...
Article
Full-text available
The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes...
Data
A combined map of primer positions for mRNA and ChIP analyses and the CpG dinucleotide positions (CpGI-IV) examined for DNA methylation in the gonadal aromatase gene. HSF = putative binding site for heat shock factors. TATA = TATA box. Black arrow = transcription start site. ATG = translation start site. Parenthesis indicates the base pair position...
Data
P-values from statistical analyses of mRNA expression analysis (A) and pyrosequence analysis (B, C). (DOCX)
Data
Gonadal aromatase mRNA expression during embryonic development (MPT and FPT groups only). Each time point includes data from 8–12 embryos. Data shown with a median value (thick black line), 25th and 75th percentiles (lower and upper boundary of box), and maximum and minimum values (whiskers). Outliers are indicated with open circles. Asterisks indi...
Data
Primer sequences for mRNA expression analysis (A), pyrosequencing analysis (B), and ChIP analysis (C). (DOCX)
Data
Scatter plots of aromatase mRNA expression against DNA methylation examined by embryonic stages. Correlation coefficient (r) and p-values were examined by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A plot without an r-value was not statistically significant. (TIF)
Article
Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, can result in altered reproductive behavior in adulthood, especially when exposure occurs during critical periods of brain sexual differentiation in the fetus. Whether PCBs alter other sexually dimorphic behaviors such as those involved in anxiety is poorly und...
Article
Full-text available
Within the past few decades, the concept of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has risen from a position of total obscurity to become a focus of dialogue, debate, and concern among scientists, physicians, regulators, and the public. The emergence and development of this field of study has not always followed a smooth path, and researchers contin...
Article
Using the concepts of sensory and affective experience, this work relates the concepts of socialization and cognitive development to the embodiment of gender in the human infant. Evidence obtained from biweekly observations from 30 children and their mothers observed from age 3 months to age 12 months revealed measurable sex-related differences in...
Article
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Many, if not all, questions in biology and psychology today were formulated and considered in depth, though typically in a different language, from the 1700's to the early 1900's. However, because of politics or fashion, some topics fell out of favor or failed to recruit new scientists and hence languished. Despite greatly expanded scholarship in t...
Article
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Endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during critical periods of development may influence neuronal development and the manifestation of sexually dimorphic sociability and social novelty behaviors in adulthood. In this study, we assessed the effects of gestational exposure to PCBs on the social behavior of males and females later in adultho...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical vinclozolin during gestation of an F0 generation and/or chronic restraint stress during adolescence of the F3 descendants affects behavior, physiology, and gene expression in the brain. Genes related to the networks of growth factors, signaling peptides, and receptors, steroid hormone receptors and enzy...
Article
Real life by definition combines heritability (e.g., the legacy of exposures) and experience (e.g. stress during sensitive or ‘critical’ periods), but how to study or even model this interaction has proven difficult. The hoary concept of evaluating traits according to nature versus nurture continues to persist despite repeated demonstrations that i...
Article
Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. I...
Data
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Article
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In species with temperature-dependent sex determination or TSD, embryonic gonadal differentiation can be modified by an exposure to exogenous chemicals such as environmental contaminants. Although phenotypic outcomes of such event are well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely described. Here we examine the genetic and epigenet...
Article
Full-text available
How an individual responds to the environment depends upon both personal life history as well as inherited genetic and epigenetic factors from ancestors. Using a 'two-hit, 3 generations apart' model, we tested how F3 descendants of rats given in utero exposures to the environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) vinclozolin reacted to stress d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mate preference behavior is an essential first step in sexual selection and is a critical determinant in evolutionary biology. Previously an environmental compound (the fungicide vinclozolin) was found to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of an altered sperm epigenome and modified mate preference characteristics for th...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on some of the important current controversies and debates in behavioral epigenetics. As behavior, the expression of brain activity, is fundamental to translational epigenetics that concern mental health and disorders, the way that discoveries in epigenetics are presented and interpreted must be carefully defined. There is a di...
Article
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The past decade has seen an explosion of articles in scientific journals involving non-genetic influences on phenotype through modulation of gene function without changes in gene sequence. The excitement in modern molecular biology surrounding the impact exerted by the environment on development of the phenotype is focused largely on mechanism and...
Article
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The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the size and scope of biological and behavioral experiments. These experiments are providing an unprecedented level of detail and depth of data. However, this increase in data presents substantial statistical and graphical hurdles to overcome, namely how to distinguish signal from noise and how t...
Article
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In 1936, Eugen Steinach and colleagues published a work that brought steroid biochemistry to the study of sexual behavior and, using synthetic androgens and estrogens, foreshadowed by an astonishing four decades the discovery of the central role of estrogen in the sexual behavior of male rats. We offer an English translation of that paper, accompan...
Article
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Most birds are socially monogamous, yet little is known about the neural pathways underlying avian monogamy. Recent studies have implicated dopamine as playing a role in courtship and affiliation in a socially monogamous songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). In the present study, we sought to understand the specific contribution to pair...
Article
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In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the expression of the aromatase gene during gonad development is strictly limited to the female-producing temperature. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the upstream 5'-flanking region of the aromata...
Data
Comparative analysis of the transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) of the aromatase gene among species. TFBSs at approximately 700 bp of the 5′-flanking regions including the translation initiation codon (ATG) and transcription start site (TSS) of the red-eared slider turtle and four other species were predicted using the MatInspector (Genomati...
Data
Relative positions of the designed primers in Table 1. Black line: known aromatase cDNA sequence of the red-eared slider turtle (GenBank accession no. AF178949). Orange line: unknown 5′-flanking region. Black arrows: aromatase gene-specific reverse primer (GSP) positions. A translation start codon, ATG was previously identified in the red-eared sli...
Data
Nucleotide position of gonad-specific transcription start sites (TSSs) of aromatase in the red-eared slider turtle. TSSs were examined in total RNA from pooled gonads at embryonic stage 16, 19, and 21 at FPT (n = 6/stage) using (A) RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5′RACE) and (B) A conventional 5′RACE using SMARTTM RACE cDN...
Article
Full-text available
When considering sex ratios, we have to first define the nature of the question. Are we referring to the gonads, secondary and accessory sex structures, physiology, brain, behavior, or to all of the above elements. If these elements are not concordant, the exceptions can prove illustrative of underlying processes at both the proximate and ultimate...
Article
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We examined the expression of candidate sex-determining genes in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during the temperature-sensitive period (TSP). Aromatase and Rspo1 were used as markers of ovarian differentiation and Sox9 was used as a marker of testicular differentiation. Eggs were incubated at a male-producing temperature (26 ºC or...
Article
The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos...
Article
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Epigenetics is a perspective, not a set of techniques. Molecular biology and genetics are the dominant disciplines in biology today, but practitioners of these fields have only recently 'rediscovered' the importance of the environment. This has led to increasing research into molecular epigenetics and the interface between the environment and gene...
Article
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A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical’s potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regu...