David J. Cox

David J. Cox
RethinkFirst; Endicott College

Ph.D., M.S.B., BCBA-D

About

121
Publications
32,822
Reads
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505
Citations
Citations since 2016
107 Research Items
496 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
David has been working in behavior analysis since 2006. His current basic research foci are choice, preference, quantitative analyses of behavior, applied machine learning, and the influence of verbal behavior on the aforementioned. His current translational research foci are using behavioral data science to scale basic and applied research on decision-making to population level behavioral health, health decision making, and ethical behavior.
Education
July 2018 - June 2020
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Field of study
  • Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit
August 2014 - May 2018
University of Florida
Field of study
  • Psychology, Behavior Analysis
January 2010 - August 2011
University of North Texas
Field of study
  • Applied Behavior Analysis

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
Full-text available
Resurgence of previously extinguished behavior may occur when a recently reinforced alternative response is placed on extinction. Understanding the conditions that produce and reduce resurgence is important for both basic and applied researchers. Research on resurgence of human behavior may benefit from methods that facilitate comparison and replic...
Article
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Steeper delay discounting in substance abuse populations, compared to non-abusing populations, has been well-established in prior studies. Despite the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a novel and relatively understudied form of nicotine consumption, relatively little is known as to how e-cigarette users discount rewards compared to traditional c...
Article
Full-text available
This study applied the generalized matching equation (GME) to pitch selection in professional baseball. The GME was fitted to the relation between pitch selection and hitter outcomes for five professional baseball pitchers during the 2014 Major League Baseball season. The GME described pitch selection well. Pitch allocation varied across different...
Article
Full-text available
To determine discount rates, researchers typically adjust the amount of an immediate or certain option relative to a delayed or uncertain option. Because this adjusting amount method can be relatively time consuming, researchers have developed more efficient procedures. One such procedure is a 5-trial adjusting delay procedure, which measures the d...
Article
Full-text available
To address the developmental deficits of children with autism, several disciplines have come to the forefront within intervention programs. These are speech-pathologists, psychologists/counselors, occupational-therapists/physical-therapists, special-education consultants, behavior analysts, and physicians/medical personnel. As the field of autism t...
Article
Human service practitioners from varying fields make ethical decisions daily. At some point during their careers, many behavior analysts may face ethical decisions outside the range of their previous education, training, and professional experiences. To help practitioners make better decisions, researchers have published ethical decision-making mod...
Book
The behavior analytic research community emphasizes within-subject research methodologies to study relations between individual behavior and the environment. This is unique as behavior analytic practitioners can then replicate directly the research they read when determining whether a research finding applies to the clients with whom they work. Res...
Chapter
Research ethics refers to a domain of human behavior focused on the application of ethical rules and professional codes of conduct to the collection, analysis, reporting, and publication of information obtained through behaviors labeled as ‘conducting research.’ Exactly which rules are applied, how they are applied, and how scientists rank these ru...
Preprint
The purpose of this study was to examine how different ethical scenarios and different likelihood of statement accuracy influenced recommendations to seek more information or report an ethical violation. Twenty participants were recruited to participate in a pre-workshop survey where they were presented with five hypothetical ethical scenarios that...
Presentation
Full-text available
Ethical decision-making involves the complex interaction of many distinct behavioral processes. Historically, these behavioral processes have typically been studied in isolation and rarely with research aims explicitly tied to situations that can be labeled as involving “ethics”. In this presentation, we review a contemporary synthesis of the basic...
Article
Staff training is an important line of research to ensure that clinicians in the field of applied behavior analysis provide quality services. One approach to providing training involves the use of asynchronous training materials in which the trainer and trainee do not need to be physically present at the same time. This allows for training despite...
Presentation
The delivery of ABA services involves a complex interaction of behavioral systems. Patients need to be interested in and seek out ABA services; and, once in ABA, to continue improving their quality of life. Employees need to be hired in sufficient numbers, properly trained, adequately resourced, and appropriately matched with patients they are comp...
Book
Practical Ethics for Effective Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Second Edition is for behavior analysts working directly with, or supervising those who work with, individuals with autism. The book addresses the principles and values that underlie the Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s® Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior...
Chapter
Full-text available
Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) first requires that behavior analysts practicing within the autism intervention field (hereafter applied behavior analysts) choose from available intervention options. To choose the “right” intervention, behavior analysts practicing within the autism intervention field considers characteristics of the cl...
Presentation
Full-text available
Models have a long and storied history throughout the sciences. For example, the quantum mechanical model helps scientists describe the structure of atoms; the fruit fly is a model organism that helps scientists describe the role of genetics in biological organisms; and the three-term contingency helps scientists describe how organisms learn throug...
Presentation
A critical variable to retaining staff and patients is whether they are satisfied with the culture and services provided by an ABA organization. Though conducting experiments is the optimal method to understand variables that influence staff and patient satisfaction, this requires time, money, and expertise that is not available for many ABA organi...
Article
Many behavior analysts currently work in school settings, or with individuals who may qualify for educational services through federal special education law. However, it remains unclear what training, if any, behavior analysts receive in this law. Behavior analysts have an ethical responsibility to practice within their scope of competency and in c...
Chapter
Behavior analysts have an ethical obligation to provide quality services. Providing high-quality care requires that behavior analysts first have robust and empirically supported measures of quality services in place. In this chapter, we review the three categories of quality measures in healthcare (i.e., structure, process, and outcome) and provide...
Chapter
Behavior analysts provide a diverse range of services across a diverse range of clients. Using behavioral systems analysis (BSA), behavior analysts can analyze the environment and create systems (e.g., processes, policies, and organizational supports) that align practitioner behavior with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board Code. Using BSA, be...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduce the concept of standardized decision-making, and we describe how standardized decision-making can be used within applied behavior analysis (ABA) and autism treatment to achieve the best outcomes for the individuals we serve. First, we define standardized decision-making, then discuss its benefits for ABA and potential...
Chapter
Everyday, autism treatment increasingly resembles a model of interdisciplinary care. What does this mean for you as a behavior analyst? It means you are likely to collaborate with Speech–Language Pathologists, psychologists, occupational-therapists, special educators, physicians, and other human-service or medical professionals. Collaborating well...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss some of the more common mistakes professionals make concerning ethics and behavior analysis. We discuss how wrongful appeals to authority can cause more harm than good. We argue that incomplete analyses of ethical scenarios may lead to inappropriate conclusions and courses of action. We also discuss the tricky issue of m...
Chapter
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is perhaps one of the most popular buzz-phrases in education and healthcare today. But what is EBP, anyway? And, how does EBP work in applied behavior analysis and autism treatment? In this chapter, we shed some light on what EBP is, and what EBP is not. Throughout the chapter, we emphasize that EBP is not an intervent...
Chapter
Clinical ethics have a long and storied past. This chapter briefly covers the historical background of the current dominant ethical theories and principles that are central to modern clinical ethics. The dominant theories reviewed are virtue theory, consequentialism, deontology, and contract theory. The dominant principles reviewed are beneficence,...
Chapter
Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) make a plethora of daily decisions. Among these are clinical and ethical decisions. Yet, little has been published explicitly discussing variables that impact BCBA decision-making. In this chapter, we review how basic research on choice and research from the clinical decision-making literature sheds light o...
Chapter
Scope of practice and scope of competence may seem like interchangeable terms; but in fact, they are very different. Scope of practice defines the activities you may engage in by virtue of holding a credential or license. Scope of competence refers to the activities within an individual’s scope of practice that they are uniquely competent to perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Delay discounting and operant demand are two behavioral economic constructs that tend to covary, by degree, with cigarette smoking status. Given historically robust associations between adverse health outcomes of smoking, a strong preference for immediate reinforcement (measured with delay discounting), and excessive motivation to smoke cigarettes...
Article
The human and economic costs of severe weather damage can be mitigated by appropriate preparation. Despite the benefits, researchers have only begun to examine if known decision-making frameworks apply to severe-weather-related decisions. Using experiments, we found that a hyperbolic discounting function accurately described participant decisions t...
Presentation
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Transparency and accountability surrounding patient outcomes calls for a uniform approach to assessment of treatment outcomes. Reporting on quality outcomes are rapidly becoming the norm and expected by healthcare patients worldwide. For behavior analysts, this increased attention on treatment outcomes calls for practitioners to demonstrate that th...
Presentation
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Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that develops algorithms that improve through repeated interaction with data. The area of machine learning that focuses on verbal behavior is called natural language processing (NLP). NLP researchers have historically taken a structural-linguistic approach to designing and improving algorithms...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual discounting is a growing area of research aimed at identifying factors that reduce people’s reported willingness to have safe sex. One commonly reported reason for condom non-use is that a condom reduces sexual arousal. However, researchers have yet to isolate the specific role of sexual arousal using a sexual discounting framework. We exten...
Article
Verbal reports of drug effects are often used in behavioral pharmacology. Two reports related to reinforcement are drug use (Harford, 1978; Liu et al., 2018) frequency and drug preference. Anecdotally, some individuals may specify a favorite/preferred drug (e.g., psilocybin) despite using another drug more frequently (e.g., tobacco). Research compa...
Article
The generalized matching law (GML) has been used to describe the behavior of individual organisms in operant chambers, artificial environments, and nonlaboratory human settings. Most of these analyses have used a handful of participants to determine how well the GML describes choice in the experimental arrangement or how some experimental manipulat...
Article
Background: Experiences with psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin or lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), are sometimes followed by changes in patterns of tobacco, opioid, and alcohol consumption. But, the specific characteristics of psychedelic experiences that lead to changes in drug consumption are unknown. Objective: Determine whether quantitativ...
Presentation
Full-text available
Molecular analyses predict and control behavior through discrete responses strengthened by contiguous reinforcers. Molar analyses predict and control behavior through response-reinforcer relationships aggregated across a temporal window. Unified analyses aim to leverage molecular and molar analyses to describe, predict, and control behavior. Here,...
Poster
Full-text available
Molecular analyses predict and control behavior through discrete responses strengthened by contiguous reinforcers. Molar analyses predict and control behavior through response-reinforcer relationships aggregated across a temporal window. Unified analyses aim to leverage molecular and molar analyses to describe, predict, and control behavior. Here,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Practitioners of applied behavior analysis (ABA) collect and use data on behavior-environment relationships to determine whether the interventions they oversee are effective. To collect valid and accurate data, practitioners may tailor operational definitions to each client such that no two operational definitions are exactly alike. Though helpful...
Article
Full-text available
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design...
Article
Full-text available
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design...
Article
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design...
Article
Many philosophers and scientists have described a scientific approach to ethical behavior. Historically, ethical behavior has been categorized as descriptive (i.e., what is right) or normative (i.e., why it is right). Whether this topographical distinction is functionally relevant is unknown. In 2 experiments, participants chose what behavior was c...
Article
Behavior analysts make dozens of practice-related decisions every day. Past research has extensively examined practice-related decision making by medical and other healthcare professionals, but decision making by practicing behavior analysts has garnered little research attention. The purpose of this proof of concept study was to begin a translatio...
Poster
Full-text available
This is a study concurrent with Understanding Policing Part I: A Culturo-Behavior Systems Analysis. Black and Latinx individuals are disproportionately stopped and searched in the 50,000+ police traffic stops per day in the United States. In Part I, we identified systemic variables associated with police practices and potential systemic mechanisms...
Poster
Full-text available
Police officers make an average of 50,000+ traffic stops per day in the United States with Black and Latinx individuals disproportionately stopped and searched. It is unclear which systemic variables are associated with police practices and the systemic mechanisms that can be leveraged for change particularly when bias is identified. We gathered in...
Article
Behavioral processes underlying sexual behavior are important for understanding normal human functioning and risk behavior leading to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This systematic review examines delay and probability discounting in human sexual behavior through synthesis of 50 peer-reviewed, original research articles. Sixteen studies fo...
Presentation
Full-text available
The printing press, compass, antibiotics, and steam engine are but a few examples of technological advances that significantly changed the way humans live. Modern advances in artificial intelligence (AI) technology and access are arguably shifting human-environment interactions at similar scale. In medicine, researchers are leveraging advances in A...
Presentation
Behavioral science is the domain of human understanding that focuses on why people engage in specific behaviors in specific contexts. Data science is the domain of human understanding that focuses on generating insight from large data sets. Behavioral data science is an emerging interdisciplinary field that lies at the interface of behavioral scien...
Article
Ethical statements typically involve rules. All rules can vary in accuracy and specificity depending on the context to which they are applied. Codes of ethics often involve ethical rules that are written generally to cover the wide-ranging set of possible situations that any one member of the profession may encounter. But, despite being written gen...
Presentation
Full-text available
As more states in the US legalize cannabis for recreational and medical use, the public health impact of cannabis may increase if regularly co-consumed with alcohol or tobacco. We used a behavioral economics framework to examine how public health messaging influences cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco purchasing. Participants who reported current canna...
Presentation
Full-text available
To be alive is to reside in the expanse of constant choice. Choice about how to live and choice about what to value. Ethics. Moral philosophers have long debated how we know what choice is right and why that choice is best. When observed over time, patterns of ethical choice and justification aggregate into ethical theories that can guide ethical d...
Article
Asynchronous training procedures, which do not require the simultaneous presence of a trainer and trainee, may offer benefits over synchronous training because they may be more efficient, cost‐effective, and easier to disseminate. Additionally, asynchronous training may address low trainer to staff ratios. The purpose of this literature review was...
Article
Full-text available
Many day-to-day decisions may involve risky outcomes that occur at some delay after a decision has been made. We refer to such scenarios as delayed lotteries. Despite human choice often involves delayed lotteries, past research has primarily focused on decisions with delayed or risky outcomes. Comparatively, less research has explored how delay and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ethical statements typically involve rules. All rules can vary in accuracy and specificity depending on the context to which they are applied. Codes of ethics often involve ethical rules that are written generally to cover the wide-ranging set of possible situations any one member of the profession may encounter. But, despite being written generall...
Presentation
Full-text available
Machine-learning has inundated humans' everyday life. For example, people contact machine learning through their interactions with search engines (e.g., Google, Amazon), recommender systems (e.g., NetFlix, Facebook Newsfeed), and email communication platforms (e.g., spam filtering). Additionally, machine learning is increasingly being used to aid c...
Article
Full-text available
Recent executive orders have led some applied behavior analysis (ABA) providers to interpret themselves as “essential personnel” during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we argue against a blanket interpretation that being labeled “essential personnel” means that all in-person ABA services for all clients should continue during the COVID-19 p...
Article
Full-text available
Recent executive orders have led some Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) providers to interpret themselves as "essential personnel" during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we argue against a blanket interpretation that being labeled "essential personnel" means that all in person ABA services for all clients should continue during the COVID-19 p...
Article
Background: Kratom, a Southeast Asian plant with opioid-receptor mediated effects, has emerged as a potential substance of abuse, with limited data on its use and effects. This study characterized kratom user demographics, use patterns, and perceived drug effects. Methods: A cross-sectional, anonymous online survey was conducted between January...
Article
Understanding factors associated with cocaine use disorder is important given its public health impact. One factor is delay discounting (devaluation of future consequences). Cocaine users have shown greater delay discounting of money rewards than non–cocaine users. But underexamined are factors known to affect discounting, such as the sign (reward...
Poster
Full-text available
Patterns of tobacco, opioid, and alcohol consumption have been shown to change following a psychedelic experience. However, the specific characteristics of psychedelic experiences that do and do not lead to changes in drug consumption are unknown. We asked 1141 individuals who quit or reduced using alcohol, cannabis, opioids, or stimulants followin...
Presentation
Full-text available
Healthcare practitioners and researchers are increasingly required to collaborate with experts spanning multiple professions. But, few professionals receive training on how to effectively collaborate with other disciplines. This workshop focuses on two skill areas that can aide effective interdisciplinary collaboration. First, recognition of likely...
Presentation
Full-text available
Scope of practice often refers to the range of professional activities that practitioners can provide as the result of holding a license or credential. Scope of competence is a subset of scope of practice, and often refers to the range of professional activities an individual can perform to a criterion level of proficiency. This workshop focuses on...
Presentation
Full-text available
Background: Recent reports of naturalistic psychedelic use outside of clinical settings suggest potential positive effects substance use disorders. However, still unknown are the mechanisms of psychedelic-assisted behavior change and what variables might predict who will benefit from psychedelic-assisted behavior change. Methods: This secondary ana...
Article
Interdisciplinary dialogue can help progress and improve professional fields. Progress and improvement may be impeded by barriers within an interdisciplinary dialogue, two of which are false dichotomies and faulty generalizations. It is our opinion that this particular interdisciplinary dialogue will advance productively by avoiding: false dichotom...
Article
Lee et al. (2019) recently proposed a number of quantitative modeling techniques and practices culminating with a recommendation for the creation of registered model reports. In addition to increasing transparency, trust, and robustness of modeling practices, registered model reports seem likely to increase the visibility and dissemination of quant...
Poster
Full-text available
Understanding the mechanisms driving cocaine use disorder, despite its long-term negative consequences, is important. One factor is delay discounting (devaluation of future consequences). Cocaine users have shown greater delay discounting of money rewards than non-cocaine users. But research has not examined factors known to affect discounting, suc...
Poster
Full-text available
Delay discounting is sometimes discussed as a trait variable – a pre-existing characteristic people bring to a situation. At the extreme, a trait approach suggests an association between discounting across outcomes characteristics (e.g., amount, commodity, and gain/loss). A trait approach would predict related, but not necessarily equivalent, disco...
Poster
Full-text available
Delay discounting is sometimes discussed as a trait variable – a pre-existing characteristic people bring to a situation. A trait approach suggests an association between discounting across outcomes characteristics (e.g., amount, commodity, and gain/loss). A trait approach would predict related, but not necessarily equivalent, discounting across ch...
Presentation
Full-text available
Psilocybin has shown to increase social cooperation in an Ultimatum Game and empathy for social partners. Unexamined is whether psilocybin impacts social discounting or responding in a Prisoner’s Dilemma game, and how enduring any changes might be. We administered psilocybin to participants (N = 75) who also started a program of meditation/spiritua...
Data
Supplemental doc providing more info on background, methods, results, and discussion.
Chapter
Full-text available
Several ethical considerations must be addressed when developing and maintaining interdisciplinary treatment teams. Failing to address ethical considerations may result in challenged service delivery and treatment fidelity because different interdisciplinary team members possess different training backgrounds and theoretical perspectives. This chap...
Presentation
Full-text available
Choice behavior has been studied in behavior analysis for decades. Most research on choice behavior has involved basic laboratory studies with nonhuman animals or individuals with developmental disabilities. Comparatively less research has examined choice behavior involving verbally competent adults and the complex interactions of verbal and non-ve...
Presentation
Full-text available
Healthcare practitioners and researchers are increasingly required to collaborate with experts spanning multiple professions. But, few professionals receive training on how to effectively collaborate with other disciplines. This workshop focuses on two skill areas that can aide effective interdisciplinary collaboration. First, recognition of likely...
Presentation
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
In clicker training, animal trainers pair a small device (a ''clicker'') with a reward when teaching or maintaining responding. Animal trainers often assume clicker training is a ''science-based'' way to train animals. But, the few studies that have compared clicker training to a control have not provided evidence that adding a clicker is beneficia...
Article
Researchers have recently developed brief methods to measure discounting. One brief method uses 5-trial adjusting-delay or probability tasks. These tasks have provided similar rates of discounting to traditional tasks with monetary gains, but the accuracy with losses have been mixed. Differences in loss discounting across tasks may have been due to...
Article
Full-text available
The reverse-reward contingency (RRC) task involves presenting subjects with a choice between one plate containing a large amount of food and a second plate containing a small amount of food. Subjects are then required to select the smaller of the two options in order to receive the larger-magnitude reward. The RRC task is a commonly used paradigm f...
Article
Full-text available
A recently published article sought to determine the extent to which behaviorism and humanism can be reconciled (Shyman, 2016). However, the “current” conceptions of behaviorism and applied behavior analysis (ABA) used for the analysis were based on mischaracterizations, rendering moot many of the points made. Nevertheless, Shyman (2016) highlighte...
Article
Full-text available
The rates that an outcome (e.g., money) loses value as delay increases or probability decreases are called delay and probability discounting, respectively. Discounting is typically studied by asking participants to make choices between two options that vary in amount and delay (e.g., $50 now vs. $100 in 3 months) or probability (e.g., 100% chance o...
Conference Paper
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