David N Chapman

David N Chapman
University of Birmingham · School of Civil Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

185
Publications
56,898
Reads
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2,963
Citations
Citations since 2017
51 Research Items
1892 Citations
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Introduction
My research interests are related to geotechnical engineering and in particular underground construction in relation to pipes, tunnels and soil-structure interaction. My research involves physical modelling using small and large scale 1-g testing, and also numerical modelling.

Publications

Publications (185)
Article
Full-text available
A simplified analytical solution for steel plate strengthened circular tunnel concrete linings is presented, considering various interface slip modes. The full derivation for the analytical solution is introduced in detail, from which explicit expressions for the stress and displacement fields throughout the system are obtained. The distribution of...
Article
This study focuses on the investigation of the factors that have limited, so far, the development of a consistent design and assessment approach for integral bridges (IBs). This paper presents a review of previous research and current design practices for IBs, followed by an overview of monitoring studies in the laboratory and in the field. As part...
Article
This study focuses on the investigation of the factors that have limited, so far, the development of a consistent design and assessment approach for integral bridges (IBs). This paper presents review of previous research and current design practices for IBs, followed by an overview of monitoring studies in the laboratory and in the field. As part o...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring soil water content is crucially important and can affect soil strength which is a key parameter in analysis, design and monitoring of geo-structures. In this study, an optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor inscribed in Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) was developed and for the first time its ability to measure soil water content was investi...
Article
Buried infrastructure forms the backbone for economic stability, growth, competitiveness and productivity in modern society and is a critical element of urban environments. The pressures on buried infrastructure will only increase as the population increases, which will drive demand and require changes. This means that the maintenance of existing b...
Article
Issues associated with tunnel construction and adjacent building damage risk are becoming increasingly important as cities expand and make more use of their underground space. A typical geotechnical engineering problem is how to determine the ground settlement susceptibility of buildings due to tunnelling excavations. A risk assessment, considering...
Article
In recent years, caisson foundations are being increasingly used as alternative foundations for supporting offshore renewable energy structures. In general, caisson foundations for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are subjected to combined loadings including lateral, vertical and overturning moments. To guarantee the normal operation of OWTs and reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the increasing use of underground space to align with sustainability needs, geohazard risk assessments have become a valuable tool for decision-making. One common issue in relation to urban geohazard assessments relates to ground movements due to tunneling affecting adjacent buildings. A framework for assessing costs related to subsequent bu...
Article
Cast iron water distribution pipes are used widely in the UK and worldwide. Corrosion of these cast iron pipes often occurs due to an electrochemical process where the pipe is buried directly in a chemically aggressive ground (as is the case for some clays). The electrochemical process changes the pH environment and releases iron ions into the clay...
Article
Cast iron water distribution pipes are used widely in the UK and worldwide. Corrosion of these cast iron pipes often occurs due to an electrochemical process where the pipe is buried directly in a chemically aggressive ground (as is the case for some clays). The electrochemical process changes the pH environment and releases iron ions into the clay...
Article
The method of using steel plates to strengthen existing tunnel linings has been widely applied in many tunnel rehabilitation projects around the world. However, the effectiveness of the strengthening resulting from this method is still unclear, especially for conditions when the segmental linings are deformed to a relatively large extent. In this p...
Article
Periodic rainfall and evaporation have a major influence on slope instability. In order to explore the changes in seepage characteristics and the stability of slopes under wetting–drying cycles, finite element numerical simulations have been conducted using a case study of the Nanfen open-pit mine in China. The slope stability analysis has been bas...
Article
The ever-growing urban population faces challenges of ageing infrastructure. The process for renewing the infrastructure is costly, and current practices for maintaining and repairing are often ineffective and labour intensive. Road networks, for instance, which act as the arteries for cities, suffer from reoccurring potholes (in the UK, a pothole...
Article
A critical assessment criterion for road condition assessment is the amount and severity of cracking. Cracking causes a loss of structural capacity (i.e. strength and stiffness) and if severe can cause water infiltration into the subbase and subgrade, potentially leading to more serious structural failure. The onset of cracking therefore accelerate...
Article
Deep foundations are very important elements in the routine design of railways and bridges when the loads applied due to these important structures are higher than the bearing capacity of the soil. However, the methods currently available to calculate the bearing capacity of driven piles embedded in clay have been developed based on empirical facto...
Article
The functioning of modern societies relies on the successful performance of their infrastructure. In the UK, much of the buried infrastructure is located below the road surface, and routine maintenance of these requires networks to be accessed, commonly by open-cut methods. The open-cut operation in roads is likely to change the performance of the...
Article
Existing caisson foundations, utilised for offshore wind turbines, are required to resist significant lateral loads and overturning moments generated by wind and currents. This paper presents an innovative type of foundation, a ‘winged caisson foundation’, to support offshore wind turbines, which has the ability to provide a larger overturning capa...
Article
This study demonstrates the use of Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to measure changes in Rayleigh wave velocity relating to both the initial trench construction and subsequent simulated failures (water leaks) of a buried water-pipe. The MASW field trials were undertaken in conjunction with a wider suite of geophysical monitoring tech...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate modelling of gravity is of crucial importance for a variety of issues including, but not restricted to, the identification of buried objects. Gravity is an unbounded problem which causes challenges when applying numerical models, i.e., it results in computational difficulties when specifying the relevant boundary conditions. In order t...
Article
Ground settlements caused by tunnelling excavations are particularly important in urban areas, with greater relevance in soft soils. Estimating the settlement risk to adjacent buildings is an important consideration for tunnel planning, design and construction. In recent years the need to extend the Building Information Modelling (BIM) concept to t...
Article
Full-text available
The subsurface space in urban areas is an important asset. However, the information available on this environment is relatively poor compared to above ground information. This paper proposes a Building Information Model (BIM) for underground applications as means to address this information gap. The creation and progressive update of BIM for a cons...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many of the major challenges to a flourishing and pervasive trenchless industry are acutely associated with the complex urban context in which the works are carried out. The first, and most often quoted, challenge, is knowing where the current buried infrastructure is situated, and consequently 'seeing below the ground' to detect, locate and map ex...
Article
Existing tripod suction bucket foundations, utilised for offshore wind turbines, are required to resist significant lateral loads and overturning moments generated by wind and currents. This paper presents an innovative type of tripod bucket foundation, ‘hybrid tripod bucket foundation’, for foundations of offshore wind turbines, which has the abil...
Conference Paper
Gravity forward modelling is the calculation of gravity field from a specific density distribution, and is essential for reconstructing ground density in an inversion process. Finite element (FE) methods have been effectively used for forward modelling of gravity data. In contrast to the closed-form and analytical methods, FEM can model complicated...
Article
The British Standard (BS) uses the indirect design method to design buried concrete pipes under the effect of traffic load, where in this method the laboratory capacity of the pipe is obtained and linked to the field capacity using an empirical factor called the bedding factor. However, the BS design bedding factors have not been rigorously tested....
Chapter
This paper presents the results of a series of numerical simulations predicting the performance of a novel hybrid suction caisson foundation used for offshore wind turbines under overturning moment. The proposed new winged foundation is a hybrid foundation system that utilises steel plate sections attached to a caisson shaft (also steel), to increa...
Article
This paper presents a general framework for the robust retrofitting design for rehabilitation of segmental tunnel linings installed using shield tunnelling, and specifically using steel plates bonded to the lining as a typical example of such a rehabilitation design. A two-dimensional finite element model is established as part of the robust design...
Article
This paper discusses the results of controlled, full-scale laboratory experiments on 0.9 m (36 in.) internal diameter reinforced concrete pipes (RC pipes) in the presence of simulated erosion voids. This study introduces a novel, yet practical, experimental method to simulate erosion voids near buried pipes. Using this method, the paper focuses on...
Article
Full-text available
The invention of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology has facilitated the possibility of detecting buried utilities and has been used primarily in civil engineering for detecting structural defects, such as voids and cavities in road pavements, slabs and bridge decks, but has not been used to assess the condition of buried pipes. Pipe deterior...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of geotechnical assets is influenced by various external factors including time and changing loading and environmental conditions. These changes could reduce the asset’s ability to maintain its function, potentially resulting in failure, which could be extremely disruptive and expensive to remediate; thus, the ability to monitor the...
Article
Full-text available
Microgravity measurements are a useful tool for detecting subsurface features, especially deep targets or those in conductive ground which lie outside the capabilities of other methods based on electromagnetic signal transmission. However, the method is limited by a range of noise sources including vibrational noise from the environment, one source...
Article
This paper uses a finite element based approach to provide a comprehensive understanding to the behaviour and the design performance of buried uPVC pipes with different diameters. It also investigates pipes with good and poor haunch support and proposes minimum safe wall thicknesses for these pipes. The results for pipes with good haunch support sh...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the validation of a novel leak detection method for water distribution pipelines, although it could be applied to any buried pressurized fluid flow pipe. The detection method is based on a relative pressure sensor attached non-invasively to the outside of the pipe combined with temperature difference measurements between the pip...
Article
The buried pipes should be designed properly to withstand the loads imposed by the backfill soil weight and traffic loads. However, a thorough literature review has shown differing opinions on the effect of static and moving traffic loads on buried pipes. Some studies have shown that moving loads produce higher displacement in buried pipes compared...
Article
Full-text available
The accuracy and repeatability of microgravity measurements for surveying purposes are affected by two main sources of noise; instrument noise from the sensor and electronics, and environmental sources of noise from anthropogenic activity, wind, microseismic activity and other sources of vibrational noise. There is little information in the literat...
Article
Full-text available
Time domain reflectometry (TDR) can be used to measure the dry density of compacted soils, although it is believed that TDR could also be used to monitor the long-term performance of aging geotechnical assets. Understanding the deterioration of aging assets (earth dams, embankments) can be problematic; monitoring the relative condition with time ma...
Article
Buried concrete pipes are load bearing structures that need to resist the loads imposed by the surrounding ground. The common approach to design buried concrete pipes is based on an empirical method called the Indirect Design Method, which uses the laboratory capacity of the buried pipe linked to the field capacity using an empirical factor known a...
Article
Electromagnetic wave propagation methods are extensively used in geophysical prospecting, such as in archaeological and utility surveys. The signal penetration and attenuation of electromagnetic waves depend strongly on the apparent permittivity and electrical conductivity of the soil, which vary on a seasonal basis, affecting the detection of buri...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication between buried nodes in WUSNs happens through the ground. Due to the complexity of soil, accurate estimation of the underground signal attenuation is challenging. Existing path loss models mainly rely on semi-empirical and empirical mixing models for calculating the dielectric proper...
Poster
Full-text available
Self-Repairing Cities is a £4.2m project funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), which aims to develop and use advanced Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) technology in street infrastructure maintenance to re-balance the energy, resource and risk. • It is led by the University of Leads with collaboration from th...
Conference Paper
Buried pipelines, and in particular concrete pipelines, are a vital element in maintaining modern life as they provide a convenient way to transport sewage and storm water. These buried structures have to resist the external forces due to soil weight and traffic loading. The current design practice for these pipelines is based on an empirical metho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Indirect Design Method is often used to design buried concrete pipes. This method is based on linking the required strength of the buried concrete pipe to the laboratory strength of the pipe by using an empirical factor called the bedding factor. Hence, the bedding factor is key in the Indirect Design Method. However, a thorough review of the l...
Article
Full-text available
The electromagnetic (EM) soil properties are dynamic variables that can change considerably over short periods, and they fundamentally affect the performance of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). However, long-term field studies are remarkably rare and records of the EM soil properties and their seasonal variation are starkly noticeable by their absen...
Book
Tunnelling provides a robust solution to a variety of engineering challenges. It is a complex process, which requires a firm understanding of the ground conditions as well as structural issues. This book covers the whole range of areas that you need to know in order to embark upon a career in tunnelling. It also includes a number of case studies of...
Book
Tunnelling provides a robust solution to a variety of engineering challenges. It is a complex process, which requires a firm understanding of the ground conditions as well as the importance of ground-structure interaction. This book covers the full range of areas related to tunnel construction required to embark upon a career in tunnelling. It also...
Article
We address the problem of accurately locating buried utility segments by fusing data from multiple sensors using a novel marching-cross-section (MCS) algorithm. Five types of sensors are used in this work: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Passive Magnetic Fields (PMF), Magnetic Gradiometer (MG), Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (LFEM), and Vibro...
Article
The current design practice in the UK for estimating the soil pressure on a buried pipe under traffic loads is based on a simple equation derived using a Boussinesq solution. In order to test and verify this equation, and study the effect of pipe diameter and backfill height for rigid (concrete) and flexible (polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) pipes, a stud...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aging infrastructure and a move towards sustainability have created new challenges for asset owners. On the other hand, advances in technology, such as low power electronics and sophisticated sensing methods, have made health monitoring of large infrastructure technologically feasible. However, despite the large body of research in this area infras...
Conference Paper
The behaviour of rigid pipes during backfilling, under soil weight, and under traffic live loads has received considerable attention from researchers in the past. A significant number of numerical, laboratory, and full scale studies on the response of rigid pipes under these effects have been published, which provide clear guidelines for the likely...
Chapter
The invention of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has facilitated the possibility of detecting buried utilities and has been used primarily in civil engineering for detecting structural defects, such as voids and cavities in road pavements, slabs and bridge decks, but has not been used to assess the condition of buried pipes. Pipe deterior...
Article
Full-text available
Time domain reflectometry (TDR) measures the apparent relative dielectric permittivity (ARDP) of a soil and is commonly used to determine the volumetric water content (VWC) of the soil. ARDP is affected by several factors in addition to water content, such as the soil’s electrical conductivity, temperature, and density. These relationships vary wit...
Article
In recent years, wireless sensor network systems have increasingly been used to monitor infrastructure health. Advances in electronics and sensing systems have enabled the development of various pressure-sensing methods for pipe-pressure monitoring. This article presents laboratory-based test results as part of the development and validation of a p...
Conference Paper
It has been observed that the corrosion of iron pipes in soil can produce variations in ground conductivity around the pipe, and that the visibility of such pipes to GPR can be greatly reduced. This new investigation and measurement of the permittivity and conductivity of soil contaminated by iron pipe corrosion products produces more accurate know...
Article
This paper presents a numerical study of soil fluidisation induced by local leakage from a buried pipe using the coupled discrete element and lattice Boltzmann approach (DEM–LBM). The behaviour of the system is studied using different flow rates and initial bed heights. The excess pore pressure distribution and the soil behaviour due to a localised...
Article
Full-text available
Asset monitoring, specifically infrastructure monitoring such as water distribution pipelines, is becoming increasingly critical for utility owners who face new challenges due to an aging network. In the UK alone, during the period of 2009–2010, approximately 3281 mega litres (106) of water were wasted due to failure or leaks in water pipelines. Va...
Article
Full-text available
Indirect conversion radioisotopic batteries (ICRBs) are investigated for use as long-life power source for autonomous buried applications. As part of this work the optimum configuration of this class of battery has been experimentally investigated. An ICRB was buried at a depth of 90cm for two months during which time its voltage was monitored, wit...
Article
A power source consisting of an indirect conversion radioisotopic battery and a capacitor is developed in order to power a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) sensor node. Design, fabrication and testing of this power source is undertaken and reported upon. The storage capacitor was charged at a maximum determined power of 575 nW by the radioisotopic bat...
Article
Microtunnelling traditionally utilises pipe-jacked or segmental lining systems, however when employed over long, continuous distances, which may include changes in depth and direction, both lining systems have associated limitations that would reduce the drive rate of the TBM and increase the costs of the project. The use of an extruded lining syst...
Conference Paper
This paper describes research into the effects of corroding cast iron pipes on the properties of surrounding clay soil. Accelerated corrosion tests, employing electrokinetics to simulate the galvanic cell that is set up naturally when cast iron comes into contact with clay, have shown that the chemical changes (e.g. pH) are more marked than for cas...
Article
Full-text available
The coupled DEM-LBM technique is employed to simulate the leakage-soil interaction due to a leaking pipe. By adopting various particle surface energy values, the mechanical effect of soil cohesion is explored. It is found out that the orifice pressure drops with time after fluidisation occurs. And a stronger adhesion force leads to a slower decreas...
Article
One way to continuously monitor the whole water distribution system is to equip pipes with many small sensors. If these sensors are to be integrated within the pipe walls, it is important to assesstheir impact on the structural integrity of the pipes, but embedding pipes with these microchips for testing would allow limited control of the position...
Article
To produce monitoring systems for plastic pipes one option is to distribute sensors within the plastic matrix. However, little is known of the effects of these sensors on the structural integrity of the pipes. Although testing the whole pipe structure would be ideal, to understand this problem at a fundamental level, small polymer samples were prod...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic surface waves are well-suited for the study of the elastic profile of soils. This study evaluates the application of surface waves in characterizing the properties of laterally heterogeneous soil, specifically for use in the quality control of stone columns used for ground improvement. Here, laterally heterogeneous soil refers to the gravel...
Article
Streetworks to repair buried pipes and cables use many different technologies and working methods. These are usually determined by the dual pressures of time, and economic costs. However, many other constraints should be imposed by the need to minimise both environmental costs and social costs, as these drivers, taken together, cover a range of oth...
Article
In order to produce monitoring systems for polyethylene pipes, one option is to distribute sensors within the plastic matrix. Currently, no information is available on the effects of small, individual sensors on the structural integrity of polyethylene pipes if these are embedded in the pipe wall. In order to assess the influence of these sensors,...
Article
Full-text available
Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) has been used extensively in the past thirty years in order to measure soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity (ECb), both in the laboratory and in the field. TDR can be effectively used in combination with geophysical techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in order to provide information on re...
Article
Full-text available
'Critical infrastructure' generally refers to significant pieces of plant and equipment, such as power stations and motorways. High population densities in cities, and the increasing interconnectedness of the services and supply chains that sustain them, mean local infrastructure is equally important. Local infrastructure must be able to cope with...