David Carless

David Carless
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Faculty of Education

Ph D (Warwick) http://davidcarless.edu.hku.hk/
Feedback literacy at the doctoral level; Feedback seeking strategies; Teacher change in relation to feedback

About

108
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Introduction
Learning-oriented assessment in higher education; Sustainable feedback; Dialogic use of exemplars

Publications

Publications (108)
Chapter
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Feedback is a powerful tool for improvement of student learning, yet complex to implement effectively. Feedback involves processes in which learners make use of performance-related inputs to enhance their work or learning strategies. New paradigm feedback practices place learners at the centre of feedback processes and emphasize student generation...
Article
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The analysis of exemplars of different quality is a potentially powerful tool in enabling students to understand assessment expectations and appreciate academic standards. Through a systematic review methodology, this paper synthesises exemplar-based research designs, exemplar implementation and the educational effects of exemplars. The review of 4...
Article
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Both student feedback literacy and self-assessment are crucial for developing self-regulated and lifelong learning in higher education. The relationship between these two concepts is important but as yet understudied. Using self-assessment to develop students' feedback literacy has been mentioned in relevant literature, but how feedback literacy ca...
Article
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Without teacher and student feedback literacy, it is difficult for feedback processes to fulfil their potential. Feedback literacy development within the arts or humanities is, however, under-researched. The current study fills this gap by illustrating how educators in the performative creative arts designed signature feedback practices to facilita...
Article
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In education systems across the world, teachers are under increasing quality assurance scrutiny in relation to the provision of feedback comments to students. This is particularly pertinent in higher education, where accountability arising from student dissatisfaction with feedback causes concern for institutions. Through semi-structured interviews...
Article
Participatory approaches are receiving renewed attention in the ‘students as partners’ (SaP) and ‘feedback’ discourse communities, respectively. SaP scholars tend to focus on pedagogy (pedagogical partnerships) and curriculum (co-creation). Assessment and feedback, as connective and relational practices that bridge these two domains, receive less e...
Chapter
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Article
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Feedback processes are situated within the norms and practices of disciplinary learning activities. Through a sociocultural lens, this study seeks to understand disciplinary feedback possibilities and challenges through a study of four different disciplines at a research-intensive English medium university. Two soft applied and two hard applied dis...
Article
Academics nowadays are increasingly expected to implement high-quality teaching, what is frequently referred to as 'excellent teaching'. Understandings of academics' conceptions of excellent teaching are, however, limited, despite extensive research on different aspects of quality teaching. To address this gap, there is a need to expand the somewha...
Article
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Feedback literacy is an important graduate attribute that supports students’ future work capacities. This study aimed to develop a framework through which discipline-specific feedback literacies, as a set of socially situated skills, can be developed within core curricula. The framework is developed through a content analysis of National Qualificat...
Article
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For feedback processes to be effective, they need to involve students actively in generating, processing and responding to feedback information. Teacher transmission approaches are unlikely to provide a good investment of time and resources because they fail to draw sufficiently on student agency. In this conceptual article, it is argued that stude...
Article
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Exemplars are samples which illustrate dimensions of quality and enable students to understand assessment expectations. The theoretical basis for using exemplars lies principally in social constructivist approaches to assessment and the notion of tacit knowledge. Through a constructivist grounded theory methodology, this paper theorises how twelve...
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Feedback processes are difficult to manage, and the accumulated frustrations of teachers and students inhibit the learning potential of feedback. In this conceptual paper, challenges to the development of effective feedback processes are reviewed and a new framework for teacher feedback literacy is proposed. The framework comprises three dimensions...
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How can learners be supported to engage productively in the kinds of feedback practices they may encounter after they graduate? This article introduces a novel concept of authentic feedback to denote processes which resemble the feedback practices of the discipline, profession or workplace. Drawing on the notion of authentic assessment, a framework...
Article
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Recent feedback literature suggests that the development of student feedback literacy has potential to address problems in current feedback practice. Students’ feedback literacy involves developing the capacity to make the most of feedback opportunities by active involvement in feedback processes. How the development of student feedback literacy ca...
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How students react to and use feedback is an important element of their higher education experience. Within the constraints of mass higher education, effective feedback processes are, however, difficult to manage. The aim of this longitudinal qualitative inquiry is to investigate through repeated interviews and related documentary analysis how four...
Chapter
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The main focus of this chapter is to analyse implications for short-term and long-term impacts of feedback by drawing on a qualitative longitudinal inquiry into four learners’ experiences of feedback during a five-year undergraduate programme. The student experience of feedback is conceptualized by a 3P model comprising presage, process and product...
Article
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A key challenge for feedback practice involves promoting student uptake through the closing of feedback loops. This paper investigates feedback loops by using the concepts of single and double-loop learning to interrogate student responses to feedback. Single-loop learning tackles an identified problem or task, whereas double-loop learning addition...
Article
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Student feedback literacy denotes the understandings, capacities and dispositions needed to make sense of information and use it to enhance work or learning strategies. In this conceptual paper, student responses to feedback are reviewed and a number of barriers to student uptake of feedback are discussed. Four inter-related features are proposed a...
Article
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Peer feedback carries a number of potential benefits to students, yet how they learn in the process remains under-researched. Building on ideas of feedback as dialogue, this study aims to unpack the respective perceptions of the provider and the receiver of peer feedback in relation to the benefits and challenges of dialogue about academic writing....
Research
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Exemplars or samples of student work are potentially powerful in enabling students to develop a deeper understanding of what good work looks like. A key aim of exposing students to exemplars is to help them appreciate the nature of quality which they can subsequently apply to their own work. The essence of constructive use of exemplars is that stud...
Chapter
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This chapter is based on 90 individual semi-structured interviews asking students about their experiences of assessment for learning in five disciplines: architecture, business, geology, history and law. Four features of assessment valued by students are discussed: assessment mirroring real-life uses of the discipline, flexibility and choice, devel...
Chapter
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A definition of assessment for learning (AfL) is provided. From a synthesis of relevant literature, I outline four main AfL strategies: productive assessment task design, effective feedback processes, the development of student understanding of quality and activities where students make judgments. I explore the notion of scaling up in relation to s...
Book
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A critical issue in higher education is the effective implementation of assessment with the core purpose of promoting productive student learning. This edited collection provides a state-of-the-art discussion of recent, cutting-edge work into assessment for learning in higher education. It introduces a new theme of scaling up, which will be welcome...
Article
Student beliefs about assessment and technology play an important role in deploying technology-enabled assessments. Using eportfolios to develop and assess the achievement of curricular outcomes is a global trend, yet little research has investigated student technology and assessment perceptions around eportfolios. This paper examines the interacti...
Article
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Feedback is an important but challenging aspect of higher education pedagogy. In addition to providing quality feedback, teachers are expected to develop students’ skills and awareness for effective feedback processes. This case study addresses both processes and products of a Chinese university English teacher’s feedback enabling practice by invol...
Article
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The analysis of exemplars is a potentially powerful way of acquainting students with academic standards and supporting their capacities to make informed academic judgements. This paper investigates the role of dialogue in supporting students to develop their appreciation of the nature of quality work. The research derives from a project involving n...
Chapter
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Feedback can be an important catalyst for improvement. Helpful comments which enable students to see issues from fresh perspectives are central in supporting the ongoing development of work in progress. In mass higher education, there is a variety of evidence from different contexts that students and teachers have misgivings about the ways in which...
Article
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This paper is focused on an innovation which involved students being assessed on short written responses to an issue to be addressed in the following classroom session. The innovation was evaluated through a student survey, individual and focus-group interviews with participants, and the analysis of a critical friend. Positive findings included pro...
Article
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Discussion of exemplars of student work is a productive means of explaining tacit knowledge and guiding students into the requirements of academic writing. Through two cycles of action research in a post-secondary institution in Hong Kong, this study examines how exemplars can be used to enhance student understanding of quality and to promote posit...
Chapter
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Competitive examinations originated in China during the Han dynasty, and have a powerful residual influence on how assessment is approached in contemporary Confucian-heritage contexts. In this chapter we review key issues in the relationship between assessment and productive student learning in examination-oriented settings. We use examples from re...
Article
Whilst there are studies exploring students' perspectives of assessment, relatively little is known about how Chinese high school students' respond to assessment. Students' perspectives are particularly important because the power of assessment directly impacts on their motivation and attitudes towards schooling. This article explores students' vie...
Article
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This article explores some of the main barriers to the enhancement of feedback processes and proposes a framework for using dialogic feedback to foster productive student learning in the discipline. The framework suggests a feedback triangle focused on the content of feedback (cognitive dimension), the interpersonal negotiation of feedback (social-...
Chapter
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This final chapter builds on issues which have been discussed implicitly or explicitly within the volume. I address five themes: research methodology; contextual adaptations; TBLT in Chinese contexts; assessment; and teacher education. I conclude by speculating on some possible future directions for TBLT and some avenues for further research.
Chapter
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The study of innovation in language education began to generate particular interest only from the 1980s onwards, with important early contributions including Kennedy (1988) from a UK perspective and Henrichsen (1989) from a US one. Keywords: intercultural communication; language teaching; evaluation
Article
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Students have a wide experience of being tested, but their perceptions of assessment are comparatively under-explored. This paper illuminates the perspectives on assessment of a sample of lower primary school students in Hong Kong. It uses focus group interviews and draw-a-picture technique to elicit their views. The main findings are that assessme...
Chapter
This article reviews the prospects for classroom assessment in schools in Hong Kong with respect to both policy and implementation perspectives. Classroom assessment in primary schools is discussed in relation to the target-oriented curriculum and more recent emphases on learning to learn and assessment for learning. Developments in secondary schoo...
Book
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Research evidence indicates that formative assessment is one of the most effective ways of enhancing student learning. it is, however, difficult to implement successfully, principally because what is tested through summative assessment has such a powerful influence on teacher and student actions. This book scrutinizes the relationship between testi...
Article
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Communicative and task-based teaching hold central places in contemporary language pedagogy, yet their feasibility as pedagogic innovations in Chinese contexts remains open to question. Examinations are generally perceived as a particular factor militating against the implementation of communicative approaches. This study uses four case studies of...
Article
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The literature suggests that peer assessment contributes to the development of student learning and promotes ownership of assessment processes. These claims emerge from research conducted primarily in Western contexts. This exploratory paper reports on the perspectives that a class of Hong Kong primary school students and their teachers have on the...
Article
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Whilst there is a body of research evidence on task-based language teaching (TBLT) with adults, less is known about its suitability for implementation in secondary schools, particularly in Asian contexts. This study uses interview data from a purposive sample of 12 secondary school teachers and 10 teacher educators based in the Hong Kong context, a...
Article
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This paper analyses the extent of communicative activities in a Year Four primary school class in Guangdong, where a national task-based innovation has been mandated. The framework guiding the study uses a continuum of communi-cativeness of activities, developed by Littlewood. The research methods comprised 12 classroom observations and 17 intervie...
Article
Task-based teaching has a high profile within contemporary ELT, yet there are few analyses of the appropriateness of task-based approaches for school contexts. This paper aims to analyse the suitability of task-based teaching for Hong Kong secondary schools; and to derive some suggestions for the development of a version of task-based approaches fe...
Article
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This article draws on an interview study with teachers and teacher educators on the topic of the feasibility of task-based teaching for implementation in schools. It focuses on a single theme from the study: student use of the mother tongue. A number of dimensions are addressed: the extent of classroom interaction in English in the context under re...
Article
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This paper seeks to unpack some dimensions of formative assessment not yet fully articulated in the existing literature. It introduces the term, pre‐emptive formative assessment to denote teacher actions which attempt to clarify student understandings before misconceptions have resulted in ineffective learning outcomes and/or loss of marks in assig...
Article
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This paper focuses on the potential of the learning aspects of assessment. The term 'learning-oriented assessment' is introduced and three elements of it are elaborated: assessment tasks as learning tasks; student involvement in assessment as peer- or self-evaluators; and feedback as feedforward. I also indicate how learning-oriented assessment was...
Article
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This paper focuses on collaboration between native-speaking English teachers (NETs) and local English teachers (LETs) in Hong Kong secondary schools. It examines some of the strengths and weaknesses of NETs and LETs documented in the international literature. It reviews, in various contexts, schemes where team teaching has been carried out. Using c...
Chapter
This chapter presents thirty-nine separate assessment techniques, selected following a series of reviews of the sixty-four techniques submitted for consideration. Each technique is set out in a structured way to allow easy reading, and includes procedures, student comments, and suggestions for how the technique can be used in different contexts. Ea...
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This paper discusses an innovative programme of collaborative EFL teaching in Hong Kong primary schools, involving team-teaching shared between imported native-speaking English teachers and their local counterparts. First it analyses the way in which the scheme has evolved from previous experiences. The paper then draws on an open-ended questionnai...
Article
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Team teaching between native English speaking teachers and local L2 English teachers has become an increasingly common phenomenon in schooling in the East Asia region. The relevant literature reports some positive impacts of team teaching and also highlights some of the challenges or conflicts which arise. The aim of this paper is to focus on repor...
Article
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This paper focuses on reconfiguring assessment processes so that they support a learning function, in addition to the more traditional measurement function. In the first half of the paper we discuss a framework for 'learning-oriented assessment' derived from a project carried out in Hong Kong. We conceptualize learning-oriented assessment as contai...
Article
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This paper focuses on peer feedback in relation to assessment processes. It examines the rationale for peer feedback, emphasizing its potential for enhanced student learning. We draw on relevant literature to argue that the dominance of peer assessment processes using grades can undermine the potential of peer feedback for improving student learnin...
Article
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Taylor and Francis Ltd CSHE_A_157196.sgm 10.1080/03075070600572132 Studies in Higher Education 0307-5079 (print)/1470-174X (online) Original Article 2006 Society for Research into Higher Education 31 2 000000April 2006 DavidCarless Faculty of EducationUniversity of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kongdcarless@hkucc.hku.hk Feedback is central to the developme...
Book
This book presents 39 innovative assessment practices from a range of disciplines and located in a clearly articulated theoretical framework, it also concludes with suggestions for responding to challenges at the interface between assessment and learning.
Chapter
This assessment technique focuses on facilitating prompt verbal dialogue and feedback related to a completed assignment. The form of the discussion is a mini-viva or tutorial where students and tutor engage in a reflective discussion of a completed assignment before a mark is awarded.
Chapter
Students analyse the assessment criteria for their assignment by carrying out a short in-class activity in which they summarize the key points in the criteria. Building on this activity, students are required to submit (as part of their assignment), their own self-assessment checklist. This process both makes the criteria more meaningful to student...
Chapter
This technique seeks to engage students actively through an authentic task, namely the design of a web site for educational purposes. Through this project, students are involved in peer learning, collaborative decision-making and problem-solving. The role of the lecturer is to provide relevant input, act as a 'cognitive coach' or mentor and provide...
Article
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This paper analyses aspects of a Hong Kong school curriculum reform, which recommends amongst other things, a greater focus on assessment for learning. It outlines the principles of the reform as it pertains to assessment and discusses how structural changes are being employed to lend support to changes in the assessment culture in Hong Kong. The p...
Article
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Although task-based teaching is frequently practiced in contemporary English language teaching, it is underresearched in state school settings. This article contributes to filling this gap in the literature by using qualitative case study data to explore how a task-based innovation was implemented in three primary school classrooms in Hong Kong. An...
Article
This article discusses an issue which is of longstanding and central importance to foreign language teachers in a variety of contexts, namely teacher use of classroom language. It uses detailed qualitative case study data to explore how and why an expert practitioner uses English in her Hong Kong Primary school language classroom. Through the inter...
Article
This paper uses detailed qualitative case study data to explore the implementation of task-based teaching in three primary school classrooms in Hong Kong. It reviews six issues which were found to impact on how teachers approached the implementation of communicative tasks in their classroom. The themes to be addressed are teacher beliefs; teacher u...
Article
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This article draws on qualitative classroom observation data from case studies of three EFL classes in Hong Kong primary schools. It analyses four themes relevant to the classroom implementation of task-based learning with young learners, namely, noise/indiscipline, the use of the mother tongue, the extent of pupil involvement, and the role of draw...
Article
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This paper reports on an action research project which aimed to promote assessment for learning within a summative assignment. In an attempt to provide enhanced feedback to students, the process of their group assignment involved lecturer feedback at various stages. A particular focus was on a 'mini-viva', whereby students explained and justified t...
Article
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This paper presents a case study of a Hong Kong primary school undergoing curriculum change and the role of the principal in that process. Its justification as a case study rests on the weak existing knowledge base of such studies in Asian settings; the mix of Chinese and Western cultures which characterize Hong Kong; and the principal as an enthus...
Article
Explains the main factors affecting implementation of curriculum innovations, including those related to teachers, innovations, and change agents. Introduces Hong Kong's Target- Oriented Curriculum initiative, a constructivist, active-learning framework, and shows how these factors enhanced or hindered program implementation. Teacher attitudes were...
Article
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The management of change has long been recognised to be a complex and challenging process. The literature has revealed few success stories and many examples of curriculum innovations being adopted half-heartedly or not at all. Set against the increasing world globalisation of which education is apart, the cultural aspects of innovations are being i...
Article
This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and actions of a well-qualified, positively oriented primary school English teacher to Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) initiative, a major government sponsored innovation. By reference to classroom observation, interview data and attitude scale responses, a picture is developed of how t...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
Peer feedback is a good idea but students often don't respond well to it.
Question
Interested in looking for alternative views on ways to optimise student uptake of feedback.

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Objective (1) Investigate students’ current experiences of technology-enhanced assessments Objective (2) Identify enhancement opportunities, design partnership process, and develop and experiment with technology-enhanced assessments in courses Objective (3) Evaluate students’ experiences in the teacher-student partnership and their assessment literacy development Objective (4) Develop guidelines and archives
Project
Identify characteristics of a productive exemplars dialogue