David Benton

David Benton
Swansea University | SWAN · Department of Psychology

DSc

About

330
Publications
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11,219
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Publications

Publications (330)
Article
Full-text available
The effect of breakfast glycaemic load (GL) on cognition was systematically examined. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials were identified using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library (up to May 2022). 15 studies involving adults (aged 20-80 years) were included. Studies had a low risk, or some concerns, of bias. A random-effects meta-anal...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives Obesity affects more than forty percent of adults over the age of sixty. Aberrant eating styles such as disinhibition have been associated with the engagement of brain networks underlying executive functioning, attentional control, and interoception. However, these effects have been exclusively studied in young samples overloo...
Article
Androstenol has been reported to influence judgements of attractiveness and to affect participants’ mood. In the present study, participants were asked to sniff androstenol or a control odour (pure ethanol) unilaterally with the left or right nostril. Subsequently, they rated the attractiveness of photographs of the opposite sex and their own feeli...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Carbohydrate is the nutrient most commonly said to influence sleep: it is proposed that a high intake increases the uptake of tryptophan by the brain, where it is metabolized into serotonin and melatonin. As this mechanism depends on the relative amount of carbohydrate and protein, studies were reviewed where diets differed in these macr...
Article
Objectives A systematic review and meta-analysis compared the effects of high (HGL) and low glycemic load (LGL) breakfasts on the cognitive performance of adults. In particular, the time after eating that cognition was assessed and the influence of pre-existing glucose tolerance (GT) were considered. Methods A systematic search for randomized and...
Article
Full-text available
Those with disordered eating and/or obesity often express difficulties in sensing or interpreting what is happening in the body (interoception). However, research is hindered by conceptual confusion, concerns surrounding domain specificity, and an inability to distinguish sensory (bottom-up) and expectation driven (top-down) interoceptive processes...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent and dangerous behavior. Those with a history of NSSI often report high levels of self-critical rumination (SCR), a form of negatively-valenced introspective self-referential processing. It is plausible that this overly analytical style of relating to the self might hinder the ability to process interoce...
Article
Full-text available
Glycaemic load and cognition: comments concerning Marchand et al. - David Benton
Article
Objectives The study examined the long-term effects of a botanical supplement containing cinnamon, turmeric/curcumin, chromium and alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose (BG), blood lipids and cognitive measures of healthy, older adults. Methods Healthy, older adults aged 51 to 79 years (N = 30, 16 females, 14 males) were randomized to consume either...
Article
Full-text available
Dehydration (water loss >2.0% of body weight) has significant negative effects on physical and mental performance. In two studies the effects of minor hypo-hydration (water loss <1.0% of body weight) on CNS function, mood and cardiovascular functioning were measured. Study 1: On two mornings twelve male participants were exposed to a temperature of...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Polyphenolics from botanical ingredients and common spices are known to influence blood glucose (BG) levels in numerous ways and may be useful as part of an integrative approach to maintaining BG within the normal range. The effects of cinnamon, curcumin, and turmeric have been investigated for their potential role in mediating glucose...
Article
Plasma and serum osmolality are often used to indicate hydration status; however, as serum osmolality varies very little over a wide range of urine osmolality, it has been assumed that there is little likelihood of either dehydration or hyperhydration. That is, adequate hydration is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms when you respond to thirst wi...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is strong evidence that consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced rate of all-cause mortality, only a minority of the population consumes 5 servings a day, and campaigns to increase intake have had limited success. This review examines whether encouraging the consumption of fruit juice might offer a step toward...
Article
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Traditionally, it has been thought necessary to lose 2% of body mass due to dehydration to disrupt functioning, although recently, adverse effects have been reported, with a loss of 0.5%-0.7%. It is, however, unclear whether the response to small reductions in mass reflects dehydration as homeostatic mechanisms are thought to be effective. As psych...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traditionally it has been thought necessary to lose 2% of body mass due to dehydration, before functioning is disrupted, although recently adverse effects have been reported with a loss of 0.5-0.7%. It is, however, unclear whether the response to small decreases in mass reflects dehydration, mechanisms that help to adapt to a loss of bodily fluid,...
Article
Chazelas and colleagues report that sugar intake, including fruit juice, is associated with a higher incidence of cancer.1 A fundamental question is whether examining a single nutritional villain in isolation is meaningful, rather than acknowledging the need for a wide ranging, varied, and balanced diet?
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Reviews consistently find that a loss of about 2% of body mass was needed before either athletic or psychological functioning is disrupted. However, although it is usually assumed that the minor changes in hydration status, that occur during normal life, do not impact on performance, experimentally the topic has been virtually ignored....
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate and direct injury of one’s own body tissue without suicidal intent. As the known risk factors for NSSI predispose to a range of psychiatric disorders, there is a limited understanding of the specific individual differences that result in NSSI. Therefore, in three studies, a multidimensional approach...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, interoception and homeostasis have been described in terms of predictive coding and active inference. Afferent signals update prior predictions about the state of the body, and stimulate the autonomic mediation of homeostasis. Performance on tests of interoceptive accuracy (IAc) may indicate an individual's ability to assign precision to...
Preprint
Received wisdom is that, to benefit health, the consumption of fruit and vegetables should be encouraged. Yet, although this message is well known, it is a minority of the population who consume five-a-day. Reasons given for not consuming whole fruit involve practicalities, inconvenience and the effort required. Psychologically, what is important i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within the UK, the number of older adults aged 65 years and over has a projected increase of 32% by 2039. As a natural consequence of age, cognitive and cardiovascular functioning decline. Thus, having a greater understanding of the protective factors against age-related decline is important. Hydration is a modifiable lifestyle factors with a known...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dehydration (water loss: 2.0% of body weight) has significant negative effects on physical and mental performance. In the current study, the effects of minor (water loss <1.0% of body weight) hypo-hydration on CNS function, mood and cardiovascular function were measured. On two mornings twelve male participants were exposed to a temperature of 30oC...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently, interoception and homeostasis have been described in terms of predictive coding and active inference. Afferent signals update prior predictions about the state of the body and stimulate autonomic mediation of homeostasis. Performance on tests of interoceptive accuracy (IAc) may indicate an individual’s ability to flexibly assign precision...
Article
Full-text available
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the...
Article
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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, which allows for selective inhibition or excitation of neural structures. It has demonstrated some efficacy in the treatment of mood disorders. However, these studies have predominately focused on stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cerebellum ha...
Article
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According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contri...
Data
Contains correlations between each MAIA and DEBQ subscale and the analysis concerning restrained eating, BMI and interoception. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
As the widespread availability of highly calorific food has resulted in a high incidence of obesity, attempts to decrease body weight have concentrated on trying to reduce energy intake. It is suggested that this is not the best approach. Although consuming more calories than expended is part of the initial problem, it does not follow that reducing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a meta-analysis found that micro-nutrient supplementation improved mood (Long & Benton, 2013), to establish mechanisms and to pin-point those more likely to benefit, the roles of various polymorphisms were examined. For three months in a double-blind trial, 200 young healthy male adults took vitamin/mineral supplements or a placebo and ratings o...
Conference Paper
Regular salt intake is required for the maintenance of mineral - fluid balance, although excessive intake is pathophysiological. Humans typically consume vastly more salt (sodium chloride) than is physiologically required yet the introduction of policies to reduce intake have met with only limited success. Despite this, the antecedents of salt inta...
Conference Paper
It is commonly assumed that relatively small changes in hydration (<1% of body mass) are readily compensated by homeostatic mechanisms such that they are of little functional consequence. Nonetheless an emerging literature suggests that minor hypohydration can influence cognition and mood; indeed it is possible that homeostatic autonomic adaptation...
Article
Consistently it has been reported that a depressed mood and low heart rate variability (HRV) are linked. However, studies have not considered that the association might be explained by dietary behaviour. The resting inter-beat interval data of 266 adults (Study 1: 156 (51 M), Study 2: 112 (38 M)) were recorded for six minutes and quantified using l...
Chapter
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are chronic diseases of long duration and generally slow progression, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable disease has risen tremendously over the years globally. Healthful Eating As Lifestyle (HEAL): Integrative Preve...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The assumption that small changes in hydration status are readily compensated by homeostatic mechanisms has been little studied. In this study, the influence of hypohydration on cognition was examined. Objectives: We assessed whether a loss of <1% of body mass due to hypohydration adversely influenced cognition, and examined the poss...
Article
Introduction: To date, dehydration has been typically reported to infl uence psychological parameters when there has been at least a 2% loss of body mass, although there has been little examination of those going about their everyday lives, those who have lost less than 1% of body mass. In such situations factors such as the initial hydration stat...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: To date, dehydration has been typically reported to infl uence psychological parameters when there has been at least a 2% loss of body mass, although there has been little examination of those going about their everyday lives, those who have lost less than 1% of body mass. In such situations factors such as the initial hydration stat...
Article
Full-text available
Addiction to a wide range of substances of abuse has been suggested to reflect a ‘Reward Deficiency Syndrome’. That is, drugs are said to stimulate the reward mechanisms so intensely that, to compensate, the population of dopamine D2 receptors (DD2R) declines. The result is that an increased intake is necessary to experience the same degree of rewa...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The study of small changes in hydration status has been largely ignored. Objective: To see if drinking water, when mildly hypohydrated (a loss of 0.7% of body mass), helps to maintain cognitive functioning and mood and to explore underlying mechanisms. Method: 118 (61 male) young adults were exposed to a temperature of 30oC for four h...
Article
Full-text available
Both heart rate (HR) and brain functioning involve the integrated output of a multitude of regulatory mechanisms, that are not quantified adequately by linear approximations such as means and standard deviations. It was therefore considered whether non-linear measures of HR complexity are more strongly associated with cognition and mood. Whilst res...
Article
Full-text available
Although it has been suggested that many in the general population are dehydrated to the extent that mood and cognition are disrupted, there has been little research investigating mild levels of dehydration. When dehydration reduces body mass by more than 2%, it has been consistently reported that mood is influenced, fatigue is greater, and alertne...
Article
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On April 7-8, 2014, the European Hydration Institute hosted a small group of experts at Castle Combe Manor House, United Kingdom, to discuss a range of issues related to human hydration, health, and performance. The meeting included 18 recognized experts who brought a wealth of experience and knowledge to the topics under review. Eight selected top...
Article
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Sleep is important for children as it directly impacts their mental and physical development. Sleep is not only influenced by the timing but also the macronutrient (carbohydrate and protein) content of meals. Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) describe the quality of carbohydrates in a food and the burden of these foods on the body's bloo...
Article
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This study examined the nutritional intake of 9-11 year old children in Wales, UK, to assess the rationale for, and potential of, school breakfast initiatives. It also examined the possible unintended consequence of over consumption. The study employed a cross-sectional observational design within a randomized controlled trial of a free school brea...
Article
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Young adults (n=147) were tested after consuming either BRAND'S Essence of Chicken (EOC) or a placebo for ten days. EOC resulted in feeling energetic, decision times (reaction time test) were quicker; reaction times on the focused attention task were also quicker; working memory imp roved, cortisol levels recovered more quickly after a stressor. Th...
Article
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Chicken extract, which is rich in anserine and carnosine, has been widely taken in Asian countries as a traditional remedy with various aims, including attenuation of psychological fatigue. The effects of consuming BRAND'S Essence of Chicken (EOC) or a placebo on 46 young adults' responses to a standard psychological "stressor" were considered. Hea...
Article
The role played by hydration in general health and well-being is an emerging public health issue, yet there are few tools available to monitor its status in large populations. The aim was therefore to develop a questionnaire that assesses individual differences in the tendency to lose body fluid in a warm environment and hence become dehydrated. Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although previous research has associated the glycaemic load (GL) of a meal with cognitive functioning, typically the macro-nutrient composition of the meals has differed, raising a question as to whether the response was to GL or to the energy, nutrients or particular foods consumed. Therefore, the present study contrasted two breakfasts...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims In younger individuals a lower rather than a higher glycemic load (GL) meal has been shown to benefit cognition and mood; however the data in older and middle aged adults is limited and conflicting. One explanation is that the GL of a meal may interact with pre-existing glucose tolerance (GT) or the tendency for blood glucose to d...
Article
Context: The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise w...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that viewing others in pain activates cortical somatosensory processing areas and facilitates the detection of tactile targets. It has been suggested that such shared representations have evolved to enable us to better understand the actions and intentions of others. If this is the case, the effects of observing others i...
Article
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The ability to control the levels of blood glucose was related to mood and cognition. 155 adults, aged 45-85 years, without a diagnosis of diabetes, were given an oral glucose tolerance test and cognitive tests. Participants were classified according to age (41-60/61-85 years), whether they had better or poorer glucose tolerance and whether blood g...
Article
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ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that the portion sizes of many foods have increased and in a laboratory at least this increases the amount eaten. The conclusions are, however, limited by the complexity of the phenomenon. There is a need to consider meals freely chosen over a prolonged period when a range of foods of different energy densities...
Article
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Sensorimotor regions of the brain have been implicated in simulation processes such as action understanding and empathy, but their functional role in these processes remains unspecified. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that postcentral sensorimotor cortex integrates action and object information to derive the sen...
Conference Paper
The purpose of the study was to assess the short term impact of milk products with differing glycemic properties on the emotional state and sleep patterns of the toddlers. A double- blind randomized control trial with between subjects design was adopted. Fifty six toddlers were recruited from various day care centres (“Taska”) in the Klang Valley....
Article
Objectives: Although a series of well-designed studies have reported that supplementation with vitamins/minerals and omega-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of aggressive behavior, to date, the relative contribution and interaction between these nutrients has not been examined. The aim was therefore to consider the relative contribution of suppl...
Article
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Rationale Energy drinks contain glucose and caffeine, although in the longer term both adversely influence blood glucose homeostasis, with the unconsidered potential to have adverse consequences for cognition and mood. Objective The objective of this study was to consider the influence on interstitial glucose levels, mood and cognition of drinks di...
Article
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To stimulate discussion around the topic of 'carbohydrates' and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1-2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presente...
Article
Objective Biochemical processes in the brain affect mood. Minor dietary inadequacies, which are responsible for a small decline in an enzyme's efficiency, could cumulatively influence mood states. When diet does not provide an optimal intake of micronutrients, supplementation is expected to benefit mood. This meta-analysis evaluated the influence o...
Article
The criteria used to establish dietary reference values are discussed and it is suggested that the too often the "need" they aim to satisfy is at the best vaguely specified. The proposition is considered that if we aim to establish optimal nutrition we will gain from considering psychological in addition to physiological parameters. The brain is by...
Article
Abstract Our article in the Journal of Sports Sciences (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2010) was designed to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of soccer skills tests that assess passing, shooting, and dribbling. This aim is stated explicitly in the title, abstract, introduction and discussion sections of the article (Russell et al., 201...
Article
Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose in relation to body weight control, the development...
Article
Full-text available
The grey matter of the brain contains high levels of the essential nutrient DHA. Although the role of DHA in the developing brain and in dementia has attracted attention, its influence on the brain of the healthy adult has been little considered. A total of 285 young adult females took 400 mg of DHA, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, for...