David Banks

David Banks
The Lab · hmmm

About

109
Publications
9,607
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3,671
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
1840 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300350

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
In an increasingly competitive environment, defense organizations are met with more difficult decisions than in years past. This problem is especially apparent in security cooperation, that is, defense diplomacy, conducted by the United States. Both the United States and its competitors offer military assistance to third-party nations who, in turn,...
Article
The public sector is characterized by hierarchical and interdependent organizations. For defense and security applications in particular, a higher authority is generally responsible for allocating resources among subordinate organizations. These subordinate organizations conduct long‐term planning based on both uncertain resources and an uncertain...
Chapter
We argue that adversarial risk analysis may be incorporated into the structured expert judgement modelling toolkit for cases in which we need to forecast the actions of competitors based on expert knowledge. This is relevant in areas such as cybersecurity, security, defence and business competition. As a consequence, we present a structured approac...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning and computational processing have advanced such that automated driving systems (ADSs) are no longer a distant reality. Many automobile manufacturers have developed prototypes; however, there exist numerous decision support issues requiring resolution to ensure mass ADS adoption. In the coming decades, it is likely that production A...
Article
Adversarial risk analysis (ARA) is a relatively new area of research that informs decision‐making when facing intelligent opponents and uncertain outcomes. It is a decision‐theoretic alternative to game theory. ARA enables an analyst to express her Bayesian beliefs about an opponent's utilities, capabilities, probabilities, and the type of strategi...
Article
In the context of a motivating study of dynamic network flow data on a large-scale e-commerce website, we develop Bayesian models for online/sequential analysis for monitoring and adapting to changes reflected in node–node traffic. For large-scale networks, we customize core Bayesian time series analysis methods using dynamic generalized linear mod...
Chapter
Irving John (Jack) Good was born Isidore Jacob Gudak in London on 9 December 1916, and died in Roanoke, Virginia, on 5 April 2009. He was a pioneer in Bayesian statistics, and contributed significantly to mathematics, computer science, and philosophy. During World War II, he was one of the leading cryptanalysts at Bletchley Park. After the war, he...
Article
Full-text available
Policy-makers should perform a cost-benefit analysis before initiating a war. This article describes a methodology for such assessment, and applies it post hoc to five military actions undertaken by the United States between 1950 and 2000 (the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the invasion of Grenada, the invasion of Panama, and the First Gulf War). The...
Preprint
In the context of a motivating study of dynamic network flow data on a large-scale e-commerce web site, we develop Bayesian models for on-line/sequential analysis for monitoring and adapting to changes reflected in node-node traffic. For large-scale networks, we customize core Bayesian time series analysis methods using dynamic generalized linear m...
Chapter
We focus on concept uncertainty which adds a new layer to the traditional risk analysis distinction between aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, when adversaries are present. The idea is illustrated with a problem in adversarial point estimation framed as a specific case of adversarial statistical decision theory.
Article
Full-text available
Approximation theory plays an important role in image processing, especially image deconvolution and decomposition. For piecewise smooth images, there are many methods that have been developed over the past thirty years. The goal of this study is to devise similar and practical methodology for handling textured images. This problem is motivated by...
Article
Traffic flow count data in networks arise in many applications, such as automobile or aviation transportation, certain directed social network contexts, and Internet studies. Using an example of Internet browser traffic flow through site-segments of an international news website, we present Bayesian analyses of two linked classes of models which, i...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed. Design/methodology/approach – As part of a larger mixed method project, a modified Delphi study was undertaken to explore factors influencing publication and non-publicatio...
Chapter
Background People with a serious mental illness are more likely to smoke more and to be more dependent smokers than the general population. This may be due to a wide range of factors that could include a common aetiology to both smoking and the illness, self medication, smoking to alleviate adverse effects of medications, boredom in the existing en...
Article
Agent-based models (ABMs) have become an important simulation tool for understanding certain categories of complex phenomena. They are widely used in epidemiology, ecology, transportation research, social networks, and other applications in which the global behavior is determined by local behavior (which is usually quite simple, and can be represen...
Article
Adversarial risk analysis has been introduced as a framework to deal with risks derived from intentional actions of adversaries. The analysis supports one of the decisionmakers, who must forecast the actions of the other agents. Typically, this forecast must take account of random consequences resulting from the set of selected actions. The solutio...
Article
Agent-based models (ABMs) are computational models used to simulate the actions and interactions of agents within a system. Usually, each agent has a relatively simple set of rules for how he or she responds to his or her environment and to other agents. These models are used to gain insight into the emergent behavior of complex systems with many a...
Chapter
Critical infrastructure consists of the basic mechanisms and services essential for a society to function. It must be protected against natural and deliberate damage. These protective efforts should be selected according to careful risk analysis, with consideration of opportunity costs and the interactions between different kinds of investment. For...
Article
Multiple systems estimation (MSE) is becoming an increasingly common approach for exploratory study of underreported events in the field of quantitative human rights. In this context, it is used to estimate the number of people who died as a result of political unrest when it is believed that many of those who died or disappeared were never reporte...
Article
Computational advertising uses information on web-browsing activity and additional covariates to select advertisements for display to the user. The statistical challenge is to develop methodology that matches ads to users who are likely to purchase the advertised product. These methods not only involve text mining, but also may draw upon additional...
Article
Mental health nurses frequently draw on self-disclosure practices within their working relationships. These confessional' acts can in turn be predicated on traditional assumptions of moral authority exercised by more senior colleagues. More broadly, attention has been drawn to the increasing significance of technologies of the self' inside neo-libe...
Article
ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: •  It is widely recognized that social inclusion is an important aspect of recovery for mental health service users and mental health nurses have a role to play in this part of care. •  Social inclusion is not well defined and there is little evidence to demonstrate it produces positive outcomes for service users. We have develo...
Article
Early and accurate detection of outbreaks is one of the most important objectives of syndromic surveillance systems. We propose a general Bayesian framework for syndromic surveillance systems. The methodology incorporates Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) and spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) modeling. By contrast, most previous ap...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People with a serious mental illness are more likely to smoke more and to be more dependent smokers than the general population. This may be due to a wide range of factors that could include a common aetiology to both smoking and the illness, self medication, smoking to alleviate adverse effects of medications, boredom in the existing...
Article
Reliable surveillance models are an important tool in public health because they aid in mitigating disease outbreaks, identify where and when disease outbreaks occur, and predict future occurrences. Although many statistical models have been devised for surveillance purposes, none are able to simultaneously achieve the important practical goals of...
Article
Metabolomics is the relatively new field in bioinformatics that uses measurements on metabolite abundance as a tool for disease diagnosis and other medical purposes. Although closely related to proteomics, the statistical analysis is potentially simpler since biochemists have significantly more domain knowledge about metabolites. This chapter revie...
Article
This article is an incomplete review of the rapidly growing research on network models. It focuses chiefly upon contributions to network science that have been made by sociologists, physicists, and statisticians. It addresses several topics in the area of dynamic network modeling, which is perhaps the most challenging area of current active researc...
Article
Purpose – The paper's purpose is to reopen a debate around the potential impact of narrow conceptualisations of inclusion, or participation, of service users in current mental health policy development and implementation. Design/methodology/approach – The approach here is a conceptual analysis of the continuity of “‘New Labour’ thinking” and its c...
Article
Problems in counterterrorism and corporate competition have prompted research that attempts to combine statistical risk analysis with game theory in ways that support practical decision making. This article applies these methods of adversarial risk analysis to the problem of selecting a route through a network in which an opponent chooses vertices...
Article
Route selection in hostile terrain is a problem in adversarial risk analysis (ARA). This report summarizes work done to date that addresses the routing problem from the perspective of decision analysis, which takes account of both asymmetric uncertainties and the strategy of an intelligent opponent. The methodology is novel, and usefully different...
Article
Adversarial risk analysis (ARA) offers a new solution concept in game theory. This paper explores its application to a range of simple gambling games, enabling comparison with minimax solutions for similar problems. We find that ARA has several attractive advantages: it is easier to compute, it takes account of asymmetric information, it correspond...
Article
Adversarial risk analysis (ARA) offers a new solution concept in game theory. This paper explores its application to a range of simple gambling games, enabling comparison with minimax solutions for similar problems. We find that ARA has several attractive ...
Article
Recently, there has been widespread media attention to cases of problematic scientific research. Marc Hauser, an influential Harvard primatologist, was found to have committed academic misconduct (Miller, 2010). Hien Tran of the California Air Resources Board falsely claimed to have received a doctorate in statistics from the University of Californ...
Article
This paper discusses some aspects of selecting and testing random and pseudorandom number generators. The outputs of such generators may be used in many cryptographic applications, such as the generation of key material. Generators suitable for use in cryptographic applications may need to meet stronger requirements than for other applications. In...
Article
Data mining is widely used in modern science to extract signal from complex data sets. This article summarizes some of the key intellectual issues in the development of this field, largely from a historical perspective. There is particular emphasis on the Curse of Dimensionality, and its implications for non-parametric regression, classification, a...
Article
We discuss a statistical model of social network data derived from matrix representations and symmetry considerations. The model can include known predictor information in the form of a regression term, and can represent additional structure via sender-specific ...
Article
Complex data often arise as a superposition of data generated from several simpler models. The traditional strategy for such cases is to use mixture modelling, but it can be problematic, especially in higher dimensions. This paper considers an alternative approach, emphasizing data exploration and robustness to model misspecification. The strategy...
Article
Applications in counterterrorism and corporate competition have led to the development of new methods for the analysis of decision making when there are intelligent opponents and uncertain outcomes. This field represents a combination of statistical risk analysis and game theory, and is sometimes called adversarial risk analysis. In this article, w...
Article
Full-text available
In 2005, the National Science Foundation funded a number of projects to study the impact of Hurricane Katrina. The current article provides an overview of several research approaches used to conduct post-Katrina research. Each method had some advantages and disadvantages. The post-disaster context meant that experience from traditional survey metho...
Article
Syndromic surveillance has, so far, considered only simple models for Bayesian inference. This paper details the methodology for a serious, scalable solution to the problem of combining symptom data from a network of US hospitals for early detection of disease outbreaks. The approach requires high-end Bayesian modeling and significant computation,...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted trials in Cairns, Australia, to examine if novel updraft light traps collected significantly more mosquitoes than the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) model 512 miniature light trap. Two new updraft traps, the Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy (NAQS) Mozzie Trap and a CDC updraft trap, both collected significantly...
Chapter
Critical infrastructure consists of the basic mechanisms and services essential for a society to function. It must be protected against natural and deliberate damage. These protective efforts should be selected according to careful risk analysis, with consideration of opportunity costs and the interactions between different kinds of investment. For...
Chapter
Social networks models are a body of statistical procedures for describing relationships between agents. The term stems from initial applications that studied interactions within human communities, but the methodology is now used much more broadly and can analyze interactions among genes, proteins, nations, and websites. In the context of risk anal...
Chapter
This paper analyses data on the growth and connection of Wikipedia, the on-line collaborative encyclopedia. The data suggest at least three stages of growth, the last of which has only recently emerged. We also consider how growth depends upon infrastructure and internal links.
Conference Paper
Syndromic surveillance can be used to assess change in drug abuse rates and to find regions in which abuse is most common. This paper compares the power of three syndromic surveillance procedures (a paired-sample test, a process control chart, and a conditional autoregressive model) for detecting change in opioid drug abuse patterns, using data fro...
Article
In 2005, the National Science Foundation funded a number of projects to study the impact of Hurricane Katrina. The current article provides an overview of several research approaches used to conduct post-Katrina research. Each method had some advantages and disadvantages. The post-disaster context meant that experience from traditional survey metho...
Book
Assessments of the magnitude and patterns of human rights violations have been done by many methods, most frequently using convenience samples of qualitative interviews and multiple systems estimation. In recent work with the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in Timor-Leste, estimates of conflict-related mortality were derived using...
Chapter
The traditional Western conception of human rights has focused upon political and civil liberties. Recent trends are bringing social and economic rights to the fore. This chapter considers the kinds of contributions that statisticians might make in this area and how issues of equity might be framed from a mathematical perspective. The emphasis is u...
Conference Paper
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Learning Objectives: To review the current JCAHO recommendations and requirements and recent trends in sedation/anesthesia for children undergoing imaging studies. To learn and understand issues from the anesthesiologist’s point of view in a program managed by anesthesia. To learn and understand issues from the emergency medicin...
Article
The medical profession's relationship with the pharmaceutical industry (PI) has come under increased scrutiny in recent years, however little is known on the subject in mental health nursing. The study sought to investigate: (1) the frequency of contact between mental health nursing students and PI employees; (2) students' attitudes and beliefs abo...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) appears nearly annually in the Torres Strait in far northern Queensland, Australia, and is a threat to invade the Australian mainland. Surveillance has involved the use of sentinel pigs that develop detectable viremias and antibody titers to JEV. However, pigs are amplifying hosts for JEV, and thus pose a health ri...
Article
Modern business is rushing toward e-commerce. If the transition is done properly, it enables better management, new services, lower transaction costs and better customer relations. Success depends on skilled information technologists, among whom are statisticians. This paper focuses on some of the contributions that statisticians are making to help...
Article
Full-text available
Student mastery of material from an introductory statistics course was compared across courses that differed by whether a progressive mastery testing method was used. Students taught using progressive mastery methods showed increases in exam scores. The increases were small but of the same order of magnitude as increases associated with earning a c...
Chapter
The U.S. government wishes to invest its resources as wisely as possible in defense. Each wasted dollar diverts money that could be used to harden crucial vulnerabilities, prevents investment in future economic growth, and increases taxpayer burden. This is a classic conflict situation; a good strategy for the player with fewer resources is to leve...
Article
Heron's six-category intervention analysis is a component of many counselling courses and is used extensively by teachers of interpersonal skills within nursing curricula. In addition, researchers have used six-category intervention analysis as a theoretical framework for exploring nurses' perceptions of their interpersonal skills. This study aimed...
Article
When there are problems with data quality, it often happens that a reasonably large fraction is good data, and expresses a clear statistical signal, while a smaller fraction is bad data that shows little signal. If it were possible to identify the subset of the data that collectively expresses a strong signal, then one would have a robust tool for...
Article
Modern technology enables the collection of vast quantities of data. Smart automatic data selection algorithms are needed to discover important data structures that are obscured by other structures or random noise. We suggest an efficient and flexible algorithm that chooses the “best” sub-sample from a given dataset. We avoid the combinatorial sear...
Book
Modern data analysis stands at the interface of statistics, computer science, and discrete mathematics. This volume describes new methods in this area, with special emphasis on classification and cluster analysis. Those methods are applied to problems in information retrieval, phylogeny, medical diagnosis, microarrays, and other active research are...
Article
This is the second of two articles that consider the findings of a study exploring mental health nursing students' reasons for their use and non-use of self-disclosure in their relationships with patients. The first article (Vol 12(20): 1220-7) described the background to the deployment of this skill within therapeutic approaches, the paucity of li...
Article
This study explored mental health nursing students' rationales for choosing whether or not to self-disclose in therapeutic encounters with patients. Using a two-item questionnaire, data were collected from a convenience sample of 162 preregistered students recruited from two universities in the UK. Content analysis of the data produced three catego...
Chapter
Federal agencies in the United States collect enormous quantities of data. Recently, they have begun to attempt to apply data mining to extract additional insights from their collections.
Article
We present the old-but–new problem of data quality from a statistical perspective, in part with the goal of attracting more statisticians, especially academics, to become engaged in research on a rich set of exciting challenges. The data quality landscape is described, and its research foundations in computer science, total quality management and s...
Article
Self-disclosure, the process whereby people verbally reveal themselves to others, is an important interpersonal skill in initiating, developing, maintaining, and terminating therapeutic relationships. Studies of this interpersonal skill in nursing have, primarily, focused on adult nurses. They are dated, make no comparisons between this and other n...
Article
This paper discusses some aspects of selecting and testing random and pseudorandom number generators. The outputs of such generators may be used in many cryptographic applications, such as the generation of key material. Generators suitable for use in cryptographic applications may need to meet stronger requirements than for other applications. In...
Article
Scheduling group meetings requires access to participants' calendars, tyPically located in scattered pockets or desks. Placing participants' calendars on-line and using a rule-based scheduler to find a time slot would alleviate the problem to some extent, but it often is difficult to trust the results, because correct scheduling rules are elusive,...
Article
Self-disclosure, a process by which we let ourselves be known to others, is an important skill across a diverse range of therapeutic approaches used in mental health nursing. Previous studies of nurses' self-disclosure have been confined to small samples of female, adult nurses. This study aims to extend existing knowledge by providing information...
Article
We propose a probability distribution for an equivalence class of classification trees (that is, those that ignore the value of the cutpoints but retain tree structure). This distribution is parameterized by a central tree structure representing the true model, and a precision or concentration coefficient representing the variability around the cen...
Article
Population biologists use fairly elementary methods to estimate parameters associated with DNA mismatch distributions, which serve as one basis for their formulation of an evolutionary history of the population. This paper presents new statistical methodology that allows better estimation of these quantities and their standard errors. It is shown,...
Article
We propose a probability distribution for an equivalence class of classification trees (i.e., those that ignore the value of the cut points but retain tree structure). This distribution is parameterized by a central tree structure representing the true model, and a precision or concentration coefficient representing the variability aound the centra...
Article
Many problems entail the analysis of data that are independent and identically distributed random graphs. Useful inference requires flexible probability models for such random graphs; these models should have interpretable location and scale parameters, and support the establishment of confidence regions, maximum likelihood estimates, goodness-of-f...
Article
The role of nitric oxide in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is controversial. Although many studies claim that nitric oxide ameliorates reperfusion injury, others suggest that it exacerbates such injury, possibly through peroxynitrite production. These discordant results may be attributable to a dose-dependent phenomenon. Isolated rabbit hearts sus...
Article
Heron's six category intervention analysis is a component of many counselling courses and is used extensively by teachers of interpersonal skills within nursing curricula. The popularity of this framework has generated a number of studies which have attempted to offer empirical support for the theory. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate some o...
Article
In the repair of total anomalous venous connection, vertical vein ligation is recommended to eliminate left-to-right shunting. However, the small left heart chambers may not always tolerate the immediate increase in blood flow after combined repair and vein ligation. A retrospective review of 23 infants and children undergoing correction of total a...
Article
Hypoxia and warm ischemia produce severe injury to cardiac grafts harvested from non-heartbeating donors. To potentially improve recovery of such grafts, we studied the effects of intravenous phenylephrine preconditioning. Thirty-seven blood-perfused rabbit hearts were studied. Three groups of non-heart-beating donors underwent intravenous treatmen...
Article
An outbreak of excessive bleeding after cardiac operations occurred at our institution when 5% albumin was in short supply and hetastarch became the preferred intraoperative colloid. As hetastarch may impair coagulation, we investigated the effects of its intraoperative administration on post-cardiac surgical hemostasis. Indices of postoperative he...
Article
Hearts harvested from non-heart-beating donors sustain severe injury during procurement and implantation, mandating interventions to preserve their function. We tested the hypothesis that limiting oxygen delivery during initial reperfusion of such hearts would reduce free-radical injury. Rabbits sustained hypoxic arrest after ventilatory withdrawal...
Conference Paper
Accurate control of streamline density is key to producing several effective forms of visualization of two-dimensional vector fields. We introduce a technique that uses an energy function to guide the placement of streamlines at a specified density. This energy func- tion uses a low-pass filtered version of the image to measure the difference betwe...
Article
Researchers in social networks are becoming increasingly interested in how networks evolve over time. There are theories that bear on the evolution of networks, but virtually no statistical methodology which supports the comparative evaluation of these theories. In this paper, we present explicit probability models for networks that change over tim...
Conference Paper
Two important questions in high-speed networking are firstly, how to provide Gbit/s networking at low cost and secondly, how to provide a flexible low-level network interface so that applications can control their data from the instant it arrives. We describe some work that addresses both of these questions. The Jetstream Gbit/s LAN is an experimen...
Article
Using a natural metric on the space of networks, we define a probability measure for network-valued random variables. This measure is indexed by two parameters, which are interpretable as a location parameter and a dispersion parameter. From this structure, one can develop maximum likelihood estimates, hypothesis tests and confidence regions, all i...
Article
We present a novel LAN that has been designed to meet three criteria: it should be low cost, support standard protocols, and provide high performance. The LAN interconnects many workstations in a ring topology with a link rate of 1 Gbit/s. The packet format is the same as that of a B-ISDN cell except that our packets can have arbitrary length. The...
Article
Many current implementations of protocols such as the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are inefficient because data are often accessed more frequently than necessary. Three techniques that reduce the need for memory bandwidth are proposed. The techniques are copy-on-write, page remapping, and single-copy. Afterburner, a netw...
Article
Full-text available
Various theoretical concerns often require researchers to answer questions of the form does co‐membership in a group predict other ties between those individuals. Data appropriate for answering such a question often is referred to as network data. Network data exhibits row‐column dependencies that often invalidate traditional statistical methods fo...
Article
Throughout this paper, p will denote a fixed prime. Let a and b be integers and let the Lucas sequence u(a, b) denote the second-order linear recurrence satisfying $$ {u_{n + 2}} = a{u_{n + 1}} + b{u_n} $$ (1) with initial terms u 0 = 0, u 1 = 1. Let μ(a, b) denote the period of u(a, b) modulo p. It is known (see [2, pages 344-345]) that if b ≢ 0 (...
Conference Paper
Scheduling group meetings requires access to participants' calendars, typically located in scattered pockets or desks. Placing participants' calendars on-line and using a rule-based scheduler to find a time slot would alleviate the problem to some extent, but it often is difficult to trust the results, because correct scheduling rules are elusive,...
Article
In this report we describe the design of a Reed-Solomon error correction core that supports errors and erasures decoding. In a second report HPL-2001-125 we describe the verification of this core. The core consists of separate encoder and decoder blocks that can be operated independently, each with symbol wide data paths. These blocks have sufficie...

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