David Banks

David Banks
University of Glasgow | UofG · School of Engineering

MSc Hydrogeology (Birmingham)

About

343
Publications
49,527
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,931
Citations
Citations since 2017
56 Research Items
2083 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - present
University of Glasgow
Position
  • Senior Researcher
June 2009 - April 2011
Newcastle University
Position
  • Senior Research Associate in Thermogeology
Description
  • UK Representative on GeoTrainet Project (www.geotrainet.eu)
December 2008 - present
Holymoor Consultancy Ltd.
Position
  • Director and Consultant
Description
  • Consultant in thermogeology, hydrogeology and environmental geochemistry
Education
September 1983 - August 1984
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Hydrogeology
October 1980 - June 1983
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Natural Sciences (specialising in Geolological Sciences)

Publications

Publications (343)
Book
This authoritative guide provides a basis for understanding the emerging technology of ground source heating and cooling. It equips engineers, geologists, architects, planners and regulators with the fundamental skills needed to manipulate the ground's huge capacity to store, supply and receive heat, and to implement technologies (such as heat pump...
Book
See http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118951700.html
Article
Flowback water from the 4215 m deep (True Vertical Depth) PX-1 borehole, following the August 2017 hydraulic stimulation of a granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, South Korea, was monitored for a suite of physicochemical, chemical and isotopic parameters. The results provide unique insights into mixing processes, fluid evolution and rapid w...
Article
The stable isotopic (δ34S, δ18O, δ2H) composition of mine waters has been examined from coal and metal mines, of varying depth, in Spain (Asturias), the UK (north Derbyshire/Yorkshire) and Poland (Bytom, Upper Silesia). δ18O and δ2H data confirm a meteoric origin for all waters. The mine waters have elevated sulphate concentrations relative to rece...
Article
Full-text available
As the decarbonisation of heating and cooling becomes a matter of critical importance, it has been shown that flooded mines can provide a reliable source of low-carbon thermal energy production and storage when coupled with appropriate demand via an appropriate heat transfer technology. This paper summarises the potential resource represented by a...
Article
Full-text available
Prospective and operational mine water geothermal projects worldwide have faced challenges created by mine water chemistry (e.g., iron scaling, corrosion) and high expenditure costs (e.g., drilling or pumping costs) among others. Gravity fed or actively pumped drainages can be cheaper sources of low-carbon mine water heating when coupled with adequ...
Article
Deep Borehole Heat Exchangers (DBHEs) are a potentially important method of developing geothermal resources through closed-loop systems for carbon neutral, spatial heating. Past research has primarily focused on single-well systems, with few investigating arrays of multiple DBHEs as a method of extracting more thermal energy. In this study, a serie...
Article
Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) is an important technology to minimise greenhouse gas emissions by storing surplus heat from industrial processes, space cooling or even excess summertime renewable wind or solar energy. This paper investigates the efficiency of BTES via a single deep ex-geothermal exploration well in Newcastle, retrofitted us...
Article
Evaluation of proposed geothermal projects often requires a value to be assigned to waterborne geothermal heat or geothermal fluids. A methodology for valuing low enthalpy warm fluids (<90°C) is presented: the method uses a reference price for sale of waterborne district heating at a relatively high temperature (in this paper, we have assumed 70°C)...
Conference Paper
In the effort to mitigate climate change, the UK is pursuing a low-carbon economy aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2050. A key strategy in this drive is increasing the share of renewable energy sources. Deep (>500 m) geothermal energy has significant potential to decarbonise heat, but has been largely under-exploited in the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report critically probes some of the limits of conventional line source heat transfer theory for analytical modelling of borehole heat exchangers (BHE). It examines, by means of simple, spreadsheet-based scenarios: • the assumption of homogeneous rock thermal properties and the effect of stratification. • the assumption of a homogeneous initia...
Chapter
Full-text available
Climate change strongly influences freshwater supply and demand globally. Warming of ~1°C over the last half century globally has directly impacted the supply of freshwater through the amplification of precipitation extremes, more frequent and pronounced floods and droughts, increasing evapotranspiration rates, rising sea levels, and changing prec...
Article
A comprehensive programme of baseline groundwater hydrochemical monitoring has been carried out in connection with the proposed hydraulic fracturing of a 2 to 3 km deep Bowland Shale gas reservoir in borehole KM8 at Kirby Misperton, North Yorkshire, UK. The monitoring infrastructure encompassed: five on-site boreholes with hydraulically open interv...
Article
Full-text available
A conceptual model is presented of two MW-scale low enthalpy mine water geothermal heat pump schemes that are being developed in Tyneside, UK. The Abbotsford Road scheme (54.955° N 1.556° W) is operating (as of May 2021) at 20–30 L/s, abstracting groundwater (and heat) from an unmined Coal Measures Upper Aquifer System (UAS) and reinjecting to the...
Conference Paper
During August 2017, ~1700 cubic metres of water was injected into, and subsequent allowed to flowback from, the ~4 km deep PX-1 well, drilled into Permian granite at Pohang, Korea. Sampling of this produced water and its hydrochemical analysis, for major elements, trace elements, and stable isotopes, has provided an important dataset for the invest...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation at the conference "Mine Water Heating and Cooling; A 21st Century Resource for Decarbonisation" held online on 10th-11th March 2021. Organised by British Geological Survey, UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and IEA Geothermal
Article
Full-text available
A hydraulic stimulation was carried out on a granodiorite reservoir in an enhanced geothermal system in August 2017 in Pohang, Korea. Water injected into the 4.2 km deep PX-1 well contained c. 330−360 mg/L sulphate, with a negative δ34S. The resulting flowback water became more saline with time, with sulphate and chloride concentrations and dissolv...
Presentation
Ground Source Heat Pump Association Webinar Series 2020 3/12/20 "The age of coal is ending and the new age needs new skill With the fuel cell and atomics, there's another world to build. And those who built the old world, their kind will build the new, For a world's not built by power alone, but by the likes of me and you" (Ewan MacColl, 1960)
Article
Full-text available
Ground Source Heat (GSH) exchange has been heralded as part of the solution to reducing UK carbon emissions. David Banks and David Birks urge tempering optimism with a degree of caution. Amidst the growing international consensus of an imminent carbon emergency, there is a pressing need for all nations to reduce their carbon emissions quickly and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Samples of flowback water from a 4.3 km deep geothermal borehole in granite (Pohang, South Korea) were collected following a period of hydraulic stimulation by injection of surface water. Electrical conductivity, temperature and water chemistry of the flowback water were measured. To a first approximation, the data conform closely to a simple 'mixi...
Article
Full-text available
Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) exploits the high volumetric heat capacity of rock-forming minerals and pore water to store large quantities of heat (or cold) on a seasonal basis in the geological environment. The BTES is a volume of rock or sediment accessed via an array of borehole heat exchangers (BHE). Even well-designed BTES arrays will...
Article
Full-text available
The Klaipeda Geothermal Demonstration Plant (KGDP), Lithuania, exploits a hypersaline sodium-chloride (salinity c. 90 g/L) groundwater from a 1100 m deep Devonian sandstone/siltstone reservoir. The hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition is relatively undepleted ( δ18O=c. -4.5‰), while the δ³⁴ S is relatively “heavy” at +18.9‰. Hydrochemical...
Article
Full-text available
Pilot heat pump systems have been installed at two former collieries in Yorkshire/Derbyshire, England, to extract heat from mine water. The installations represent three fundamental configurations of heat exchanger. At Caphouse Colliery, mine water is pumped through a heat exchanger coupled to a heat pump and then discharged to waste (an open-loop...
Article
Full-text available
A pumping test at rates of up to 50 L s⁻¹ was carried out in the 256 m-deep Florence Shaft of the Beckermet–Winscales–Florence haematite ore mine in Cumbria, UK, between 8th January and 25th March 2015. Drawdowns in mine water level did not exceed 4 m and the entire interconnected mine complex behaved as a single reservoir. Pumping did, however, in...
Article
Full-text available
The ¹³C signature is evaluated for various environmental compartments (vegetation, soils, soil gas, rock and groundwater) for three crystalline rock terrains in England and Norway. The data are used to evaluate the extent to which stable carbon isotopic data can be applied to deduce whether the alkalinity in crystalline bedrock groundwaters has its...
Article
Full-text available
Public concerns have been raised regarding the use of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction and its potential impact on the environment. The absence of baseline monitoring data in the US experience has been identified as a major issue. Here, results from a 6-month groundwater baseline monitoring study near an active shale gas pad in norther...
Code
This coding of this spreadsheet tool was developed by Holymoor Consultancy Ltd. The spreadsheet is designed to receive input as aqueous concentrations of major ions in milligrams per litre (mg/L). These are converted to milliequivalents per litre (meq/L) and plotted as percentages of total cations and anions as meq/L) on a Durov style plot (see wor...
Article
Paul loved geology, rocks and energy, but there was more to him. He revelled in language, adored music and was a man of deep faith
Article
Full-text available
The role of fungi in metal cycling in acidic environments has been little explored to date. In this study, two acid-tolerant and metal-resistant Penicillium isolates, strains ShG4B and ShG4C, were isolated from a mine site in the Transbaikal area of Siberia (Russia). Waters at the mine site were characterized by extremely high metal concentrations:...
Article
We have sequenced metagenome of the microbial community of a deep subsurface thermal aquifer in the Tomsk Region of the Western Siberia, Russia. Our goal was the recovery of near-complete genomes of the community members to enable accurate reconstruction of metabolism and ecological roles of the microbial majority, including previously unstudied li...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the findings from SHEER WP5.3, which follow on from the outputs from WP5.1 and WP5.2. Based on a literature review of shale gas risks and the monitoring of a shale gas site in Poland, a series of recommendations for best practice is produced. Although not specific to the shale gas industry, the importance of a thorough site ch...
Presentation
Full-text available
Exploitation of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is highly controversial and concerns have been raised regarding induced risks from this extraction technique. The SHEER project, an EU Horizon 2020-funded project, is developing best practice to understand, prevent and mitigate the potential short- and long-term environmental impacts and...
Article
Full-text available
Almost all the known isolates of acidophilic or acid-tolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belong to the spore-forming genus Desulfosporosinus in the Firmicutes. The objective of this study was to isolate acidophilic/acid-tolerant members of the genus Desulfovibrio belonging to deltaproteobacterial SRB. The sample material originated from micro...
Article
Full-text available
Generic hydrochemical modelling of a grantoid-groundwater system, using the Russian software “HydroGeo”, has been carried out with an emphasis on simulating the accumulation of uranium in the aqueous phase. The baseline model run simulates shallow granitoid aquifers (U content 5 ppm) under conditions broadly representative of southern Norway and so...
Article
The heat contained in underground flooded mine workings is actively exploited, often via heat pump technology, at a number of locations in Europe and North America. Several different heat exchange configurations may be utilised in this context, but for those (“standing column” and “open loop” arrangements) were mine water reinjection is practised,...
Article
Plots of cumulative distribution functions (CDF) are a simple but powerful exploratory data analysis (EDA) tool to evaluate and compare statistical data distributions. Here, empirical CDF plots are used to compare results of four large (476-884 samples) national-to continental-scale inorganic water chemistry data sets: (1) European surface water, (...
Article
Full-text available
Geochemistry is the study of the chemical composition of the materials found in the subsurface of the earth, and of the reactions that they undergo. In the context of geothermal engineering, we typically consider the geochemical and mineralogical composition of the reservoir rocks or sediments (primary geochemistry). We also consider the precipitat...
Data
These files document the four thermal response tests carried out between 2015 and 2017 on a closed-loop heat exchanger installed in aeration lagoon 1 at Caphouse Mining Museum, West Yorkshire (Lat 53.6423 N Long 1.6242 W). The tests are described in a paper by Banks et al (2017). Banks, D., Athresh, A., Al-Habaibeh, A. & Burnside, N. (2017) Water...
Code
Spreadsheet model to accompany report ”Integration of Cooling into Mine Water Heat Pump Systems (v.F1.1)”. To be used at user’s own risk
Code
LoCAL 3.3.2_Passive cooling tool.xlsm: Spreadsheet model to accompany report ”Integration of Cooling into Mine Water Heat Pump Systems (v.F1.1)”. To be used at user’s own risk
Code
LoCAL 3.3.3_Discrete heating and cooling arrays.xlsm: Spreadsheet model to accompany report ”Integration of Cooling into Mine Water Heat Pump Systems (v.F1.1)”. To be used at user’s own risk
Chapter
This chapter demonstrates the type of information that can be gathered by a hydrogeologist or groundwater engineer while a well is being constructed, and the uses to which this information can be put. Formation samples are needed to establish the lithological succession at a site and to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifers. Wh...
Chapter
Well and borehole records essentially fall into two categories: an archived record; and an operational database. The archive may be in the form of paper records, but it will usually be computerized. It may be lodged with a geological survey, or with a water or environment agency or ministry. An operational database will typically comprise a sequenc...
Chapter
This chapter deals with tests that are carried out in single wells or boreholes to obtain values of aquifer parameters. A pumping test involves a considerable investment in equipment, time, non-productive water abstraction and power. Prior to commencing a pumping test on any well intended to become a significant permanent abstraction, the hydrogeol...
Chapter
The chapter deals with the design of hand-dug wells, infiltration galleries, radial collector wells, observation boreholes and exploration boreholes. There are many possible configurations for the number, depth, length and orientation of the laterals, and the design of radial collector well systems can be aided by the use of numerical model. Radial...
Chapter
This chapter introduces good practice for water quality sampling and analysis of groundwater from wells and boreholes, both in the testing phase and the production phase. The purpose of the monitoring or sampling must be clearly defined, as this will be crucial in constraining the programme design, the parameters to be analysed and the spatial and...
Chapter
This chapter describes a systematic programme of desk and field studies for locating suitable sites for water wells. The objectives of the groundwater investigations should be to find locations where wells can be designed and constructed to supply the required demand of water, of a quality suitable for the intended use, at reasonable cost and with...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on several important design issues of specific relevance to drilled wells: well and borehole construction materials, including the casing, screen and gravel pack; the hydraulic suitability of the well design, by considering the various components of head loss in and around a pumping well; and economic optimization of well desig...
Chapter
This chapter provides the engineer or hydrogeologist with an overview of the main methods of constructing wells and boreholes, so that he or she can prepare and supervise a drilling contract, and can also recognise equipment in depots or when brought onto the site. It discusses manual construction of wells, describes the development of water wells...
Chapter
This chapter considers the well system from the viewpoint of: the factors that influence performance; the approaches available for monitoring performance; and the measures that can be applied for maintenance or rehabilitation. It focuses on monitoring and maintenance of water supply wells. The factors affecting well performance can be categorized a...
Article
This study summarises the findings of a feasibility assessment for a potential minewater geothermal energy system in the vicinity of the James Hutton Institute’s Hartwood Home Farm, North Lanarkshire in Scotland’s Central Belt. This study aimed to assess the potential for Scotland’s first minewater geothermal scheme in a rural area with social depr...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this work was to study the diversity of microorganisms inhabiting a deep subsurface aquifer system in order to understand their functional roles and interspecies relations formed in the course of buried organic matter degradation. A microbial community of a deep subsurface thermal aquifer in the Tomsk Region, Western Siberia was monitor...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the genus Thermodesulfovibrio belong to the Nitrospirae phylum and all isolates characterized to date are neutrophiles. They have been isolated from terrestrial hot springs and thermophilic methanogenic anaerobic sludges. Their molecular signatures have, however, also been detected in deep subsurface. The purpose of this study was to cha...
Article
The heat pump is a tool for extracting low temperature heat from the environment (e.g., from the shallow geosphere) and supplying it for space heating at a higher temperature. It is noteworthy that so much of the pioneering work that allowed the development of this tool was associated with Scottish scientists and engineers. William Cullen’s experim...
Chapter
Ebook available at http://resources.bgs.ac.uk/ebooks/GroundwaterbookV3.epub or http://www.groundwateruk.org/Default.aspx
Article
Full-text available
The abandoned workings of the former Markham Colliery are still in the process of flooding. They are being exploited, via a ‘standing column’ heat pump arrangement in Markham No. 3 shaft, to produce thermal energy. From 2012, water was pumped from 235 m below ground level in the shaft at c. 15 °C and 2–3 L/s, through shell and tube heat exchangers...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial sulfate reduction in acid mine drainage is still considered to be confined to anoxic conditions, although several reports have shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) occur under microaerophilic or aerobic conditions. We have measured sulfate reduction rates of up to 60 nmol S cm−3day−1 in oxidized layers of gold mine tailings in Kuzba...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The objective of this report is to summarise the results of hydrogeological investigations at sites in the vicinity of Maimana Airport, Faryab Province, Afghanistan, carried out in the period 2013-2015. This comprised: - Hydrogeological appraisal (desk study). Part A of this report. - Geophysical investigations. Part B of this report. - Drilling. P...
Article
A series of tracer tests has been carried out in the compost and limestone Tan-y-Garn Reducing and Alkalinity-Producing System (RAPS), designed to treat iron-rich net acidic mine water (mean pH 6.18, Fe = 47 mg L− 1, alkalinity 1.70 meq L− 1 and mineral acidity 1.82 meq L− 1) in South Wales, UK. Conservative tracer breakthrough time in the RAPS bas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abandoned mines are often allowed to flood, sometimes overflowing at the surface to form discharges of potentially contaminated (often ochreous, acidic or metal-rich) mine water. Other such mines are actively pumped and managed to prevent contaminated water overspilling at the surface. They are usually regarded as environmental or economic liabilit...
Technical Report
Appendices to a feasibility study on the use of geothermal heat from flooded coal mines in the Fortissat area of Scotland. Files are publicly available at https://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20170701235216/http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/8520/downloads and https://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20170701235216/http://www.g...
Article
Abandoned, flooded, coal mine workings are an artefact of fossil fuel exploitation that can be repurposed as a renewable energy resource. The warm subsurface waters that fill former workings can be developed to provide efficient and low-carbon heat generation using ground source heat pumps. In order to determine the long-term suitability of flooded...
Article
A combined chemical and thermal tracer test has been attempted, using iced water and sodium chloride, in the compost and limestone Tan-y-Garn Reducing and Alkalinity Producing System (RAPS), designed to treat iron-rich net acidic mine water in South Wales, UK. The applied thermal signal was, however, inadequate to produce a temperature anomaly in t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The LoCAL Project “Sustainable Use of Flooded Coal Mine Voids as a Thermal Energy Source - a Baseline Activity for Minimising Post-Closure Environmental Risks” aims at providing bespoke tools for investigating flow and heat transfer in flooded mine workings. New tools for quantifying and modelling heat transfer in networks of flooded mine workings...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report documents the hydrochemical and stable isotope (18O, 2H, 34SO4=) analyses performed on water samples and stable isotope analyses (34S and 34SO4=) performed on mineral samples, all collected during a field expedition during July / August 2014 to several metal sulphide mining sites in the Zabaikalsk polymetallic province of south-eastern...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Faryab Province lies in the north-west of Afghanistan and was the subject of a hydrogeological survey by the Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development in 2012-2015. This largely comprised a comprehensive interpretation of a wealth of pre-existing borehole and hydrogeological records, supplemented by field surveys and sampling campaign...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Faryab Province in NW Afghanistan exhibits decreasing topography and increasing temperature and aridity from the mountainous south to the semi-arid north. Groundwater and surface water salinity increases strongly northward. In the south, groundwater is fresh (200-1000 µS/cm) and of Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type, containing often < 10 mg/L Cl- and SO4= (reflect...
Article
Dr T. G. N. ‘Graeme’ Haldane was a visionary proponent of a national, rational electricity strategy. He was a pioneer of the National Grid and displayed a keen, early interest in nuclear power and renewable energy sources. It appears that he was the first engineer in Britain (and, possibly, internationally) to construct, monitor and document the pe...
Article
The dominant microbial components of fluids from wells in pristine and water-injected, high-temperature, Western Siberian oil fields, were analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Particular emphasis was placed on sulphate-reducing organisms, due to their ecological and industrial importance. Bacterial phylotypes obtained from the non-water-injected Stolbovoye oil fi...