David Ackerly

David Ackerly
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Integrative Biology

PhD

About

330
Publications
100,657
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
42,880
Citations

Publications

Publications (330)
Article
Modifications in the timing of life-history events can alter the biotic and abiotic environments experienced during an organism's lifetime. In plants, germination timing plays a critical role in relation to seasonal environmental conditions, pollinator availability, competitive dynamics, etc. Individuals can compensate for a change in timing of ger...
Article
Oaks (genus Quercus) often display a large range of phenotypic variation across many of their traits. The contribution of genetic and environmental sources, and their interaction, to this variation can be partitioned experimentally using common garden plantings in which several genotypes are grown in a single location and the phenotype of interest...
Article
Wind disperses the pollen and seeds of many plants, but little is known about whether and how it shapes large-scale landscape genetic patterns. We address this question by a synthesis and reanalysis of genetic data from more than 1,900 populations of 97 tree and shrub species around the world, using a newly developed framework for modeling long-ter...
Article
Full-text available
The expectations of polar or upslope distributional shifts of species ranges in response to warming climate conditions have been recently questioned. Diverse responses of different life stages to changing temperature and moisture regimes may alter these predicted range dynamics. Furthermore, the climate driver(s) influencing demographic rates, and...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative knowledge of xylem physical tolerance limits to dehydration is essential to understanding plant drought tolerance but is lacking in many long-vessel angiosperms. We examine the hypothesis that a fundamental association between sustained xylem water transport and downstream tissue function should select for xylem that avoids embolism in...
Article
Natural selection is an important driver of genetic and phenotypic differentiation between species. For species in which potential gene flow is high but realized gene flow is low, adaptation via natural selection may be a particularly important force maintaining species. For a recent radiation of New World desert shrubs ( Encelia : Asteraceae), we...
Article
Full-text available
The resilience of biodiversity in the face of climate change depends on gene flow and range shifts. For diverse wind-dispersed and wind-pollinated organisms, regional wind patterns could either facilitate or hinder these movements, depending on alignment of winds with spatial climate patterns. We map global variation in terrestrial wind regimes, an...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of sufficient and diverse resources across time is important for maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examine the potential for variation in environmental conditions across topographic gradients to extend floral resource timing. Flowering time on a landscape may vary across topography due to diff...
Article
Full-text available
Plant distributions are strongly influenced by both climate and topography. In an analysis of geographic and topographic distributions for selected tree species in California, we found that tree populations are increasingly restricted to extreme topographic positions as they approach the edge of their geographic ranges, occupying cooler, pole‐facin...
Article
Full-text available
Climate‐change adaptation focuses on conducting and translating research to minimize the dire impacts of anthropogenic climate change, including threats to biodiversity and human welfare. One adaptation strategy is to focus conservation on climate‐change refugia (that is, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that ena...
Article
Drought extent and severity have increased and are predicted to continue to increase in many parts of the world. Understanding tree vulnerability to drought at both individual and species levels is key to ongoing forest management and preparation for future transitions in community composition. The influence of subsurface hydrologic processes is pa...
Article
Full-text available
Species‐specific shifts in phenology (timing of periodic life cycle events) are occurring with climate change and are already disrupting interactions within and among trophic levels. Phenological phase duration (e.g., beginning to end of flowering) and complementarity (patterns of non‐overlap), and their responses to changing conditions, will be im...
Article
Full-text available
Relatively mesic environments within arid regions may be important conservation targets as 'climate change refugia' for species persistence in the face of worsening drought conditions. Semi-arid southern California and the relatively mesic environments of California's Channel Islands provide a model system for examining drought responses of plants...
Preprint
Full-text available
Natural selection is an important driver of genetic and phenotypic differentiation between species. A powerful way to test the role of natural selection in the formation and maintenance of species is to study species complexes in which potential gene flow is high but realized gene flow is low. For a recent radiation of New World desert shrubs ( Enc...
Article
Full-text available
Observed ecological responses to climate change are highly individualistic across species and locations, and understanding the drivers of this variability is essential for management and conservation efforts. While it is clear that differences in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity all contribute to heterogeneity in climate change vulnerab...
Article
Species selection, the effect of heritable traits in generating between-lineage diversification rate differences, provides a valuable conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between traits, diversification and phylogenetic tree shape. An important challenge, however, is that the nature of real diversification landscapes - curves or...
Article
The impacts of climate change have re‐energized interest in understanding the role of climate in setting species geographic range edges. Despite the strong focus on species’ distributions in ecology and evolution, defining a species range edge is theoretically and empirically difficult. The challenge of determining a range edge and its relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Vulnerability to embolism varies between con‐generic species distributed along aridity gradients, yet little is known about intra‐specific variation and its drivers. Even less is known about intra‐specific variation in tissues other than stems, despite results suggesting that roots, stems and leaves can differ in vulnerability. We hypothesized that...
Article
Full-text available
Climate and land use patterns are expected to change dramatically in the coming century, raising concern about their effects on wildfire patterns and subsequent impacts to human communities. The relative influence of climate versus land use on fires and their impacts, however, remains unclear, particularly given the substantial geographical variabi...
Article
Full-text available
A warming climate has been shown to drive thermophilization—shifts in species abundance toward those adapted to warm and dry conditions. The community dynamics shaping this process have been proposed to vary between temperature-limited alpine plant communities and those that are both temperature and moisture limited. In nine sites across the xeric...
Article
Despite the appeal of the iso/anisohydric framework for classifying plant drought responses, recent studies have shown that such classifications can be strongly affected by a plantꞋs environment. Here we present measured in‐situ drought responses to demonstrate that apparent isohydricity can be conflated with environmental conditions that vary over...
Article
Biodiversity is often described as having multiple facets, including species richness, functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity. In this paper, we argue that phylogenetic diversity itself has three distinct facets—lineage diversification, character divergence and survival time—that can be quantified using distinct branch length metrics on an...
Article
1.Understanding ecosystem responses to compound disturbance regimes and the influence of specific sequences of events in determining ecosystem shifts remains a challenge. 2.We use a modelling framework for Mediterranean‐type ecosystems to assess the effects of fire‐drought interactions on long‐term vegetation dynamics and to identify disturbance‐dr...
Article
Heterogeneous terrain in montane systems results in a decoupling of climatic gradients. Population dynamics across species ranges in these heterogeneous landscapes are shaped by relationships between demographic rates and these interwoven climate gradients. Linking demography and climate variables across species ranges refines our understanding of...
Article
Many recent studies on drought-induced vegetation mortality have explored how plant functional traits, and classifications of such traits along axes of, for example, isohydry-anisohydry, might contribute to predicting drought survival and recovery. As these studies proliferate, the consistency and predictive value of such classifications need to be...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical studies and habitat suitability modeling project significant shifts in species distributions in response to climate change. Because habitat fragmentation can impede species range shifts, wildlife corridors may have increasing importance in enhancing climate resilience for species persistence. While habitat connectivity has been studied fo...
Article
Full-text available
Although recent findings suggest that xylem embolism represents a significant, drought-induced damaging process in land plants, substantial debate surrounds the capacity of long-vesselled, ring-porous species to resist embolism. We investigated whether recent methodological developments could help resolve this controversy within Quercus, a long-ves...
Article
A large number of published ecological studies fail to include basic information about the climate data used. In the interest of reproducibility and transparency, we offer recommendations for best practices that we urge Editors, authors, and reviewers to adopt in future publications.
Article
Full-text available
Background California is a world floristic biodiversity hotspot where the terms neo- and paleo-endemism were first applied. Using spatial phylogenetics, it is now possible to evaluate biodiversity from an evolutionary standpoint, including discovering significant areas of neo- and paleo-endemism, by combining spatial information from museum collect...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of multiple disturbances can jointly affect the recovery capacity of ecosystems, potentially leading to changes in vegetation dynamics or loss of resilience. The effects of interacting disturbances on ecosystems are, however, not well understood. We use a model system based on Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) to examine how the i...
Article
Full-text available
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: California’s vascular flora is the most diverse and threatened in temperate North America. Previous studies of spatial patterns of Californian plant diversity have been limited by traditional metrics, non-uniform geographic units, and distributional data derived from floristic descriptions for only a subset of species. METHODS...
Article
Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitabilit...
Chapter
Full-text available
On 25 August 1916, the National Park Service Organic Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, thereby establishing the agency and its mission in a mere 731 words. The key mission, still in force today, is “to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same...
Article
Full-text available
Biogeographic origins of plant lineages are often reflected in species functional traits, with consequences for community assembly, diversity, and ecosystem function. The climatic and environmental conditions in which species evolved have lasting influence (legacy effects) through phylogenetic conservatism of traits that underlie community assembly...
Article
Full-text available
Topography can create substantial environmental variation at fine spatial scales. Shaped by slope, aspect, hill-position, and elevation, topoclimate heterogeneity may increase ecological diversity, and act as a spatial buffer for vegetation responding to climate change. Strong links have been observed between climate heterogeneity and species diver...
Article
Full-text available
Early climate change ideas warned of widespread species extinctions. As scientists have probed more deeply into species responses, a more nuanced perspective emerged indicating that some species may persist in microrefugia (refugia), including in mountainous terrain. Refugia are habitats that buffer climate changes and allow species to persist in—a...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in climate projected for the 21st century are expected to trigger widespread and pervasive biotic impacts. Forecasting these changes and their implications for ecosystem services is a major research goal. Much of the research on biotic responses to climate change has focused on either projected shifts in individual species distributions or...
Article
The interplay between functional traits and habitat associations drives species' evolutionary responses to environmental heterogeneity, including processes such as adaptation, ecological speciation, and niche evolution. Seasonal variation is an aspect of the environment that varies across habitats, and could result in adaptive shifts in trait value...
Article
Full-text available
1. Desiccation tolerance is the ability that some organisms show to equilibrate their water content with that of dry air and recover when water supplies are re-established. This is a widespread although rare strategy in angiosperms, and most desiccation-tolerant (DT) species are restricted to tropical rock outcrops. Such restricted ecological range...
Article
Most conservation planning to date has focused on protecting today's biodiversity with the assumption that it will be tomorrow's biodiversity. However, modern climate change has already resulted in distributional shifts of some species and is projected to result in many more shifts in the coming decades. As species redistribute and biotic communiti...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is raising challenging concerns for systematic conservation planning. Are methods based on the current spatial patterns of biodiversity effective given long-term climate change? Some conservation scientists argue that planning should focus on protecting the abiotic diversity in the landscape, which drives patterns of biological diver...
Article
Full-text available
Significant efforts are underway to translate improved understanding of how climate change is altering ecosystems into practical actions for sustaining ecosystem functions and benefits. We explore this transition in California, where adaptation and mitigation are advancing relatively rapidly, through four case studies that span large spatial domain...
Article
Full-text available
Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) cons...
Article
Full-text available
We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the s...
Article
Full-text available
With changing climate, many species are projected to move poleward or to higher elevations to track suitable climates. The prediction that species will move poleward assumes that geographically marginal populations are at the edge of the species' climatic range. We studied Pinus coulteri from the center to the northern (poleward) edge of its range,...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Recent studies have discovered that foliar water uptake FWU - the intake of water through a plant’s leaves to supplement water acquired by the roots - is an important water acquisition strategy for plants in California coastal redwood forests and tropical montane cloud forests. However, work on FWU outside of these sys...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Investigation of the demographic differences between populations across a species’ range will inform our mechanistic understanding of potential range shifts. The magnitude of range shifts resulting from climate change will be driven by an interaction of each demographic rates’ proportional influence on the overall popu...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Xeric microclimates at the mesic edges of species distributions may have provided climatic microrefugia for relatively warm-adapted species in the context of historical regional cooling trends. Currently, these isolated climatically suitable pockets may support relict populations from the former northern extent of spec...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Biological systems may exhibit non-linear and divergent responses to environmental changes, so understanding system dynamics and feedbacks is critically important. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g. amount,...