Daryl Bem

Daryl Bem
Cornell University | CU · Department of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

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86
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16,274
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Publications

Publications (86)
Preprint
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Previous studies have shown that the choice reaction time to a positive or negatively valenced photo can be influenced by following positive or negative words. Congruent photo- word pairs led to shorter reaction times than incongruent pairs. Since the potentially influencing word appears after the button is pressed, this effect has been described a...
Article
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Two experiments involving an international collaboration of experimenters sought to replicate and extend a previously published psi experiment on precognition by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of extensive research. The experiment reverses the usual cause–effect sequence of a standard psychology experiment using priming and reaction times. The p...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments involving an international collaboration of experimenters sought to replicate and extend a previously published psi experiment on precognition by Daryl Bem that has been the focus of extensive research. The experiment reverses the usual cause–e! ect sequence of a standard psychology experiment using priming and reaction times. The p...
Article
Full-text available
In 2011, one of the authors (DJB) published a report of nine experiments in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology purporting to demonstrate that an individual’s cognitive and affective responses can be influenced by randomly selected stimulus events that do not occur until after his or her responses have already been made and recorded, a...
Article
Full-text available
In 2011, one of the authors (DJB) published a report of nine experiments in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology purporting to demonstrate that an individual's cognitive and affective responses can be influenced by randomly selected stimulus events that do not occur until after his or her responses have already been made and recorded, a...
Article
Does group interaction lead to greater conservatism or to greater risk taking in decisions than would obtain were the decisions arrived at individually.???or is there an averaging effect? This question was investigated with a procedure in which the protagonist in each of 12 everyday life situations must choose between two courses of action, one of...
Article
La controversia, históricamente repetida, sobre la existencia de consistencias transituacionales er la conducta se mantiene debido a la discrepancia entre nuestras intuiciones, que afirman su existencia, y la investigación, que la niega. Se argumenta que los supuestos nomotéticos del paradigma tradicional de investigación son incorrectos y que, ado...
Article
Full-text available
La creciente aceptación de que gran parte de la varianza de interés psicológico de la conducta podría encontrarse en la interacción entre la persona y la situación, sugiere la necesidad de un lenguaje común para la descripción tanto de las personas como de las situaciones. De acuerdo con esto, proponemos que una situación sea caracterizada por una...
Article
Reviews the book, First Sight: ESP and Parapsychology in Everyday Life by James C. Carpenter (see record 2012-14529-000 ). In this book the author affirms the existence of psi phenomena—such as telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and psychokinesis—and presents a theory that elucidates how psi functions in everyday life. His basic premise is that...
Article
Six experiments are described that take well‐established psychological effects on human cognition and affect and “time‐reverse” them so that the individual's responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Two of the experiments tested for the retroactive facilitation of recall: It is well known that rehearsing or practic...
Article
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Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (2011) argued that psychologists should replace the familiar "frequentist" statistical analyses of their data with bayesian analyses. To illustrate their argument, they reanalyzed a set of psi experiments published recently in this journal by Bem (2011), maintaining that, contrary to his conclusion,...
Article
Full-text available
The term psi denotes anomalous processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. Two variants of psi are precognition (conscious cognitive awareness) and premonition (affective apprehension) of a future event that could not otherwise be anticipated through any known infer...
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Reviews the book, The scientist and the humanist: A festschrift in honor of Elliot Aronson edited by Marti Hope Gonzales, et al. (see record 2010-11534-000 ). Social psychology was an exciting place to be in the last half of the 20th century, a time when social-psychological theory, experimentation, and application began to achieve genuine synergy...
Article
The correlation between childhood gender conformity or nonconformity and adult sexual orientation is well established, but is it causal? The Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation asserts that it is. A path analysis of data from a large sample of twins demonstrates that childhood gender conformity or nonconformity is an intervenin...
Article
Our fundamental scientific task is to convert observations of particular persons behaving in particular ways in particular situations into assertions that certain kinds of persons will behave in certain kinds of ways in certain kinds of situations, that is, to construct triple typologies or equivalence classes—of persons, of behaviors, and of situa...
Article
Although biological findings currently dominate the research literature on the determinants of sexual orientation, biological theorizing has not yet spelled out a developmental path by which any of the various biological correlates so far identified might lead to a particular sexual orientation. The Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orie...
Article
The existence of psi—anomalous processes of information transfer such as telepathy or clair- voyance—continues to be controversial. Earlier meta-analyses of studies using the ganzfeld procedure appeared to provide replicable evidence for psi (D. J. Bem & C. Honorton, 1994), but a follow-up meta-analysis of 30 more recent ganzfeld studies did not (J...
Article
The item you have requested is not an article but an entire textbook. You will have to purchase it at a bookstore, probably a textbook store at a University or college.
Article
We report a meta-analysis of research on the relationship between performance in extrasensory perception (ESP) tasks and the psychological trait extraversion. The meta-analysis comprises 60 independent studies, 17 independent investigators, and 2,963 subjects. The overall weighted mean correlation is small (r = .09), significant (z = 4.63, p = .000...
Article
In their critique of the author's Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (D. J. Bem, 1996), L. A. Peplau, L. D. Garnets, L. R. Spalding, T. D. Conley, and R. C. Veniegas (1998) challenge his reading of the evidence concerning the antecedents of sexual orientation; they also contend that the theory neglects women's experiences. In...
Article
In their critique of the author's Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (D. J. Bem, see record 1996-01742-006), L. A. Peplau, L. D. Garnets, L. R. Spalding, T. D. Conley, and R. C. Veniegas (see record 1998-01102-009) challenge his reading of the evidence concerning the antecedents of sexual orientation; they also contend that th...
Article
Using data from a Swedish longitudinal project, we predicted timing of marriage and parenthood and age-35 career success from mother-rated shyness in 8–10 year old children. Results are compared with those previously found for Americans. Like shy American boys, shy Swedish boys married and became fathers later than nonshy boys. Unlike American boys...
Article
A developmental theory of erotic/romantic attraction is presented that provides the same basic account for opposite-sex and same-sex desire in both men and women. It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a...
Article
A developmental theory of erotic/romantic attraction is presented that provides the same basic account for opposite-sex and same-sex desire in both men and women. It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a...
Article
Full-text available
Guidelines and tips are offered for writing a Psychological Bulletin review article that will be accessible to the widest possible audience. Techniques are discussed for organizing a review into a coherent narrative, and the importance of giving readers a clear take-home message is emphasized. In addition, advice is given for rewriting a manuscrip...
Article
Most academic psychologists do not yet accept the existence of psi, anomalous processes of information or energy transfer (e.g., telepathy or other forms of extrasensory perception) that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. It is believed that the replication rates and effect sizes achieved by 1 particular...
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R. Hyman (see record 1994-20289-001) raises 2 major points about D. J. Bem and C. Honorton's article (see record 1994-20287-001) on the psi ganzfeld experiments. First, the claim is challenged that the results of the autoganzfeld experiments are consistent with the earlier database. Second, concerns are expressed about the adequacy of the randomi...
Article
Full-text available
Rock nuthatch was examined over a period of 10 yr on >230 sites on the Croatian coast, in Herzegovina and in Montenegro; 92 nests were found. Height of cliff, exposition of nest entrance and altitude were among habitat characteristics examined. Distribution on the Balkan Peninsula is summarised. -from Authors
Article
Behavior patterns can be sustained across the life course by two kinds of person-environment interaction. Cumulative continuity arises when an individual's interactional style channels him or her into environments that themselves reinforce that style, thereby sustaining the behavior pattern across the life course through the progressive accumulatio...
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What are the life-course sequelae of childhood shyness? Using archival data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954), we identified individuals who were shy and reserved in late childhood and traced the continuities and consequences of this behavioral style across the subsequent 30 years of their lives. Shy boys were mor...
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What are the life-course sequelae of childhood shyness? Using archival data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954), we identified individuals who were shy and reserved in late childhood and traced the continuities and consequences of this behavioral style across the subsequent 30 years of their lives. Shy boys were mor...
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Do ill-tempered children become ill-tempered adults? What are the life-course consequences of such an explosive interactional style? What processes can account for the persistence of maladaptive behavior across time and circumstance? To answer these questions, this study used data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954)...
Article
The topics discussed are related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and the International Union of Radio Science, dynamic compatibility in channels with state identification subsystems, EM environment, measurements, spectrum management, EMC active line models, EMC and biology, radio wave propagation, EMC and wire communications, statistical con...
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The origin, effect, measurement, and control of electromagnetic influences on biological and technological systems are discussed in reports and reviews. Subject areas addressed include electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and space technology, EMC theory and models, switching and discharge noise sources, antennas, EM fields and propagation, radio co...
Article
W. Mischel and P. Peake (see record 1983-05642-001) criticized recent proposals for addressing the issue of cross-situational variability in behavior. The present author argues that Mischel and Peake misrepresent the links between the empirical studies they discuss and the methodological or conceptual strategies they criticize. In particular, they...
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Mischel et Peake (1982) ont critique des propositions recentes pour aborder la question de la variabilite trans-situationnelle du comportement. L'auteur repond a ces critiques en developpant ses conceptions sur le role des variables liees a la personne
Article
Introduces the template matching technique as a way of investigating whether people behave in real life as they behave in laboratory settings. First, each laboratory behavior is characterized by a template, a Q-sort personality description of the hypothetical ideal person most likely to display that behavior. These templates characterize Ss' potent...
Article
Introduces the template matching technique as a way of investigating whether people behave in real life as they behave in laboratory settings. First, each laboratory behavior is characterized by a template, a Q-sort personality description of the hypothetical ideal person most likely to display that behavior. These templates characterize Ss' potent...
Article
The historically recurring controversy over the existence of cross-situational consistencies in behavior is sustained by the discrepancy between intuitions, which affirm their existence, and the research literature, which does not. It is argued that the nomothetic assumptions of the traditional research paradigm are incorrect, and that by adopting...
Article
Two studies are reported which indicate that both sex-biased wording in job advertisements and the placement of help-wanted ads in sex-segregated newspaper columns discourage men and women from applying for “opposite-sex” jobs for which they might well be qualified. Both studies were originally conducted and presented as part of legal testimony in...
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This report discusses the type of women found in the world of work, their reasons for employment, and their most frequent occupational choices. In paying particular attention to sex discrimination against women, this paper mentions pay differentials and access to lower status jobs, and attributes them partially to the effects of sex-role conditioni...
Chapter
Full-text available
Publisher Summary Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ or the circumstances in which this behavior occurs. Thus, to the extent that internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or uninterpretable, the individual is functionally in the...
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Subjects (N = 142) interviewed and then rated one of two male confederates who either did or did not display positive expressive behaviors (smiles, eye contact, etc.). Positive behaviors induced more liking even though subjects did not differentially describe the gestures employed. Subjects who merely observed the interaction liked the interviewees...
Article
A controversy has arisen over the "interpersonal simulations" used by Bern to support his contention that his self-perception theory accounts for cognitive dissonance phenomena. Specifically, the critics challenge the implication of his analysis that the premanipulation attitudes of subjects in dissonance experiments are not salient in their postma...
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The Title and Abstract ,14 Rewriting It,15 Some Matters of Style,17 Omit Needless Words ,17 Avoid Metacomments,on the Writing ,18 Use Repetition and Parallel Construction,,19 Jargon ,20 Voice and Self-Reference 20 Tense 21
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Precognitive Habituation (PH) is a phenomenon that has emerged from a search for a straightforward laboratory demonstration of psi that could: (a) be observed using participants from the general population; (b) be conducted with no instrumentation beyond a desktop computer; (c) be evaluated by simple statistical tests; and, (d) be replicated by any...
Article
Presents the Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (D. J. Bem, 1996) as a coherent experienced-based theory of sexual orientation (SO) that integrates experiential and biological antecedents of SO. The central proposition of EBE theory is that individuals can become erotically attracted to a class of individuals about whom they f...
Article
This (introduction to psychology) is a hardback textbook not an article. I suggest you check with your school library for a copy.
Article
At an earlier PA Convention, I reported on a phenomenon called "Precognitive Habituation" (PH) (Bem, 2003). The PH effect is a psi variation of a well-known psychological phenomenon, the habituation of arousal to an affectively arousing stimulus that occurs after repeated exposures to that stimulus. For example, in one habituation experiment, parti...
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There have now been several studies showing a correlation between an individual's sexual orientation and his or her genotype. In one, a sample of 115 gay men who had male twins, 52% of identical twin brothers were also gay compared with only 22% of fraternal twin brothers and 11% of adopted brothers (Bailey & Pillard, 1991). In a comparable sample...
Article
The ganzfeld procedure is a mild sensory isolation technique that was first introduced into experimental psychology during the 1930s and subsequently adapted by parapsychologists to test for the existence of psi--anomalous processes of information or energy transfer such as telepathy or other forms of extrasensory perception that are currently unex...
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DISSERTATION (PH.D.)--THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Dissertation Abstracts International,
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HYPOTHESIZED THAT AN INDIVIDUAL'S PERCEPTION OF A STIMULUS AS UNCOMFORTABLE OR PAINFUL IS PARTIALLY AN INFERENCE FROM HIS OWN OBSERVATION OF HIS RESPONSE TO THAT STIMULUS. 12 MALE STUDENTS OBSERVED THEMSELVES EITHER ESCAPING OR ENDURING A SERIES OF ELECTRIC SHOCKS, ALL OF THE SAME PHYSICAL INTENSITY. AS PREDICTED, SS RATED THE FELT DISCOMFORT PRODU...
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Jones, Linder, Kiesler, Zanna, and Brehm commit two basic errors in their critique of the interpersonal replications reported by Bem, one theoretical and one metatheoretical. First, they are incorrect in supposing that their alternative interpretation of the replications differs from the original one advanced by Bem, or that their further confirmat...
Article
Recent research has indicated that groups tend to accept greater risk in pursuing a desirable outcome than do their individual members. By demonstrating that risk-takers are viewed more favorably than risk-rejectors, the studies reported here provide evidence that this group shift toward risk is induced by a cultural value for risk. Further, the va...
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IF THE INTERPERSONAL REPLICATIONS REPORTED BY BEM (SEE 41:7) AND CRITICIZED BY MILLS (SEE 42:1) ARE TO BE FAITHFUL TO THEIR THEORETICAL GOAL OF TESTING THE HYPOTHESIZED FUNCTIONAL SIMILARITY BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL AND SELF-PERCEPTION, THEN THOSE REPLICATIONS MUST REPRODUCE THE ORIGINAL EXPERIMENTAL SITUATION AS SEEN BY THE ORIGINAL SS, NOT AS SEEN B...
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A THEORY OF SELF-PERCEPTION IS PROPOSED TO PROVIDE AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION FOR SEVERAL OF THE MAJOR PHENOMENA EMBRACED BY FESTINGER'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE AND TO EXPLICATE SOME OF THE SECONDARY PATTERNS OF DATA THAT HAVE APPEARED IN DISSONANCE EXPERIMENTS. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE ATTITUDE STATEMENTS WHICH COMPRISE THE MAJOR DEPENDE...
Article
The assumption is often made that attitudes and beliefs cause the behaviors with which they are associated. Recent research indicates, however, that the direction of causality may be reversed: The self-descriptive statements that typically comprise the operational definitions of “beliefs” and “attitudes” are found to be the dependent variables of t...
Article
College Ss participated in individual experimental sessions disguised as research on lie detection. After crossing out specified words on a word list, each S was trained to utter true statements in the presence of a "truth light" and false statements in the presence of a "lie light." He was then required to state aloud that he had previously crosse...
Article
Self-descriptive statements known as beliefs and attitudes are often under the partial control of the individual's overt behavior and its apparent controlling variables. Since these public stimuli and responses are those which the socializing community itself must use initially in training the individual to "know himself," the individual's belief a...
Article
With the emphasis placed upon possible aversive consequences of risk taking (actual physical pain coupled with monetary loss), group consensus achieved through discussion was displaced in the risky direction relative to the average of the group members' prior individual decisions. Subsequent private decisions also exhibited this shift toward greate...
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This study reports evidence supporting the following propositions: (a) Group discussion and consensus concerning decisions that involve actual risks and payoffs lead to greater risk taking than occurs in the absence of such discussion and consensus. (b) The mechanism that underlies this group-induced shift toward greater risk taking consists of a d...